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Full text of "Report"

Maryland Roo.^ 
U»*TtsT8ity of Maryland L; 
Colie«e Park, Md. 



I 



STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 



Seventy-third Annual Report 

OF THE 

jState Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 
OF THE 

Public Schools of Maryland 

FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1939 




BALTIMORE, MD. 

s 



en 



q^r- STATE OF MARYLAND 

STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION— 1939-40 

Xante Address Name Address 

TASKER G. LOWNDES. Pres Cumberland ROBERT E. VINING Baltimore 

DR. J. M. T. FINNEY. Vice-Pres Baltimore CHARLES A. WEAGLY Hagerstown 

WENDELL D. ALLEN Baltimore HENRY C. WHITEFORD Whiteford 

MRS. ALVIN THALHEIMER Baltimore 

ALBERT S. COOK, Secretary-Treasurer, Towson 

OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 

1111 Lexington Building. Baltimore Md. 

Name Office 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

1. JEWELL SIMPSON Assistant State Superintendent in Charlie of Elementary Instruction 

T. G. PULLEN. Jr. Asst. Supt. in Administration and Supervisor of High Schools 

E. CLARKE FONTAINE (Chestertown) '. Supervisor of High Schools 

JAMES E. SPITZNAS (Cumberland) Supervisor of High Schools 

EARLE T. HAWKINS Supervisor of High Schools 

J. WALTER HUFFINGTON Supervisor of Colored Schools 

JOHN J. SEIDEL Director of Vocational Education and Supervisor of Industrial Education 

ELISABETH AMERY Supervisor of Home Economics Education 

H. F. COTTERMAN (College Park) Supervisor of Agriculture 

R. FLOYD CROMWELL Supervisor of Educational and Vocational Guidance 

R. C. THOMPSON (1112 Lexington Bldg.) Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation 

and Special Education 

THOMAS D. BRAUN (1112 Lexington Bldg.) Rehabilitation Assistant 

ROGER E. MARTZ (Hagerstown) Rehabilitation Assistant 

THOMAS C. FERGUSON Supervisor of Physical Education and Recreation 

ETHEL E. SAMMIS Asst. Supervisor of Physical Education and Recreation 

ADELENE J. PRATT (400 Cathedral St.) State Director of Public Libraries 

BESSIE C. STERN Director, Bureau of Measurements 

MERLE S. BATEMAN Director, Teacher Certification 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS Financial Secretary 

E. SUE WALTER Clerk 

RUTH E. HOBBS Stenographer 

ELIZABETH McGINNITY Stenographer 

HELEN BUCHER BANDIERE ;. Stenographer 

RUTH O. KNAUSS (1112 Lexington Bldg.) Stenographer 

FRANCES O. KANN Statistical Assistant 

MARY E. VOLZ Stenographer 

MARGARET L. MILLER Stenographer 

C. ELIZABETH OWINGS Stenographer 

MARY ELEANOR RICE Statistical Assistant 

PRESIDENTS OF STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 

M. THERESA WIEDEFELD State Teachers College, Towson 

JOHN L. DUNKLE State Teachei-s College, Frostburg 

J. D. BLACKWELL State Teachers College, Salisbury 

LEONIDAS S. JAMES State Teachers College (For Colored Youth), Bowie 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

911 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

J. MILLARD TAWES State ComptroUer and Chairman 

HOOPER S. MILES State Treasurer 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME Superintendent of Montgomery County Schools, Vice-Chairman 

MRS. MARGARET S. UPHAM Principal, Allegany County 

MILDRED MEDINGER Secretary 

MINNIE M. HAMILTON Stenographer 

HELEN KIRKMAN Clerk 



MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISORS 

1939-1940 



County 



Address 



County 



Address 



ALLEGANY— Cumberland 
Charles L. Kopp, Supt. 
Lillian Compton, Asst. Supt. 
Jane Botsford 
Winifred Greene 
Mildred Willison 
Helen Sandfort (Art) 
Richard T. Rizer (High School) 

ANNE ARUNDEL— Annapolis 
George Fox, Supt. 
Ruth Parker Eason 
Vera Pickard 

Howard A. Kinhart (High School) 

BALTIMORE— Towson 
C. G. Cooper, Supt. 
Edward G. Stapleton, Asst. Supt. 
Viola K. Almonyi 
Amy C. Crewe^ 
Myrtle Eckhardt- 
M. Annie Grace^ 
C. James Velie'^ (Music) 
Olive Jobes2 (Art) 

Howard A. Westcott^ (Physical Ed.) 
M. Lucetta Sisk^ (High School) 

CALVERT — Prince Frederick 
Harry R. Hughes, Supt. 
Mattie V. Hardesty 

CAROLINE— Denton 
B. C. Willis, Supt. 
A. May Thompson 

CARROLL — Westminster 

Raymond S. Hyson, Supt. 
Ruth DeVore 
Charles E. Reck 

Samuel M. Jenness (High School) 

CECIL— Elkton 

H. E. McBride. Supt. 
Olive L. Reynolds 

CHARLES— La Plata 

F. Bernard Gwynn, Supt. 
Jane Bowie 

DORCHESTER -Cambridge 

W. Theodore Boston, Supt. 
Evelyn E. Johnson 

FREDERICK— Frederick 
E. W. Pruitt, Supt, 
Hal Lee T. Ott 
Helen Jane Woodley 
A. Drucilla Worthington 

GARRETT— Oakland 

Franklin E. Rathbun, Supt. 
Kate Bannatyne* 
Caroline Wilson 



HARFORD -Bel Air 

C. Milton Wright, Supt. 
Hazel L. Fisher 
Mary L. Grau^ 

HOWARD— Ellicott City 
H. C. Brown, Supt. 
Gail W. Chadwick 

KENT — Chestertown 

Louis C. Robinson, Supt. 
Esta V. Harrison 

MONTGOMERY— Rockville 
E. W. Broome, Supt. 
Grace Alder 
Elizabeth Meany 
Mary Gertrude Cross (Music) 
Marjorie Billows (Art) 
Fern D. Schneider (High School) 

PRINCE GEORGE'S— Upper Marlboro 
Nicholas Orem, Supt. 
Louise R. Colip'' 
Maude Gibbs Hyle 
Mary Kemp^ 
Kathryn Reidy^ 

QUEEN ANNE'S— Centreville 
Franklin D. Day, Supt. 
Tempe H. Dameron 

ST MARY'S — Leonardtown 
Lettie M. Dent, Supt. 
E. Violette Young 

SOMERSET— Princess Anne 

W. Stewart Fitzgerald, Supt. 
Jane D. Wilson 

TALBOT — Easton 

J. Willard Davis, Supt. 
William R. Phipps 

WASHINGTON— Hagerstown 
B. J. Grimes, Supt. 
Pauline Blackford 
Grace B. Downin 
Katherine L. Healy 
Anne Richardson 
Mary Helen Chrissinger (Art) 
Helen E. Crahan (Music) 

WICOMICO— Salisbury 

James M. Bennett, Supt. 
Hazel Jenkins Hearne 
Leah M. Phillips 

WORCESTER— Snow Hill 

Arthur C. Humphreys, Supt. 
Elizabeth Mundy 



1 Sparrows Point 

2 200 W. Saratoga St.. Balto. 



3 Catonsville 
^ Grantsville 



5 Havre de Grace 

6 Hyattsville 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Letter of Transmittal 5 

The State Public School Budgets for 1939, 1940, and 1941 6 

W.VJ Educational Legislation 8 

The ^Maryland Elementaiy and Secondary School Program 11 

The November, 1938, County School Census of White Children 11 

White Elementary Schools: 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Decline in Birth Rate, 

Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, Withdrawals 17 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promoted Pupils 28 

Tests; Education for Handicapped Children in Counties and City 38 

Teachers: Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, 

Turnover, Sex 44 

Size of Class, Teachers' Salaries 49 

Per Pupil Costs, Transportation, Libraries, Health, Capital Outlay .... 54 

Size of Schools and Consolidation; Supervision 71 

White High Schools: 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Length of Session, 

Attendance, Graduates and Occupations, 1938 Youth Census 78 

Enrollment by Year; Distribution by Subject of Enrollment, Fail- 
ures, Withdrawals; Standard Tests 98 

Teachers by Subjects; Teacher Resignations, Turnover, Sex 124 

Number and Size of High Schools 134 

Ratio of Pupils to Teachers, Salaries of Teachers 140 

Per Pupil Costs, Vocational Education and Guidance, Transporta- 
tion, Libraries, Health, Capital Outlay 146 

Supervision 157 

Colored Schools: 

The November, 1938, County School Census of Colored Children 160 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Decline in Birth Rate, 

Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, Withdrawals 163 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promoted Pupils; Tests 173 

High Schools; 1938 Youth Census; Schools in Baltimore 181 

Teachers: Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, 

Turnover, Sex, Size of Class, Salaries 193 

Cost per Pupil, Transportation, Libraries, Capital Outlay, Value of 

School Property 207 

Number and Size of Elementary and High Schools, Physical Educa- 
tion and Health, P. T. A. 's 216 

Receipts and Expenditures from Other Than County Funds 224 

Bowie State Teachers College; Coppin Teachers College 226 

Supervision 229 

The Physical Education Program in Maryland Counties 231 

Summer Schools, Evening Schools, Vocational Rehabilitation 233 

Costs of Maryland Schools, Total and per Pupil 240 

Financing the Vocational Education Program; W.P.A. Projects 255 

Transportation of Pupils 261 

Capital Outlay, Bonds Outstanding, Value of School Property 268 

County Residents Attending Schools Outside County 275 

1939-40 County Levies; Per Cent of Levies Used for Schools; Assess- 
ments; Tax Rates 276 

Parent-Teacher Associations; Receipts and Expenditures from Other 

Than County Funds — White Schools 285 

State Certification of Teachers 288 

County School Administration 290 

The Mai yland State Teachers Colleges— Towson, Frostburg, Salisbury .... 294 

Contributions of Teachers to State Teachers' Retirement System 307 

Financial Statements; Statistical. Tables 309 

I"cJc>^ 356 



4 



Baltimore, Md., June 1, 1940. 

Honorable Herbert R. O'Conor, 

Governor of Maryland, 
Annapolis, Maryland. 

Dear Governor O'Conor: 

In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77, of the Laws of 
Maryland, the seventy-third "annual report, covering all opera- 
tions of the State Department of Education and the support, con- 
dition, progress, and needs of education throughout the State" for 
the school year ending in June, 1939, is herewith presented to you. 

The excellent law which governs the Maryland school pro- 
gram, its simple and efficient plan for organization, administra- 
tion, supervision, and financing, as well as the enthusiastic co-op- 
eration received from all county teachers, clerks, attendance offi- 
cers, supervisors, and superintendents, who have in most cases 
been given the whole-hearted moral and financial support of their 
patrons, county boards of education and county commissioners 
have made possible the conditions shown in this report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Albert S. Cook, 

Secretary-Treasurer, 

State Board of Education. 
Tasker G. LowNDES,PresicZ6n^ 
Wendell D. Allen 
J. M. T. Finney, M. D. 
Fannie Thalheimer 
Robert E. Vining 
Charles A. Weagly 
Henry C. Whiteford 



5 



THE STATE PUBLIC SCHOOL BUDGETS FOR 1940-1941 

The appropriation for the State Public School Budget for 1940 
as passed by the 1939 legislature totalled $6,323,242. Actually 

TABLE 1 

1939 State Public School Budget Expenditures Compared with Appropria- 
tions for 1940 and 1941 



Purpose 



1939 
Expenditures 



Appropriations 



1940 



1941 



Amounts Contributed to Retirement 
System, Counties and Baltimore City: 

Retirement System: 

1. County Teachers 

2. Baltimore City Teachers 

3. Expense Fund 

Sub-Total Items 1-3 

4. High School Aid 

5. Colored Industrial Fund 

6. Part Payment of Salaries 

7. Books and Materials 

8. Fund Distributed on Basis of Census 

and Attendance 

9. Equalization Fund 

10. Reduction of County Taxation 

11. Education of Physically and Mentally 

Handicapped Children 

12. Night Schools 

Sub-Total Items 4-12 

13. State Board of Education Expenses . 

14. Vocational Education 

15. Physical Education and Recreation. . 

16. Bureau of Educational Measurements 

17. Publications and Printing 

18. Medical Examinations of Teachers . . 

19. Vocational Rehabilitation 

20. Consultant Architect 

21. State Department of Education 

Sub-Total Items 13-21 

22. State Teachers College, Towson 

23. State Teachers College, Frostburg. . . 

24. State Teachers College, Salisbury . . . 

25. State Teachers College, Bowie 

Sub-Total Items 22-25 

Grand Total Including Fees 

Fees — Teachers Colleges 

Total from State 



a$16,623 
bc367,759 
11,450 



$541,512 
c. . . . 
12,000 



$557,737 
c409,538 
12,000 



abc$395,832 

565,438 
25,500 
180,160 
250,000 

1,800,000 
1,168,556 
1,250,000 

15,000 



C$553,512 

583,584 
25,500 
183,479 
250,000 

1,800,000 
1,250,422 
1,250,000 

20,000 
10.000 



C$979,275 

593,006 
26,250 
183,647 
250,000 

1,800,000 
1,331,316 
1,250,000 

20,000 
10,000 



$5,254,654 

1,287 
dl2,257 
17,137 
11,630 
6,486 
1,698 
el 5, 542 
750 
65,651 



$5,372,985 

1,000 
dll.OOO 
20,000 
9,600 
4,500 
1,700 
el5,500 
750 
65,283 



$5,464,219 

1,000 
dll,000 
20,000 
9,600 
4,500 
1,700 
el5,500 
750 
65,283 



de$132,438 

f 224, 267 
g81,116 
h91,018 
k64,346 



de$129,333 

f224,255 
g79,885 
h96,727 
k58,325 



de$129,333 

f224,255 
g79,885 
h95,677 
k59,025 



fghk$460,747 



$459,192 



$458,842 



abcde$6,243,671 
185,183 



C$6,515,022 
191,780 



C$7,031,669 
191,780 



abcde$6,058,488 



C$6,323,242 



C$6,839,889 



a Excludes bond issue for Retirement System. . . $500,000 
b Excludes bond issue for Retirement System . . . 100,000 
c Excludes amounts overpaid in previous years . 75,624 
d Excludes Federal funds for vocational education 10 , 799 
e Excludes Federal funds for vocational rehabili- 
tation 15,542 

f, g, h, k, Excludes receipts from fees from stu- 
dents and from other than State funds: 

f Towson 87,305 

g Frostburg 33,126 

h Salisbury 43,686 

k Bowie 21,066 



$492,002 
11,000 

15,500 



87,740 
34,200 
51,840 
18,000 



$102,501 
11,000 

15,500 



87,740 
34,200 
51,840 
18,000 



-$500,000 
—100,000 
+ 416,378 
+201 

—42 



+ 435 
+ 1,074 
+ 8,154 
—3.066 



6 



The State Public School Budgets for 1940 and 1941 



7 



the amount of funds available for 1940 will be $6,815,244.t The 
comparable expenditure from State funds in 1939 was $6,734,- 
112.J From 1939 to 1940, therefore, the total increase in State 
funds from all sources available for the State Public School 
Budget is $81,132 or 1.2 per cent. (See Table 1.) 

The Retirement System 

Although the differences in amounts available to the Retire- 
ment System seem large in the first four rows of Table 1, actually 
they represent almost entirely changes in methods of financing 
the Retirement System from a bond issue to a cash basis, and the 
charging off in the years 1939 to 1941, inclusive, of previous 
overpayments of State funds to Baltimore City.fJ 

Increases in State Aid to Local Units 

The chief increases in amounts paid to local units appear in 
Table 1 in items numbered 4, High School Aid : 6, Part Payment of 
Salaries; 9, Equalization Fund; 11, Handicapped Children; and 
12, Night Schools, the last an entirely new appropriation. The 
largest increases are due to the growth in high school enrollment 
and an additional month of schooling for colored pupils, for whom 
the length of term, beginning in September 1939*, is nine instead 
of eight months. (See Table 1.) 

Administrative Costs Decrease 

In the administration of the State education program (see items 
13 to 21) the only increase from 1939 to 1940 is due to provision 
for an assistant supervisor of physical education and recreation 
to work with county girls. Other services show decreases from 
1939 to 1940. 

The Teachers Colleges Receive Lower Appropriations 

For the State Teachers Colleges (items 22 to 25) an apparent 
increase of $5,709 for Salisbury is more than offset by an esti- 
mated increase of $8,154 in receipts from students' fees expected 
from a larger enrollment. There has been a serious cut in the 
budget at Bowie Teachers College, which is working up to a 
four-year course for the classes which have entered since the fall 
of 1938 and which has to make provisions for heating and cleaning 
the additional building facilities made available in 1939 through 
a State bond issue and Federal P.W.A. funds. (See Table 1.) 



t Because of overpayments made to the City by the State in preceding years which will 
be reimbursed in 1940, it was not necessary to include $492,002 due Baltimore City for the 
teachers in their retirement system. 

t This includes $75,624 due Baltimore City for the retirement system, but withheld 
because of previous overpayments by the State, and $600,000 in State bonds issued and deposited 
with the State and City retirement systems in lieu of cash payments. 

* Required by Chapter 552 of the Laws of 1937. 



1939 LEGISLATION AFFECTING EDUCATION IN MARYLAND 

New State Minimum Salary Schedule, Increase in County Levy, School 

Survey 

The legislature re-enacted with amendments Section 90 and 
repealed Section 195 of Article 77. The effect was to set up a new 
minimum State salary schedule for white teachers based on prep- 
aration and experience to replace the former position-experience 
schedules which had been in effect since 1922. The period of years 
over which increments may be earned for satisfactory experience 
is extended from eight or nine years to seventeen years. 

Teachers without degrees receive an initial salary of $1,000 
with salary increments every two years until a maximum of $1,600 
is earned in the seventeenth year by those whose certificate is 
rated first class. Teachers with degrees, whether teaching in the 
elementary or high schools, start with $1,200 and will have a 
maximum of $1,800 for satisfactory service in the seventeenth 
year. Teachers with more than eight years of experience will 
receive only one increment of $100 in any two-year budgetary 
period until the maximum is reached. (See Chapter 502, Laws 
of 1939.) 

By an amendment to Section 204 of Article 77, the county levy 
required for participation in the State Equalization Fund was 
raised from 47 cents to 51 cents. (See Chapter 514, Laws of 
1939.) 

The legislature provided for the appointment by the Governor 
of a commission to conduct a survey of the public elementary and 
high schools and the State teachers colleges of Maryland. (See 
Chapter 610, Laws of 1939.) 

Scholarships 

The power of the State Senator to award free scholarships to 
St. John's College is clarified in case a scholarship is vacated dur- 
ing a year, or not awarded on or before September 1st, or the 
Senator desires to award the scholarship to two or more qualified 
persons. (See Chapter 423, Laws of 1939, which adds Section 
242 A to Article 77.) 

Allegany, Washington, St. Mary's, Calvert, and Garrett counties 
are added to Baltimore City, Kent, Queen Anne's, and Dorchester, 
in which units the State Senator may award scholarships to the 
following institutions only after being furnished with a list of 
successful applicants passing competitive examinations given by 
Blue Ridge (College, Charlotte Hall School, Maryland Institute, 
St. John's College, St. Mary's Female Seminary, Washington 
College, and Western Maryland College. The financial condition 
of parents or guardians must be considered in making such ap- 
pointments and no applicant whose parents or guardians are able 
to pay board shall be appointed. (See Chapter 373, Laws of 1939, 
which amends Section 257 A in Article 77.) 



8 



1939 Legislation Affecting Education in Maryland 



9 



Miscellaneous Changes in Article 77 

By an amendment of Section 57 of Article 77, the Allegany 
County Board of Education shall submit an itemized statement 
of all of its expenditures for each year. (See Chapter 101, Laws 
of 1939.) 

By addition of Section 106A, the members of the Live Stock 
Sanitary Service employed by the State Board of Agriculture 
are to participate in the State Teachers' Retirement System. (See 
Chapter 399, Laws of 1939.) 

Sections 168 and 170 of Article 77 were amended to authorize 
and direct the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to 
accept the provisions of the Act and appropriations of money from 
the Federal Government under the Federal Aid to Education Act 
of 1939 if passed,* and to take other necessary steps to qualify 
Maryland as an accepting State under Title III of the Act. (See 
Chapter 323 of the Laws of 1939.) 

Resolution 2 requires the State to furnish Maryland manuals to 
the schools of the State. 

Resolution 6 requests county and city superintendents .of 
schools to observe Flag Week. 

Miscellaneous Changes in Other Articles Affecting Schools 

The Rules of the Road for Motor Vehicles in Section 209A of 
Article 56 were amended to require school busses to carry a special 
design and color, to limit the speed of school busses, to require 
school busses to carry a fire extinguisher and to have an emer- 
gency rear door, and to require vehicles to stop in front of and 
behind while school busses are taking on or discharging pas- 
sengers. (See Chapter 448, Laws of 1939.) 

Section 19 of Article 31 as amended by Chapter 30 of the Acts 
of 1936, (Special Session), and by Chapter 367 of the Acts of 
1937, was further amended to extend to 1941 the opportunity of 
municipalities to take advantage of Federal aid through the 
PubHc Works Administration. (See Chapter 579, Laws of 1939.) 

The following new section was added to Article 46 : Section 46 
provides that escheated lands shall go to the county commissioners 
for use of the County Board of Education. (See Chapter 290, 
Laws of 1939.) 

Sections 140 and 141 of Article 93 were amended to provide 
for distribution of estates of intestates without relations within 
the fifth degree to the county commissioners for use of the County 
Board of Education. (See Chapter 376, Laws of 1939.) 



* The Federal act did not pass. 



10 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Sections 225B and C of Article 16 were amended to provide 
for distribution after seven years of cash belonging to imlocated 
persons to county commissioners for use of the County Board 
of Education. (See Chapter 388, Laws of 1939.) 

Paragraph 9 of Article 15 A exempts the Public Schools from 
the provision permitting the Governor with the approval of the 
Board of Public Works to reduce appropriations he deems unneces- 
sary by not more than 25 per cent. (See Chapter 64, Laws of 
1939.) 

Section 28B of Article 81 was amended to permit in counties 
having statutory provision of a fiscal year by resolution of the 
county commissioners change from fiscal year to calendar year in 
levying taxes, and fractional levy for the period intervening be- 
tween end of last taxable year and the beginning of next calendar 
year, to be collected separately or added to the levy of the next 
succeeding year. In counties not having statutory provisions 
regarding the date of the levy, taxes shall be levied for the calen- 
dar year. (See Chapter 387, Laws of 1939.) 

The following bond issues for schools were authorized : 

Chapter County Amount 

367 Allegany $350,000 

495 Calvert 55,000 

8 Caroline 90,000 

637 Charles 27.000 

4 and 356 Garrett 12,000 levy 

148 Harford 80,000 

479 Montgomery 175,000 

648 Prince George's 60,000 

554 Somerset 55,000 

340 Wicomico 450,000 

756 State Teachers College, Frostburg 100,000 

756 State Teachers College, Towson 100,000 



The bond issue of $724,000 for school buildings in Montgomery 
County authorized by Chapter 335 of the Laws of 1937, was re- 
duced to $552,000 by Chapter 480 of the Laws of 1939. An issue 
of $953,000 in bonds in Montgomery County to refund outstanding 
bonds maturing between June 30, 1939 and June 30, 1941 was 
authorized by Chapter 158 of the Laws of 1939. 

In May 1939, Baltimore City voters approved an issue of $10,- 
000,000 in bonds for new school buildings which had previously 
been authorized by the 1931 Legislature. After the authorization 
the City Board of School Commissioners voted to postpone sub- 
mission of the question to the voters because of the financial de- 
pression which was the reason the question did not appear on the 
ballot until May 1939. 



1939 Legislation; Size of Maryland's School Probleim 



11 



THE SIZE OF MARYLAND'S ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY 
SCHOOL PROGRAM 

Maryland had 1,751 elementary and secondary, public and non- 
public schools for white and colored pupils in 1938-39, counting 
elementary and secondary schools housed in the same building as 
two schools. Of the grand total of 1,751 elementary and secondary 
schools, 1,266 were for white and 485 for colored pupils; 1,446 
were public schools and 305 non-public schools; 1,448 schools were 
in the counties and 303 in the City; 1,450 were elementary schools 
and 301 were secondary schools. Of the 1,446 public schools, 981 
were for white and 465 for colored pupils; 1,235 were for elemen- 
tary and 211 were for secondary pupils ; 1,284 were in the counties 
and 162 in the City. Further detail on white and colored, ele- 
mentary and secondary, public and non-public, and City and coun- 
ty schools may be found in the upper part of Table VI, page 319. 

There were 351,088 white and colored children enrolled in Mary- 
land elementary and secondary, public and non-public schools in 
1938-39. Of the grand total of 351,088 pupils, 288,466 were white 
and 62,622 colored ; 296,545 were in the public schools and 54,543 
were in the non-public schools ; 190, 804* of the pupils were in the 
counties' and 161,862* were in Baltimore City; 277,206* pupils 
were in elementary and 75,460* were in secondary schools. Ad- 
ditional detail on white and colored, elementary and secondary, 
public and non-public, and City and county school enrollment is 
included in the middle part of Table VI, page 319. 

Out of the grand total of 11,022 teachers serving in Maryland 
elementary and secondary schools, public and non-public schools, 
9,235 were in white schools and 1,787 in colored schools; 8,911 
teachers were employed in public schools and 2,111 worked in 
non-public schools ; 6,038 taught in the counties and 4,984 in the 
City schools. Of 8,911 teachers employed in the public schools, 
5,830 gave instruction in elementary and 3,081 in secondary 
school work; 5,194 taught in the counties and 3,717 in the City; 
and 7,220 were white and 1,691 were colored teachers. For more 
detail, see lower part of Table VI, page 319. 

THE 1938 CENSUS OF WHITE COUNTY CHILDREN 

The regular biennial school census taken in the Maryland 
counties in the fall of 1938 included the nineteen- and twenty- 
year age groups for the second time. There were enumerated 
281,347 white individuals under twenty-one years of age, an 
increase of 5,045 over the corresponding number in 1936. The 
white children of ages five to eighteen years, inclusive, totalled 



* Includes some duplicates, not included in the grand total. 



12 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



202,884 which, compared with the 1936 census, revealed a gain of 
1,603. The enumeration of the younger and older age groups 
outside the five- to eighteen-year groups was more inclusive in 
1938 than in previous years. (See Table 2.) 

TABLE 2 



Census of White Children Under 21 Years of Age in 23 Maryland Counties, 
By Age and Sex, November, 1939 



Age 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 




1 Q7 AOA 




96 , 499 


(5-18) 1936 


201,281 


102,678 


98,603 


(5-18) 1938 


202,884 


103,595 


99,289 


Total Ages 20 or Under, 1938 


281,347 


144,188 


137,159 


20 


9,967 


5,356 


4,611 


19 


11,113 


5,906 


5,207 


18 


14,084 


7,351 


6,733 


17 


14,256 


7,385 


6,871 


16 


14,633 


7,531 


7,102 


15 


14,898 


7,548 


7,350 


14 


15,386 


7,949 


7,437 


13 


15,564 


7,980 


7,584 


12 


14,999 


7,671 


7,328 


11 


15,095 


7,555 


7,540 


10 


15,065 


7,612 


7,453 


9 


14,484 


7,309 


7,175 


8 


14,456 


7,358 


7,098 


7 


14,029 


7,180 


6,849 


6 


13,762 


6,951 


6,811 


5 


12,173 


6,215 


5,958 


Under 5 


57,383 


29,331 


28,052 



The enumeration seems to be rather complete for ages six to 
eighteen years, and for each age group within these limits, the 
county census included from a minimum of 13,762 for the six- 
year group to a maximum of 15,564 for the thirteen-year group. 
These figures show a smaller number of younger children in each 
succeeding age group under eleven years, which is an evidence 
of the effects of declining birth rates. 

The Bureau of Vital Statistics of the State Department of 
Health has furnished birth rates for the white population in 
the individual counties and they may be referred to in Table 8, 
on page 19. 

As in former enumerations there are more white boys than 
girls in every age group. This is also the situation with the white 
public school enrollment in the first seven grades of the elemen- 
ts I'v school a-^d the first year of high school. (See Table 2 and 
Chart 2, page 29.) 

White Children Seven to Fifteen Years Old In and Out of School 

The enumeration of 133,976 white county children of compul- 
sory attendance ages, seven to fifteen years, inclusive, indicates an 
average enumeration per county of over 5,800 white children, 



The 1938 School Census of County White Children 



13 



of 21,732 in the county of largest white population and of 962 in 
the county with the smallest white population. Five counties 
enumerated more than 10,000 white children. (See Table 3.) 

Of the 133,976 white county children of ages seven to fifteen 
years, 116,434 or 87 per cent were enrolled in public schools, 12,128 
or 9 per cent received instruction in non-public schools, and 5,414 
or 4 per cent were not in school in November, 1938. There was 
an increase of 825 in the number in school, and a decrease of 1,261 
in the number not in school from the corresponding figures re- 
ported two years previously. (See Table 3 and Chart 1.) 

TABLE 3 



Number and Per Cent of White Children Enumerated of Ages 7-15 Years 
Inclusive, in Public, Non-Public and No School, November, 1938 





Number 


Per Cent 


County 




In Pri- 








In Pri- 






In 


vate and 


In No 




In 


vate and 


In No 




Public 


Parochial 


School 


Total 


Public 


Parochial 


School 




School 


School 






School 


School 




Total and Average: 
















1934 


116,557 


11,644 


6,356 


134,557 


86.6 


8.7 


4.7 


1936 


115,973 


11,764 


6,675 


134,412 


86.3 


8.7 


5.0 


1938 


116,434 


12,128 


5,414 


133,976 


86.9 


9.1 


4.0 


Talbot 


1,863 


28 


19 


1,910 


97.5 


1.5 


1.0 


Prince George's 


11,022 


982 


180 


12,184 


90.5 


8.0 


1.5 


Montgomery 


9,232 


1,475 


175 


10,882 


84.8 


13.6 


1.6 


Allegany 


12,778 


1,925 


367 


15,070 


84.8 


12.8 


2.4 


Cecil 


3,450 


334 


104 


3,888 


88.7 


8.6 


2.7 


Anne Arundel 


6,696 


540 


204 


7,440 


90.0 


7.3 


2.7 


Caroline 


2,283 


23 


72 


2,378 


96.0 


1.0 


3.0 




1,511 


308 


64 


1,883 


80.2 


16.4 


3.4 


Queen Anne's 


1,708 


39 


63 


1,810 


94.4 


2.1 


3.5 




17,328 


3,480 


924 


21,732 


79.7 


16.0 


4.3 


Kent 


1,425 


35 


66 


1,526 


93.4 


2.3 


4.3 




4,326 


314 


241 


4,881 


88.6 


6.5 


4.9 




10,616 


373 


598 


11,587 


91.6 


3.2 


5.2 


Carroll 


5,101 


185 


288 


5,574 


91.5 


3.3 


5.2 


St. Mary's 


1,016 


1,015 


114 


2,145 


47.4 


47.3 


5.3 




2,336 


296 


148 


2,780 


84.0 


10.7 


5.3 




4,283 


72 


256 


4,611 


92.9 


1.6 


5.5 




3,699 


25 


226 


3,950 


93.7 


.6 


5.7 




2,206 


10 


139 


2,355 


93.7 


.4 


5.9 




2,252 


9 


153 


2,414 


93.3 


.4 


6.3 




2,960 


9 


217 


3,186 


92.9 


.3 


6.8 




847 


49 


66 


962 


88.0 


5.1 


6.9 




7,496 


602 


730 


8,828 


84.9 


6.8 


8.3 



Although the total number of county white children enumerated 
of ages seven to fifteen years, inclusive, decreased by 436, there 
were five counties which had an increase in children enumerated. 
There was considerable increase in the two counties adjacent to 
Washington, D. C, and there were small increases in two counties 
adjacent to Baltimore City. The remaining 18 counties enumer- 
ated fewer children in November, 1938 than in 1936. (See Table 
3.) 



14 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The range in the counties in the percentage of white children of 
compulsory school attendance ages, from seven to fifteen years, 
inclusive, in public schools was very wide, from 47 per cent to 

CHART 1 



PER CaiT OF TKHITE CKLLDRIN OF AGES 7-15 YEARS, IliCLUSIVE 
ZNTOffiRATED NOVEIffiER, 1938 
IN PUBLIC, PRIVATE, AND PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS, AND IN NO SCHOOL 



County 



Total 

No. of $ In 

White Public 

Children Schools 



In No 
School I 



% In Private 
and Parochial 
Schools » — 1 



Total and 

Co. Average 133,976 



Talbot 
Pr. Geo. 

Montgomery 

Allegany 

Cecil 

A. Arundel 

Caroline 

Charles 

Q,. Anne*s 

Baltimore 

Kent 

Harford 

Washington 

Carroll 

St. Mary*s 

Howard 

Garrett 

Wiconico 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Dorchester 

Calvert 

Frederick 



1,910 
12,184 
10,832 
15,070 
3,888 
7,440 
2,378 
1,383 
1,810 
21,732 
1,526 
4,381 
11,587 
5,574 
2,145 
2,780 
4,611 
3,950 
2,355 
2,414 
3,186 
962 
8,828 



86.9 



97.5 B 
90.5 BI 



8X) 



75 



84.8 EI 
84.8 BT 
88.7 E 
90.0 BT 
96.0 BUto 

80.2 Bd 
94.4 BOi] 

79.7 I 
93.4 



88.6 IHQT] 
91.6 



5 .^ Q 




413 



The 1938 Census of White County Children of Ages 7-15 15 

over 97 per cent. In thirteen counties from 90 to over 97 per cent 
were in public schools. In St. Mary's over 47 per cent and in five 
other counties from 11 to 16 per cent of the white children of ages 
seven to fifteen years, inclusive, were in non-public schools. (See 
Table 3.) 

The counties are ranked in Table 3 and Chart 1, according to 
the per cent of white children of compulsory school attendance 
ages, seven to fifteen years, inclusive, not in any school, the county 
with the smallest percentage being ranked first. The per cent of 
white children out of school ranged from less than two per cent in 
three counties to over six per cent in four counties. (See Table 3 
and Chart 1.) 

The census enumeration indicates that for ages seven to fifteen 
years five counties had more white children in public schools in 
1938 than they had in 1936. The white non-public school enroll- 
ment was higher in 1938 than in 1936 in fifteen counties. (See 
Table 3.) 

TABLE 4 

White Non-School Attendants of Ages 7-15 Years Enumerated in 23 Mary- 
land Counties, Distributed According to Employment, Handicap, and 
Age Group, November, 1938 



White Children of Ages 7-15 Years Not in School 













Physically 


Mentally 


County 


Employed 


Not Employed 


Handicapped 


Handicapped 




7-13 


14-15 


7-13 


14-15 


7-13 


14-15 


7-13 


14-15 




Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Total 1934 


242 


2,766 


350 


2.264 


317 


147 


178 


92 


1936 


180 


3,451 


291 


1,893 


368 


163 


203 


126 


1938 


102 


2,433 


236 


1,869 


313 


168 


188 


105 


Allegany 




59 


12 


209 


38 


27 


18 


4 


Anne Arundel 


' ' 2 


44 


20 


110 


10 


6 


10 


2 


Baltimore 


1 


354 


63 


377 


61 


25 


26 


17 


Calvert 


3 


26 


1 


29 


3 


2 


2 


. ... 


Caroline 


1 


48 




9 


2 


6 


5 




Carroll 


12 


217 


' ' 2 


24 


11 


5 


13 


4 


Cecil 




48 


7 


31 


7 


4 


6 


1 


Charles 




19 


7 


26 


2 


1 


7 


2 




' " 9 


112 


10 


65 


6 


1 


6 


8 


Frederick 


40 


394 


34 


201 


23 


13 


14 


11 






72 


1 


145 


17 


8 


11 


2 


Harford 


" ' 3 


60 


23 


125 


14 


8 


5 


3 




8 


67 


3 


54 


6 


7 


3 




Kent 




54 






3 




7 


' ' '2 


Montgomery 


" ' 2 


84 




■ is 


24 


' ii 


18 


11 


Prince George's 


1 


69 


2 


63 


24 


8 


7 


6 


Queen Anne's 




59 




1 




2 




1 


St. Mary's 


"i 


58 


"5 


34 


• • j 


3 


' ' 3 


3 


Somerset 


6 


62 


13 


57 


7 


5 


2 


1 


Talbot 




7 




9 






2 


1 




' io 


285 


' '20 


215 


' 25 


■ 14 


12 


17 






165 




25 


18 


7 


7 


4 


Worcester 


' "3 


70 


' "6 


42 


5 


5 


4 


4 



16 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Of the 5,414 white children of ages seven to fifteen years not 
in school, 481 were physically and 293 were mentally handi- 
capped, and 2,433 were over fourteen years and employed. This 
means that 59 per cent of those not attending school could be 
excused from attendance for legal reasons. Another 1,869, or 35 
per cent, were over fourteen years old and unemployed, and 338 
white children of ages seven to thirteen years should according to 
law be in school. Some of these children were receiving instruc- 
tion in their own homes with the approval of the county super- 
intendent. (See Table 4.) 

There were 816 physically handicapped and 345 mentally 
handicapped children of ages 7 to 15 years reported attending 
school in 1938. (See Table 5.) 

For data on the school census of white county children of ages 
16 to 20 years, see pages 95 to 97. Data on the county colored 
census will be found on pages 160 to 164 and pages 187 to 190. 



TABLE 5 

Handicapped White School Attendants of Ages 7-15 Years Enumerated in 
23 Maryland Counties, Distributed According to Type of Handicap 
and Age Group, November, 1938 



White Handicapped Children in School 



County 


Physically Handicapped 


Mentally Handicapped 




7-13 


14-15 


7-13 


14-15 




Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Total, 1934 


838 


223 


184 


44 


1936 


749 


200 


178 


54 


1938 


653 


163 


252 


93 




117 


27 


22 


8 


Anne Arundel 


27 


10 


4 


1 




141 


27 


22 


10 


Calvert 


2 


1 




.... 




20 


3 


■ ' 2 




Carroll 


36 


9 


6 


1 


Cecil 


8 


1 


7 


2 




8 


11 


4 


1 




12 


7 


4 


1 




58 


12 


8 


4 




40 


7 


10 






22 


4 


8 


' " *i 




16 


3 


1 


2 


Kent.....* 


1 










30 


"ii 




• • 




9 




1 






■ ■ "8 








' 32 


' "e 






8 


3 


11 


■ ■ '2 




1 




1 






49 


"is 


122 


■ "52 




9 


4 


5 






7 


2 


1 





WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



WHITE ENROLLMENT IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The enrollment in the county public elementary schools for 
white pupils for 1939 totaled 109,579, a decrease of 57 under the 
year preceding. Except for a slight gain in 1937, there has been 
a small decrease in white enrollment in county public elementary 
schools each year since 1933, the decrease in the six years totaling 
2,930. (See Tables 6 and 7.) 



TABLE 6 

Total Enrollment in Maryland White Elementary Schools, for Years Ending 
June, 1923, 1938 and 1939 



County 


Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 




1923 


1938 


1939 


Total Counties. . . 


*106,069 


*109,636 


*109,579 


Baltimore 


13,333 


17,337 


17,370 


Allegany 


11,107 


12,552 


12,275 


Washington 


10,859 


11,064 


10,946 


Prince George's. . 


6,421 


9,923 


10,338 


Montgomery 


4,524 


9,098 


9,424 


Frederick 


8,505 


7,105 


7,004 


Anne Arundel .... 


4,947 


6,353 


6,385 


Carroll 


5,902 


4,869 


4,814 


Harford 


4,290 


4,121 


4,080 


Garrett 


5,373 


3,930 


3,851 




3,986 


3,562 


3,516 


Cecil 


3,405 


3,210 


3,125 



County 


Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 




1923 


1938 


1939 


Dorchester. . . . 


3,432 


2,800 


2,699 




2,241 


2,128 


2,141 




3,025 


2,048 


2,033 




2,298 


2,098 


1,985 


Somerset 


3,059 


2,073 


1,976 


Talbot 


2,105 


1,642 


1,635 


Queen Anne's. . 


2,101 


1,494 


1,492 




1,803 


1,457 


1,476 


Kent 


1,748 


1,321 


1,372 


St. Mary's 


2,117 


879 


875 


Calvert 


1,060 


799 


822 


Balto. City 


t*79,124 


t*73,064 


t*70,779 


Total State 


t*185,193 


t*182,700 


t*180,358 



* Excludes duplicates. 

t Includes estimate of enrollment in grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools and enrollment 
in vocational schools. 

For enrollment in counties arranged alphabetically, see Table II, page 313. 



The counties are arranged in Table 6 in order of size of white 
elementary public school enrollment in 1939. Eight of the coun- 
ties showed increases in white enrollment in public elementary 
schools from 1938 to 1939, but only six had a larger enrollment 
in 1939 than in 1923. 

The Baltimore City drop of 2,285 from 1938 to 1939 brought the 
total white enrollment in public elementary, occupational and 
vocational schools and in the first two years of junior high schools 
to 70,779 in 1939. Except for the increase which appeared in 
1936, the white enrollment in these Baltimore City schools has 
shown a steady decrease since 1930. The decrease in Baltimore 
City white public school enrollment between 1930 and 1939 totaled 
8,059, over 2.7 times the drop in county white elementary school 
enrollment since 1933. (See Tables 6 and 7.) 



18 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The white enrollment in county public elementary schools 
totaled 109,579 in contrast with a comparable enrollment in 
Baltimore City of 70,779, giving an excess of 38,800 for the 
counties. (See Tables 6 and 7.) 

TABLE 7 



Comparison of White Elementary Enrollment in Counties and Baltimore City 
in Public and Non-Public Schools, 1930 to 1939 

















*Non-Catholic 


Year 


*Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic Schools 


Non-Public Schools 






















Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


1930 


118,717 


109,864 


108,737 


78,838 


8,722 


29,002 


1,258 


2,024 


1931 


119,763 


109,634 


109,406 


78,202 


9,079 


29,462 


1,278 


1,970 


1932 


121,923 


109,840 


111,370 


78,069 


9,321 


29,954 


1,232 


1,817 


1933 


123,224 


109,633 


112,509 


77.639 


9,636 


30.399 


1,079 


1,595 


1934 


122,881 


109,132 


111,907 


76,560 


9,876 


31,020 


1,098 


1,552 


1935 


122,559 


108,532 


111,696 


76,158 


9,622 


30,735 


1,241 


1,639 


1936 


121,857 


108,777 


110,938 


76,863 


9,698 


30,171 


1,221 


1,743 


1937 


122,247 


106,839 


110,955 


75,118 


9,785 


29,817 


1,507 


1,904 


1938 


121,422 


104,766 


109,636 


73,064 


9,933 


29,384 


1,853 


2,318 


1939 


121,137 


102,166 


109,579 


70,779 


9,823 


29,090 


1,735 


2,297 



* See Tables II to IV, pages 313 to 319. 



A part of the difference between the white county and City 
enrollment is explained by the existence of a larger non-public 
school enrollment in the City than in the counties. White ele- 
mentary enrollment in the county and City public and non-public 
schools is shown for the past decade, 1930 to 1939, in Table 7. 
White elementary public school enrollment in the counties w^as 
at its maximum in 1933 since which time there has been a slight 
tendency to decline. The City white public elementary, occupa- 
tional, and vocational school enrollment, except for an increase 
in 1936, has declined steadily during the past decade. The white 
elementary enrollment in Catholic schools increased steadily to 
1934, since which time it has fluctuated up and down in the 
counties and has decreased steadily in the City. White elementary 
school enrollment in non-Catholic private schools declined during 
the depression years 1932 to 1934, since which time it has shown 
a general tendency to increase, although 1939 shows decreases 
under 1938. (See Table 7.) 

Decreases in elementary school enrollment are generally attri- 
buted to lower birth rates. According to the reports of the Bureau 
of Vital Statistics, Maryland State Department of Health, birth 
rates for 1938 are lower than they were in 1930, except in five 
counties. Birth rates for 1935, 1936, 1937 and 1938 according 
to residence of mother show increases in one-half of the counties 
and decreases or no change in the remainder. (See Table 8.) 



White Elementary Enrollment 1930-39; Birth Rates 



19 



TABLE 8 



Recorded and Resident Birth Rates Per 1,000 White Population 

(Reported by Bureau of Vital Statistics, Maryland State Department of Health) 





Recorded Birth Rates 


Resident Birth Rates* 


County 


























1920 


1930 


1935 


1938 


1935 


1936 


1937 


1938 


County Average 


23 


5 


17.4 


14.3 


13 


9 


17 





17.0 


17.6 


18. 1 


Allegany 


27 


1 


22.2 


20.4 


21 


8 


19 


5 


19. 9 


20.2 


19.8 




20 


2 


14.4 


13.8 


12 





16 


9 


16.0 


16.3 


16.7 




2a 


5 


13 . 9 


8 . 1 


6 


6 


14 


5 


13 . 8 


14.0 


15. 5 


Calvert 


26 


6 


22.2 


19.8 


22 


3 


20 


6 


21.0 


21.0 


23.9 




23 


1 


16.5 


16.6 


14 


9 


19 


5 


17.4 


19.0 


16.3 


Carroll 


22 


1 


15.1 


13.0 


11 


4 


16 


5 


15.6 


15.4 


17.2 


Cecil 


22 


4 


19.9 


15.7 


14 


4 


17 


7 


15.8 


17.2 


16.3 




23 


6 


20.1 


17.2 


14 


9 


23 


2 


23.5 


23.4 


22.8 




26.9 


19.2 


15.5 


17 


5 


15 


3 


16.6 


15.7 


17.4 




25 





20 2 


17 6 


17 


9 


17 


2 


18 1 


17 4 


17 6 




28 


4 


24!2 


24^3 


22 


1 


25 


8 


24^6 


24^8 


23^9 




18 


6 


17.8 


14.0 


13 


1 


16 


7 


16.3 


16.8 


17.3 




22 


8 


14.9 


13.9 


16 


1 


19 


1 


19.3 


22.2 


23.5 


Kent 


21 


5 


12.6 


11.8 


14 





12 


6 


11.9 


15.4 


14.4 




20 


9 


13.6 


14.9 


16 





18 


7 


19.6 


22.8 


23.1 


Prince George's 


20 


9 


11.4 


7.5 


6 




19 


2 


19.7 


20.0 


21.5 




21 


1 


18.1 


13.1 


13 


4 


14 


6 


18.8 


17.1 


17.5 


St. Mary's 


26 


8 


26.7 


25.8 


26.1 


25 


5 


25.3 


23.9 


26.6 




24 


7 


17.9 


14.6 


12.8 


14 


2 


14.8 


13.9 


14.5 


Talbot 


22 





19.4 


16.9 


18 





13 


4 


17.9 


14.9 


14.3 


Washington 


26 


9 


20.4 


17.5 


16 


8 


17 


7 


16.4 


17.8 


17.1 


Wicomico 


22 


3 


18.4 


14.0 


18 


2 


12 


3 


13.1 


14.3 


13.9 


Worcester 


20 





15.7 


9.3 


10.7 


11 


9 


14.4 


13.6 


15.2 


Baltimore City 


25 


3 


17.6 


15.4 


17 





13 


7 


13.1 


13.6 


14.3 


Entire State 


24 


5 


17.5 


M.9 


15 


4 


15 


5 


15.1 


15.6 


16.2 



* Prior to 1935 birth rates were calculated on births occurring in the indicated areas and 
are shown under the heading "Recorded Birth Rates." For 1935, 1936, 1937 and 1938 birth 
rates are shown by residence of mother as well as according to location of birth. 



AGE REQUIRED FOR ADMISSION TO FIRST GRADE 

The regulations regarding admission of children to the first 
grade of public schools show considerable variation among the 
counties. If a child is to be permitted to enter Grade One, the 
date before which he must be six is fixed as October 1 in one 
county, as December 1 in four counties, as January 1 in eleven 
counties, and as February 1 in seven counties. (See Table 9.) 

Montgomery County indicates that usually pupils must be six 
on or before December 1 if they are to be admitted to Grade 1 in 
September, but pupils who will become six by February 1 are 
admitted in September if maturity is indicated by readiness in 
tests. 

Baltimore City admits children in both September and February 
who will be six years old on or before the first day of the following 
October or March, respectively. (See Table 9.) 



20 



1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 9 



County and City Regulations Regarding Admission of Children to Grade 1 in 
September, 1939, Who Will Become Six Years of Age in Succeeding Months 



Date on or before Which 
Child Must Become 6 

before Admission 
Preceding September 


Number 
of 

Counties 


Names of Counties 


October 1 


It 
11 
8* 


Charles, Baltimore City.t 

Anne Arundel, Carroll, Frederick, Montgomery.* 
Allegany, Baltimore, Calvert, Caroline, Cecil, Dorchester, 

Garrett, Howard, Prince George's, Somerset, Talbot. 
Harford, Kent, Montgomery,* Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, 

Washington, Wicomico, Worcester. 


December 1 









* Montgomery included twice, a note indicating that Dec. 1 is the usual date, but pupils 
who will become 6 by Feb. 1 are admitted if maturity is indicated by readiness in tests, 
t Baltimore City also admits pupils Feb. 1 who will become 6 before March 1. 



LENGTH OF SESSION 

The county public elementary schools for white pupils were in 
session an average of 185.6 days in 1938-39. The average number 
of days schools were open in individual counties varied from 181 
to 191. The opening dates in September, 1938, covered the period 
from September 1 to September 13, while schools in two counties 
closed on May 31, 1939, and in two other counties were open until 
June 23. Schools in two counties and in Baltimore City were open 
190 days. (See Table 10.) 

TABLE 10 

Length of Session in White Elementary Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1939 



County 



Average 
Days 

in 
Session 



School Year 
1938-39 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



County 



Average 
Days 

in 
Session 



School Year 
1938-39 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Harford 

Howard 

Cecil 

Washington 

Anne Arundel . . 

Allegany 

Dorchester. . . . 
Prince George's 

Garrett 

Montgomery . . . 
Carroll 



185.6 

190.8 
189.6 
188.5 
188.0 
186.1 
185.8 
185.7 
185.4 
184.3 
184.3 
184.0 
183.9 



9/13 

9/7 

9/7 

9/7 

9/6 

9/7 

9/8 

9/7 

9/7 

9/6 

9/13 

9/8 



6/23 

6/16 

6/16 

6/16 

6/9 

6/23 

6/16 

6/9 

6/16 

6/9 

6/20 

6/9 



Talbot 

Kent 

Queen Anne's 

Calvert 

Charles 

Somerset .... 
Wicomico. . . 
Frederick .... 
St. Mary's. . . 

Caroline 

Worcester. . . 

Balto. City . . 

Total State. . 



183.2 
183.1 
183.0 
182.9 
182.8 
182.3 
182.0 
182.0 
182.0 
181.8 
181.0 

190.0 

187.1 



9/8 
9/7 
9/8 
9/7 
9/7 
9/1 
9/1 
9/7 
9/6 
9/7 
9/6 

9/13 



6/9 

6/8 

6/9 

6/15 

5/31 

5/31 

6/9 

6/9 

6 '6 

6/2 

6/22 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Tabic IX, page 322. 



First Grade Admission Age; Length of Session; of Attendance 21 



TABLE 11 

Number of County White Schools in Session Fewer Than 180 Days, Year 

Ending June 30, 1939 



Year 



1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 



For All Counties by Year 



Having 
Total I One 
No. I Teacher 



124 
83 
33 
62 
28 
12 
9 
5 
8 
34 
33 
12 
2 
4 



Having 
More 
Than One 
Teacher 



109 


15 


68 


15 


25 


8 


45 


17 


22 


6 


7 


5 


8 


1 


2 


3 


6 


2 


18 


16 


21 


12 


9 
1 


3 
1 


2 


2 



County 



Allegany 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Prince George's 



For 1939 by County 



Total 
No. 



Having 

One 
Teacher 



Having 
More 
Than One 
Teacher 



177 days. 

178 days. 



162 days. 

Greenbelt High School — 178 days. 



There were three elementary schools and one high school for 
white pupils open fewer than 180, the number of days required 
by law. Two of the elementary schools were short of the require- 
ment by two and three days, respectively, one elementary school 
which opened a month late was short 18 days, while the high 
school was under 180 by two days. (See Table 11.) 

WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS HAVE BEST ATTENDANCE RECORD 

TABLE 12 

Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Schools for School Years End- 
ing in June, 1923, 1937, 1938 and 1939 



County 



1923 



1937 



1938 



1939 



County 



1923 


1937 


1938 


1939 


84.9 


*91.1 


*92.4 


*92.6 


84.5 


91.7 


92.7 


92.3 


86.7 


91.6 


93.4 


92.3 


74.5 


91.7 


92.5 


92.2 


84.0 


t90.2 


t92.4 


t92.1 


84.8 


89.7 


92.3 


91.5 


84.5 


88.8 


89.1 


91.4 


83.5 


88.7 


90.7 


91.4 


84.0 


87.6 


90.8 


91.1 


81.9 


*90.0 


*91.8 


*91.1 


79.5 


90.8 


92.1 


90.3 


89.8 


*90.1 


*91.4 


*90.8 


86.7 


90.7 


92.1 


91.9 



County Average 

Allegany 

Talbot 

Frederick 

Carroll 

Prince George's. 
Dorchester. . . . 

Garrett 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Queen Anne's. . 

Caroline 

Calvert 



84.2 

89.0 
85.8 
83.6 
79.4 
84.9 
81.2 
83.9 
86.5 
83.3 
85.4 
86.5 
79.9 



91.2 

*94.1 
90.2 
t91.7 
t91.1 
t92.0 
90.1 
91.4 
91.0 
90.7 
90.2 
90.2 
90.1 



92.5 

*93.8 
93.2 
t93.4 
t93.1 
t93.9 
92.1 
92.1 
92.6 
91.9 
92.8 
t92.3 
90.4 



92.7 



*94.1 
94.1 
93.7 

t93.5 

t93.4 
93.2 
93.2 
93.2 
93.1 
93.0 

t92.8 
92.6 



Washington . . . , 
Anne Arundel . 

Kent 

St. Mary's 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Harford 

Worcester 

Howard 

Montgomery . . 
Charles 

Baltimore City 

Entire State . . . 



* Includes Junior High Schools, grades 7-8. 
t Includes Junior High Schools, grade 7. 
For attendance in 1939 by counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VIII, 



page 321. 



22 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Attendance of county white elementary pupils was better in 
1939 than for any year previously recorded. The average atten- 
dance was 92.7 per cent of the average number belonging, a gain 
of .2 over the year preceding. All, except eight counties, showed 
a better attendance in 1939 than in 1938. In no county was the 
per cent of attendance below 90 and in two counties it reached 
over 94 per cent. Attendance in Baltimore City was 90.8 per cent, 
making the State average 91.9 per cent. (See Table 12.) 



TABLE 13 

Per Cent of Attendance for School Years Ending in June, 1924, 1938 and 1939, 
by Types of White Elementary Schools 





Schools Having 




Schools Having 












One Teacher 




Two Teachers 




Graded Schools 


County 


1924 


1938 


1939 


County 


1924 


1938 


1939 


County 


1924 


1938 


1939 


County Aver.t80.9 


°90 


.8 


91.6 


County Aver. . 


.83 


9 


92.4 


92 


. 5 


County Aver. . 


.88.3 


92.7 


92.8 


Worcester . . . 


.77.0 


92 


1 


96.7 


Allegany 


88 


9 


95.6 


95 


.6 


St. Mary's. . . . 




95.0 


94.2 




81.7 


92 


3 


95.5 


Pr. George's. . 


.85 


8 


94.3 


94 


2 


Talbot 


'88;5 


92.9 


94.1 


Talbot 


87.3 


94 


3 


94.2 


Wicomico 


86 


3 


94.9 


93 


6 




92.4 


*93.8 


*94.1 


Kent 


84.8 


93 


7 


93.7 


Anne Arundel 


.81 


9 


92.8 


93 


5 


Garrett 


89.9 


92.7 


94.1 


Anne Arundel. 77. 6 


89 


6 


93.6 


Cecil 


86 


5 


94.2 


93 


5 


Frederick 


86.4 


t93.8 


94.0 


Queen Anne's 


.82.9 


91 


9 


93.2 




81 


9 


89.0 


93 


3 


Carroll 


84.3 


t93.3 


t93.6 


Pr. George's. 


.83.3 


92 


9 


92.9 


Talbot 


86 


7 


95.4 


93 


3 


Queen Anne's. 


.88.3 


93.3 


93.5 


Allegany .... 


82.9 


91 


9 


92.9 


Carroll 


81 


4 


91.7 


93 


2 


Dorchester . . . 


.89.5 


92.7 


93.5 


Wicomico. . . 


.83.9 


92 


7 


92.4 


Calvert 


81 


7 


92.6 


93 


1 


Pr. George's. . 


.89.0 


t93.9 


t93.4 


Dorchester . . 


.81.3 


89 


1 


92.3 


Garrett 


87 


7 


93.2 


93 


1 


Wicomico. . . . 


89.3 


92.4 


93.2 




81.2 


90 


8 


92.0 


Charles 


84 


3 


94.9 


93 


1 


Somerset 


86.7 


91.9 


93.0 




77.3 


93 


9 


91.8 


Somerset 


83 


3 


90.8 


93 





Caroline 


89.9 


t92.3 


t92.9 


Carroll 


78.2 


91 


5 


91.8 


Dorchester. . . 


.86 


7 


93.7 


92 


6 


Washington . . 


.88.8 


*92.7 


*92.9 


St. Mary's. . . 


.79.3 


91 


2 


91.3 


Kent 


85 


8 


93.3 


92 


4 


Calvert 




90.0 


92.6 


Washington . 


.80.1 


89 


4 


91.1 


Washington . . 


.80 


6 


91.9 


92 





Anne Arundel . 


.87.9 


92.7 


92.3 


Cecil 


81.7 


92 


7 


90.6 


Caroline 


.87 


9 


91.9 


92 





Baltimore. . . . 


86.2 


t92.5 


t92.1 


Calvert 


77.2 


90 


2 


90.5 


St. Mary's .... 


81 


4 


92.2 


91 


9 


Kent 


88.3 


93.4 


92.0 


Howard 


82.5 


91 


3 


89.7 


Frederick 


80 


3 


91.3 


91 




Harford 


88.9 


89.6 


91.8 


Montgomery 


.78.1 


89 


6 


89.7 




82 


5 


91.3 


91 


5 


Worcester .... 


89.3 


90.9 


91.5 


Harford 


82.7 


86 


9 


89.5 


Harford 


85 


6 


89.0 


91 


3 


Cecil 


87.3 


91.8 


91.4 


Frederick .... 


79.6 


87 


8 


88.8 


Montgomery. . 


.80 


5 


92.5 


90 


4 


Howard 


85.8 


90.9 


91.1 












Worcester ... 


82 


6 


88.8 


89 


7 


Montgomery . . 


.86.3 


*91.1 


*90.7 












Queen Anne's. 


.86 


5 


90.7 


89 


6 




88.4 


91.8 


90.0 



* Includes Junior High Schools, grades 7-8. 
t Includes Junior High Schools, grade 7. 

t Caroline County had no one-teacher schools in 1938 or 1939, but had attendance of 88.3 
per cent in 1924. 

° Baltimore County had no one-teacher schools in 1939, but had 82.3 per cent of attendance 
in 1924 and 91.5 per cent in 1938. 



The per cent of attendance was lowest in the county one-teacher 
schools, 91.6 per cent, next highest in the tw^o-teacher schools, 92.5 
per cent, and highest in the graded schools, 92.8 per cent. 
The difference between the county having the lowest and highest 
per cent of attendance was greatest for the one-teacher schools 
and least for the graded schools. The county having the 
lowest attendance in one-teacher schools was just below 89 per 
per cent, in two-teacher schools slightly under 90 per cent, and in 
gi^aded schools 90 per cent. (See Table 13.) 



Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Public Schools 23 

New Approach to Attendance Problems in Baltimore City 

Baltimore City reports that improved attendance has resulted 
from the appointment of a permanent committee by the Council 
of Social Agencies which meets monthly with representatives of 
the City Department of Education for the continued referral, 
discussion and adjustment of problem cases discovered by the 
schools. A study of the case load of visiting teachers and of cases 
referred to social agencies indicated the advisability of concentra- 
tion of effort on problem cases at lower age levels and at intelli- 
gence levels at or above normal and this also has helped increase 
the percentage of attendance. The emphasis is on the treatment 
of causes of maladjustment through a clinical approach with a 
co-ordination of the efforts of classroom teachers, principals, 
attendance officers, visiting teachers, social agencies and various 
clinics. 

Attendance by Months in County Schools 
TABLE 14 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White 
Elementary Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1939" 



Month 


Average Number Belonging 


Per Cent of Attendance 




















All Ele- 


One- 


Two- 




All Ele- 


One- 


Two- 






mentary 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


mentary 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


September 


104,567 


6.137 


8.214 


90.216 


96.3 


94.8 


96.0 


96.4 


October 


106,044 


6.282 


8,333 


91 ,429 


95.1 


94.2 


94.9 


95.2 




106,168 


6,306 


8,348 


91,514 


93.4 


92.4 


93.4 


93.5 




106,008 


6.235 


8,407 


91,366 


92.1 


92.3 


92.1 


92.1 


January 


105,862 


6,218 


8.390 


91.254 




87.0 


89.5 


90.4 


February 


105,616 


6,200 


8,376 


91.040 


89.5 


88.3 


89.7 


89.6 


March 


105,368 


6,171 


8.365 


90,832 


91.1 


90.8 


90.9 


91.2 


April 


105,226 


6,166 


8,340 


90,720 


92.4 


91.7 


92.1 


92.5 


May 


104,918 


6,123 


8,315 


90,480 


93.0 


92.0 


93.1 


93.1 


June 


*99,605 


*5,864 


*7,874 


*85,867 


95.5 


95.3 


95.7 


95.5 


Average for Year . . . 


105,493 


6,152 


8,356 


90,985 


92.7 


91.6 


92.5 


92.8 



* Somerset and Wicomico County schools were not open in June. 



The counties had the maximum enrollment of white elementary 
pupils in November after which there was a lower enrollment 
each succeeding month. In the two-teacher schools the maximum 
enrollment was found in December. (See Table 14.) 

Per cent of attendance was highest in all elementary and graded 
schools in September, decreased each succeeding month until it 
was at its lowest point in February, after which it increased each 
month until June, when it was slightly below the September 
average. In one- and two-teacher schools the minimum atten- 
dance appeared in the month of January. (See Table 14.) 



24 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Attendance Under 100 and 140 Days in Counties 

The improvement in attendance is reflected in the decrease in 
the per cent of county white elementary pupils who attended 
school fewer than 100 and 140 days. There were 3.2 per cent who 
attended fewer than 100 days, .5 of one per cent less than in 1938, 
and 8.3 who attended fewer than 140 days, which was .9 of one 
per cent lower than the corresponding per cent for the preceding 
year. The changes in attendance are very marked if figures for 
1939 are compared with those of 1929. (See Table 15.) 

TABLE 15 

Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Attending Under 100 
and 140 Days, 1929 to 1939, and by County for 1938-39 



Per Cent of County White Pupils Attending 



Year 
County 


Elementary 
Schools 


One-Teacher 
Schools 


Two-Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 




Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 



ATTENDING UNDER 100 AND 140 DAYS BY YEAR 



1929 


8.4 


19.3 


13.3 


29.4 


9.6 


22.5 


6.8 


16.0 


1930 


6.6 


15.2 


9.3 


23.2 


7.4 


17.2 


5.8 


13.1 


1931 


5.5 


12.9 


7.7 


18.3 


5.8 


13.8 


5.0 


11.7 


1932 


5.3 


12.3 


6.8 


16.6 


5.7 


13.4 


5.0 


11.4 


1933 


4.6 


11.0 


6.4 


15.7 


4.8 


12.0 


4.4 


10.3 


1934 


4.9 


12.8 


6.2 


17.1 


5.0 


14.0 


4.7 


12.2 


1935 


4.9 


12.4 


6.9 


18.0 


5.0 


14.5 


4.6 


11.5 


1936 


4.8 


12.4 


7.3 


19.6 


5.2 


13.9 


4.5 


11.5 


1937 


4.7 


12.0 


6.0 


17.6 


5.1 


13.0 


4.5 


11.4 


1938 


3.7 


9.2 


6.0 


14.7 


3.8 


9.9 


3.5 


8.7 


1939 


3.2 


8.3 


4.0 


11.5 


3.2 


9.3 


3.1 


8.0 


ATTENDING UNDER 100 AND 140 DAYS BY COUNTY, 1938-39 


Queen Anne's. 




2.3 




2.3 




11.3 




1.0 


Pr. George's. . 


1.3 


5.0 


2.5 


8.6 


2.3 


6.1 


1.2 


4.9 




1.4 


6.2 


1.2 


17.3 


2.4 


11.1 


1.3 


5.3 


Carroll 


2.0 


6.4 


4.1 


12.7 


2.0 


7.5 


1.9 


6.0 


Allegany 


2.9 


6.7 


3.1 


8.0 


1.1 


3.3 


3.0 


6.8 


Dorchester . . . 


2.1 


6.9 


2.3 


9.4 


1.7 


6.9 


2.1 


6.2 


Baltimore. . . . 


3.0 


7.0 






2.4 


7.1 


3.0 


7.0 




1.5 


7.3 








2.7 


1.6 


7.5 


Kent 


1.5 


7.3 


"2!i 


'4!9 


"2;i 


8.2 


1.0 


7.3 


Harford 


2.5 


8.1 


5.6 


13.3 


1.7 


7.5 


2.1 


7.3 


Calvert 


3.2 


8.4 


6.3 


25.0 


4.0 


7.3 


3.0 


8.2 




1.8 


8.8 


.9 


9.8 


3.8 


11.8 


1.7 


6.7 


Wicomico. . . . 


3.9 


9.1 


2.2 


10.1 


1.0 


4.5 


4.2 


9.4 


Anne Arundel . 


4.2 


9.2 


4.2 


8.3 


3.2 


8.3 


4.2 


9.2 


Talbot 


3.7 


9.5 


5.5 


10.9 


6.3 


12.6 


3.2 


9.0 


Somerset 


3.9 


9.9 


5.9 


11.8 


4.1 


10.0 


3.7 


9.7 


Washington . . 


4.4 


10.1 


7.5 


15.5 


5.6 


12.9 


4.0 


9.4 


Howard 


4.3 


10.3 


5.4 


12.5 


2.2 


5.6 


4.4 


10.6 


Cecil 


5.5 


11.0 


8.2 


15.8 


2.4 


4.5 


5.2 


10.6 


St. Mary's 


3.3 


11.0 


4.5 


12.0 


3.8 


12.2 


.6 


7.0 


Worcester .... 


3.0 


11.1 


4.5 


9.1 


2.7 


13.8 


3.0 


10.8 


Montgomery . 


6.4 


13.7 


5.2 


10.4 


11.5 


22.5 


6.2 


13.4 




4.5 


14.6 


3.8 


15.1 


2.3 


3.4 


4.6 


15.4 



County Attendance Under 100 and 140 Days; Late Entrants 25 



All types of schools showed a reduction in the per cent of pupils 
who attended fewer than 100 and 140 days. As in all other 
comparisons the one-teacher schools had the highest per cent of 
pupils in attendance fewer than 100 and 140 days, while the 
graded schools had the lowest per cent. (See upper part of Table 
15.) 

One county had not any, while another county had over 6 per 
cent of its white elementary pupils present under 100 days. For 
white elementary pupils present under 140 days, one county had 
as few as 2 per cent, while two counties had over 13 per cent. 

In one- and two-teacher schools for pupils present under 100 
days, the extremes among the counties were and 11 per cent, 
and for pupils present under 140 days, the minimum was 2 and 
the maximum 25 per cent. 



FEWER COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPILS ENTER SCHOOL 

LATE 



TABLE 16 



Number and Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School After the First 15 Days Because of Employment, Indifference 
or Neglect, by County for 1938-39 







Per Cent Entering Late by Cause 


Rank 




Total 
















County 


Number 




Indiffer- 


14 Years 


Under 


Indiffer- 


14 Years 


Under 




Entering 


Total 


ence or 


or More, 


14 Years, 


ence or 


or More, 


14 Years, 




Late 




Neglect 


Employed 


Illegally 


Neglect 


Employed 


Illegally 












Employed 






Employed 


Total, 1937-38. . 


1,035 


.9 


.6 


.2 


.1 








Total, 1938-39. . 


689 


.6 


.4 


.1 


.1 








Talbot 


4 


.2 




.2 




2 


14 


1 


Wicomico 


11 


.3 


'.i 


.2 




6 


13 


1 


Prince George's . 


32 


.3 


.3 






10 


1 


1 




54 


.3 


.3 






9 


2 


7 




23 


.3 


.2 


ii 




7 


11 


8 


Garrett 


14 


.3 


.1 


.2 




4 


16 


11 


Queen Anne's. . . 


6 


.4 


.1 


.3 




3 


18 


1 


Calvert 


4 


.5 




.1 


'.4 


1 


10 


2i 




63 


.5 


'a 


.1 




11 


8 


10 


Cecil 


17 


.5 


.4 




'.i 


13 


4 


14 


Charles 


8 


.5 


.4 




.1 


12 


6 


15 


Montgomery 


52 


.5 


.4 


!i 




14 


7 


12 


Anne Arundel . . . 


39 


.6 


.6 






16 


3 


9 


Caroline 


17 


.8 


.1 


.6 


!i 


5 


22 


19 


Worcester 


17 


.8 


.6 


.1 


.1 


19 


12 


13 


Harford 


40 


.9 


.7 


.1 


.1 


21 


9 


16 




21 


1.0 


.9 


.1 




23 


5 


1 


Carroll 


51 


1.0 


.6 


.3 


!i 


18 


17 


18 




125 


1.1 


.6 


.4 


.1 


17 


19 


20 




31 


1.1 


.5 


.4 


.2 


15 


21 


21 


Kent 


17 


1.2 


.3 


.4 


. 5 


8 


20 


23 


St. Mary's 


11 


1.2 


.9 


.2 


.1 


22 


15 


17 


Somerset 


32 


1.6 


.7 


.9 




20 


23 


1 



26 



1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



There were 689 county white elementary pupils who entered 
school after the first fifteen days because of indifference and 
neglect or employment. This is a great reduction from the 1,035 
reported for the preceding year. In over one-half of the counties 
the number of late entrants for the causes just given totaled under 
25, while in five of the largest counties these late entrants totaled 
between 52 and 125. These figures indicate the necessity for 
co-operation of families, principals and teachers, especially in the 
counties having one per cent or more of late entrants for these 
causes, if further reduction in late entrants is to be brought about. 
(See Table 16.) 

TABLE 17 



Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County White Elementary Schools by 
Years, 1929 to 1939, and by County for Year Ending June 30, 1939 



Year 
County 


Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer, Commitment 
or Death 


Withdrawals for Following Causes 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per 
Cent 


Per Cent Withdrawing for 


Number 


Per Cent 


Mental 

and 
Physical 
Inca- 
pacity 


Employ- 
ment 


Over and 
Under 
Compul- 
sory At- 
tendance 
Age 


Poverty 


other 
Causes 



Withdrawals by Years 



1929 


12,276 


10.6 


4,937 


4.3 


1 


2 


2 





.5 


.4 


.2 


1930 


12,718 


10.9 


4,105 


3.5 


1 





1 


7 


.4 


.2 


.2 


1931 


11,479 


9.8 


3,642 


3.1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


.3 


.3 




1932 


12,008 


10.1 


2,966 


2.5 


1 


1 




8 


.3 


.2 




1933 


12,008 


10.0 


2,932 


2.4 




8 




9 


.3 


.3 




1934 


11,447 


9.6 


2,897 


2.4 


1 







8 


.3 


2 




1935 


11,295 


9.5 


3,036 


2.5 


1 







8 


.4 


.2 




1936 


11,046 


9.4 


3,037 


2.6 




9 




9 


.5 


.2 




1937 


11,963 


10.9 


2,899 


2.4 




.9 




.8 


.5 


.1 




1938 


11,249 


9.6 


2,266 


1.9 




.7 




.6 


.4 


.1 




1939 


10,131 


8.7 


1,946 


1.7 




.6 




.5 


.4 


.1 





Withdrawals by County, 1938-39 



Queen Anne's. . . 


192 


12.2 


5 


.3 


.1 


.1 


.1 






Caroline 


173 


8.3 


22 


1.1 


.3 


.6 


.1 




A 


Howard 


219 


10.0 


27 


1.2 


.4 


.5 


.2 




.1 


Cecil 


356 


10.8 


41 


1.2 


.6 


.2 


.3 






Anne Arundel . . . 


591 


9.0 


84 


1.3 


.4 


.5 


.2 


.1 


'.i 


Harford 


503 


11.7 


55 


1.3 


.6 


.3 


.3 




.1 


St. Mary's 


92 


10.1 


12 


1.3 


.3 


. 5 


.2 


.2 


.1 


Talbot 


128 


7.5 


23 


1.3 


.6 


.2 


.3 


.2 




Prince George's. 


1,017 


9.5 


146 


1.4 


.8 


.1 


.5 






Carroll 


410 


8.2 


69 


1.4 


.6 


.6 


.1 




A 


Frederick 


671 


9.0 


113 


1.5 


.7 


.7 


.1 






Charles 


83 


5.5 


23 


1.5 


.6 


.5 


.1 




'.s 


Garrett 


337 


8.4 


63 


1.6 


.7 


.3 


.4 




.1 


Wicomico 


450 


11.9 


61 


1.6 


.7 


.7 


.1 




.1 


Dorchester 


211 


7.5 


47 


1.7 


.3 


.7 


.4 


.2 


.1 


Somerset 


91 


4.5 


34 


1.7 


.7 


.6 


.2 


.1 


.1 




1,510 


8.4 


317 


1.8 


.5 


.4 


.7 


.1 


.1 


Allegany 


979 


7.6 


239 


1.9 


.5 


.3 


.7 


.2 


.2 


Montgomery. . . . 


779 


8.0 


186 


1.9 


1.2 


.2 


.4 


.1 


!i 


Washington 


1,016 


8.7 


254 


2.2 


.6 


.8 


.5 


.2 


Calvert 


26 


3.1 


19 


2.3 


1.0 


1.2 




.3 


.1 


Worcester 


162 


7.9 


58 


2.8 


.8 


1.6 




.1 


Kent 


135 


9.5 


48 


3.4 


2.4 


.9 


!i 







Late Entrants; Withdrawals; Index of Attendance 27 

WITHDRAWALS FROM COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

A smaller number of county white elementary pupils than ever 
before withdrew from school because of transfer from one school 
to another, moving away, and death. The number of such with- 
drawals totaled 10,131 and represented 8.7 per cent of the total 
enrollment. The lowest percentage previously reported was 9.4 
in 1936. (See upper left part of Table 17.) 

The counties varied greatly in the per cent of withdrawal due 
chiefly to migration of families from one county or state to 
another. One county in Southern Maryland had 3 per cent of 
such withdrawals while two Eastern Shore counties had 12 per 
cent of their enrollment withdraw because of transfer, moving 
away, or death. (See lower left part of Table 17.) 

Fewer white elementary pupils than ever before withdrew from 
school for ''other causes," such as mental and physical incapacity, 
employment, age and poverty. The number of such withdrawals 
was 1,946, representing 1.7 per cent of the total enrollment. (See 
upper middle part of Table 17.) 

Mental and physical incapacity was the major cause of with- 
drawals, with employment, ages above or below those included 
for compulsory attendance, following in order of importance. 
(See upper right part of Table 17.) 

Among the counties such withdrawals accounted for less than 
one per cent of the white elementary pupils in one county, which, 
however, reported the highest per cent of withdrawals for trans- 
fer, moving away, and death, while at the opposite extreme a 
nearby county had over 3 per cent withdraw for reasons other 
than change of residence. This latter county had an epidemic of 
measles late in May and the pupils excluded were withdrawn 
because they could not return before the close of the school year. 
(iSee lower right part of Table 17.) 

EFFICIENCY IN GETTING AND KEEPING CHILDREN IN SCHOOL 

In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance 
thus far presented, viz., per cent of attendance, late entrance, and 
withdrawals for preventable causes, the 23 counties have been 
arranged in order according to their average rank in these three 
items for public white elementary schools. That county is consi- 
dered highest which has a high percentage of attendance accom- 
panying a low percentage of late entrance and withdrawal for 
preventable causes. A county in which a high proportion of the 
children who could do so do not enter at the beginning of the 
school year, and a large proportion who could remain withdraw 
before the close of the year, may keep those in school in regular 



28 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



attendance while they are enrolled, but it is undoubtedly helping 
all its pupils to secure an education less well than a county which 
brings all of its children into school at the beginning of the year, 
discourages withdrawals, and still keeps a high percentage of 
attendance. (See Table 18.) 

TABLE 18 



An Index of School Attendance in County White Elementary Schools for 
School Year Ending June 30, 1939 



County 


Per Cent of 


Rank in Per Cent op 
















Aixena- 


*Late 


T w itn- 


Attena- 


*Late 


T w iin- 




ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


ance 


Entrants 


drawals 




92.7 


.6 


1.7 








Talbot 


94.1 


.2 


1.3 


2 


1 


8 


Prince George's 


93.4 


.3 


1.4 


5 


3 


9 


Queen Anne's 


93.0 


.4 


.3 


10 


7 


1 




93.7 


.3 


1.5 


3 


5 


11 




93.2 


.3 


1.6 


8 


2 


14 




93.2 


.3 


1.6 


7 


6 


13 


Caroline 


92.8 


.8 


1.1 


11 


14 


2 


Allegany 


94.1 


.5 


1.9 


1 


9 


18 


Anne Arundel 


92.3 


.6 


1.3 


14 


13 


5 


Carroll 


93.5 


1.0 


1.4 


4 


18 


10 


Cecil 


91.5 


.5 


1.2 


18 


10 


4 




92.1 


.3 


1.8 


17 


4 


17 


Calvert 


92.6 


.5 


2.3 


12 


8 


21 




93.2 


1.1 


1.7 


6 


20 


15 




91.4 


.9 


1.3 


19 


16 


6 




91.1 


1.0 


1.2 


21 


17 


3 




92.2 


1.2 


1.3 


16 


22 


7 


Charles 


90.3 


.5 


1.5 


23 


11 


12 




93.1 


1.6 


1.7 


9 


23 


16 




92.6 


1.1 


2.2 


13 


19 


20 




91.1 


.5 


1.9 


22 


12 


19 


Worcester 


91.4 


.8 


2.8 


20 


15 


22 


Kent 


92.3 


1.2 


3.4 


15 


21 


23 



* Late entrance for employment, indifference or neglect. The county having the smallest 
percentage of late entrants is ranked first. 

t Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, or 
death. The county having the smallest percentage of withdrawals is ranked first. 



WHITE GRADE ENROLLMENT 

The first grade had the largest county w^hite enrollment — 8,451 
boys and 7,364 girls. For boys, there was a decreased number in 
each succeeding grade,* except that the enrollment in grade 5 was 
larger than that found in grades 3 and 4. For girls, the enrollment 
in grade 5 was only slightly smaller than that in grade 1, and 
enrollment in grades 2, 3, 4 and 6 ranged between 6,842 and 6,979. 
After grade 5, the enrollment of girls was smaller in each suc- 
ceeding grade.* In the last year of high school, including post 
graduates, there were 2,903 boys and 3,773 girls enrolled. 

The enrollment in grades 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 for boys and in grades 
2, 4 and 8 for girls was smaller than in the year preceding. Part 
of the decrease is explained by declining birth rates, and increase 



* Excluding grade 8 which is found in three counties only. (See Chart 2) 



Index of Attendance; County White Grade Enrollment 29 

in the enrollment in special classes for mentally handicapped 
pupils. Increases in grades 3, 5 and 7, in special classes, and in 
the high school years are due in part to better instruction, and 
subject offerings more attractive to pupils, which result in 
stronger interest in continuing in school, and in part to the lack 
of jobs available to youth who formerly left school to accept work. 
(See Chart 2.) 



CHART 2 



Grade 
or Year 

Kgn. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



Special 
Classes 

Total 
Elementary 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS INROLLEDt Ff GRADES 
IN MARYLAND COUNTY VflilTE SCriOOLS 
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1939 



Total 

tl5,815 
14,454 
14,413 
14,49.7 
14,808 
14,074 
13,668 
3,240 



Boys 



V777A Girls 



^55 
290 



^ssMtiifiitiiiiiiiiiniitiitiiiitiiiimitii/imuitiim 



^ssiUiiiiumiiiiimiiiiiitmimititiiitiiiHm 



^aiiiiitiiiiHtiMiiiMiimiUiMitutmuiiw. 



^^iiiiiiiiiiiiti/tiMittiiittiiiiiiittiiiiii/tiim — 



wsuiiiiiiiiHiiiiifttiiiiitiiiiiimmtiii/fiitiiiUiA 



T127 

^ssitiiiiitiitimtuiiiitii/titiituitimttitiitiitir 



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106,459 



I 


12,064 


II 


9,332 


III 


8,062 


17 


* 6,676 


Total 




High School 


36,134 


Grand Total 


142,593 



mBgiimmiiiiu/uumimiiifimmiiiiiA 



t Exclusive of withdrawals for removah transfer, death, and commitment to institution, 

t Includes enrollment in junior first grade. 

* Includes 64 boys and 134 girls who were postgraduates. 



30 1939 Report of MarylandVState Department of Education 



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White Enrollment by Grades; County Elementary School 31 

Graduates 

In the first seven elementary grades and the first year of high 
school the number of boys exceeded the number of girls, but in the 
last three years of high school the girls outnumbered the boys. 
(See Chart 2.) 

In twelve counties the white enrollment in the first grade was 
larger than that reported for any higher grade. Eleven counties 
had a white enrollment in one of the grades above the first which 
was larger than the first grade enrollment. (See Table 19.) 

A comparison of white enrollment in each grade in Baltimore 
City showed for the first seven elementary grades and the four 
years of high school an enrollment approximately half as large as 
that in the counties. However, Baltimore City public school 
enrollment far exceeded that in the counties in the kindergartens, 
special classes, occupational classes, eighth grade and vocational 
schools. Baltimore City for the first time had pre-kindergarten 
classes in two schools. (See Table 19.) 

WHITE COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GRADUATES AT PEAK 

The 11,925 white graduates of county elementary schools in- 
cluded the largest number that ever completed the elementary 
school course. They represented 11.2 per cent of the elementary 
school enrollment. The number of boys as well as of girls gradu- 
ated was larger than ever previously reported, but the 6,080 girl 
graduates exceeded the boys in number by 235. The white county 
boys graduated represented 10.6 per cent of the elementary school 
enrollment, whereas the corresponding per cent for girls was 
11.9. (See Table 20.) 

TABLE 20 



County White Elementary School Graduates 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


3,200 


4,136 


7,336 


6.1 


8.5 


7.2 


1924 


3,360 


4,210 


7,570 


6.4 


8.7 


7.5 


1925 


3,705 


4,549 


8,254 


7.0 


9.4 


8.1 


1926 


4,054 


4,599 


8,653 


7.7 


9.4 


8.5 


1927 


*4,290 


*5,059 


*9,349 


*8.1 


*10.2 


*9.1 


1928 


*4,329 


*5,029 


*9,358 


*8.1 


*10.1 


*9.1 


1929 


*4,742 


*5,186 


*9,928 


*8.8 


*10.4 


*9.6 


1930 


*4,857 


*5,283 


*10,140 


*9.0 


*10.5 


*9.7 


1931 


*4,757 


*5,156 


*9,913 


*8.7 


*10.2 


*9.4 


1932 


*5,183 


*5,642 


*10,825 


*9.3 


*10.9 


*10.1 


1933 


*5.121 


*5,653 


*10,774 


*9.1 


*10.9 


*9.9 


1934 


*5,227 


*5,618 


*10,845 


*9.3 


*10.8 


*10.0 


1935 


*5.190 


*5,719 


*10,909 


*9.2 


*11.0 


*10.1 


1936 


*5.160 


*5.699 


*10,859 


*9.3 


*11.1 


*10.1 


1937 


*5,292 


*5,703 


*10,995 


*9.6 


*11.1 


*10.3 


1938 


*5,522 


*5,956 


*11,478 


*10.0 


*11.7 


*10.8 


1939 


*5,845 


*6,080 


*11,925 


*10.6 


*11.9 


*11.2 



* Includes seventh or eighth grade promotions in junior high schools. 



32 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 3 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES LN 1939 
COUNTY WHITE ELE.IEJTARy SCHOOL ElffiOLLMENTt 



County 

Total and 
Co .Average 

St. Mary*s 

Cecil 

Charles 

Caroline 

Garrett 

Quean Anne*s 

Frederick 

Talbot 

Anne Arundel 

Somerset 

Caroroll 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Kent 

Harford 

V/ico:aico 

Howard 

Pr. George' s 

Mont gomery* 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Allegany* 

Washington* 



Number 
Boys Girls 



Per Cent Boys 



Per Cent 

7777X Girls 



5,845 

68 
203 

88 
117 
245 

91 
434 

89 
371 
112 
255 
152 
104 

75 
230 
183 
105 
584 
488 
844 

46 
567 
391 



6,080 

56 
211 
104 



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t Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer, commitment to institution, or death, and 
includes promotions from grade 7 in counties having 6-5 plan and from grade 8 in counties 
having &-3-3 plan of organization. 

* County has 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization. 



White County Elementary School Graduates and Non- 33 
Promotions 

In 1939 nine counties had increases and two decreases compared 
with 1938 in both boys and girls graduated, while the remainder 
had increases in either boys or girls graduated. In three 
counties the proportion of white boy graduates in the elementary 
school enrollment was greater than that of girl graduates, while 
in one county it was the same. In fourteen counties the number of 
white girls graduated exceeded the number of boys graduated. 
(Compare the black bars with the cross hatched bars in Chart 3.) 

FEWER NON-PROMOTIONS THAN EVER BEFORE 

The number and per cent of non-promoted white elementary 
pupils was smaller than ever before reported. There were 11,769 
reported as non-promoted in 1939, a decrease of 766 under 1938 
and 10,252 under the number in 1923. The per cent of white 
elementary pupils reported not promoted was 11.1, the lowest 
ever reported. (See Table 21.) 



TABLE 21 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County White Elementary 

Schools 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


13,435 


8,586 


22,021 


25.6 


17 


. 5 


21 


7 


1924 


11,999 


7,193 


19,192 


22.7 


14 


.8 


18 


9 


1925 


10,673 


6,336 


17,009 


20.2 


13 





16 


8 


1926 


10,392 


6,140 


16,532 


19.7 


12 


5 


16 


3 


1927 


9,954 


6,134 


16,088 


18.7 


12 


4 


15 


6 


1928 


10,346 


6,109 


16,455 


19.4 


12 


3 


15 


9 


1929 


9,147 


5,609 


14,756 


17.1 


11 


3 


14 


3 


1930 


8,962 


5,371 


14,333 


16.6 


10 


7 


13 


7 


1931 


9,231 


5,293 


14,524 


16.8 


10 


4 


13 


7 


1932 


9,597 


5,675 


15,272 


17.2 


11 





14 


2 


1933 


10,503 


6,244 


16,747 


18.6 


12 





15 


4 


1934 


11,037 


6,809 


17,846 


19.7 


13 


1 


16 


5 


1935 


9,283 


5,447 


14,730 


16.5 


10 


5 


13 


6 


1936 


9,283 


5,507 


14,790 


16.7 


10 


7 


13 


8 


1937 


9,200 


5,390 


14,590 


16.6 


10 


5 


13 


7 


1938 


7,979 


4,556 


12,535 


14.5 


8 


9 


11. 


8 


1939 


7,571 


4,198 


11,769 


13.7 


8 


2 


11. 


1 



The number of white boys who were reported by their teachers 
as not ready for work in the grades above those in which they 
were enrolled in 1938-39 was 7,571 or 13.7 per cent of those 
enrolled in county elementary schools. Corresponding figures 
for white girls were 4,198 and 8.2 per cent. (See Table 21.) 

Non-promotions in 1939 varied among the counties for boys 
from less than 7 per cent to over 19 per cent, and for girls from 
less than 4 per cent to less than 12 per cent. The number and per 
cent of non-promotions for both boys and girls in three counties, 
for boys only in two counties, and for girls only in three counties 
increased from 1938 to 1939. (See Chart 4.) 



34 



1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 4 



NT3MBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY AND 
JUNIOR HIGH PUPILS THROUGH GRADE 8 NOT PROMOTED .* 1939 



County 

Total and 
Co. Average 

Caroline 

Montgomery 

Kent* 

Frederick* 

Queen Anne' s 

Anne Arundel 

Cecil 

Allegany* 

Talbot* 

Calvert 

Harford 

Garrett 

Carroll* 

St. Mary's 

Prince George's* 

Howard* 

V/orcester 

Washington* 

Somerset 

Dorchester* 

Wicomico* 

Baltimore 

Charles 



Number 
Boys Girls 



Per Cant Boys K77 Per Cent Girls 



7,571 
67 

332 
57 
397 
84 
359 
173 
756 
93 
56 
236 
244 
370 
64 
720 
162 
153 
852 
160 
220 
305 
1,551 
150 



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Includes non-promotions in special class (es). 



White Elementary Non-Promotions by County and Grade 35 



The number and per cent of non-promotions were lower in 1939 
than in 1938 for white boys and girls in every elementary grade, 
except grade 8 for boys. There were 20.7 per cent of the first 
grade boys reported as not promoted, 14 per cent of the second 
grade boys, and between 11 and 13 per cent of the boys in grades 
3 to 7 inclusive. Fifteen per cent of the first grade girls were not 
promoted and in other grades the per cent of girls not promoted 
varied between 6.4 and 7.4 (See Chart 5.) 

CHART 5 



Grade 



1 



NON-PROMOTIONS* 3Y GRADES IN COUim" V/HITE ELHfiEfJTARY AND 
JUNIOR IIIGH SCHOOLS TP-LROUGH GRADE 8 FOR YEAR HIDING IN 
JUNE, 1939 

Number Per Cent ___Per Cent 

Boys Girls Boys ^^Girls 

1,743 



2 1,068 

849 




823 
830 
848 
921 

232 



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510 v^mmm 

485 F^iBlil^ ™' 

472 v^^ffffmffm 
497 x^WSmim 

103 



♦Excludes non-promotions in kindergartens and special classes. 



One probable reason for the reduction is the segregation of a 
larger number of mentally handicapped children in special classes 
who formerly were included as non-promotions in the regular 
grades. Also experiments with work preliminary to that offered 
in the first grade for immature children possibly helped reduce 
first grade non-promotions. 

Since the first grade non-promotions are much higher than those 
in any other grade they have been shown separately by counties. 
For boys they range from 5.9 to 27.3 per cent of the first grade 
enrollment and for girls from 6.6 per cent to 21.1 per cent. 

One of the chief causes of non-promotion in first grade is poor 
attendance. Some of this results from the failure of parents to 
realize the importance of each day's attendance in giving children 



36 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 22 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in First Grade in Maryland County 
White Schools, June, 1939 



First Grade 
Non-Promotions 


County 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1,916 


1,107 


22.4 


15.0 


Harford 


1,748 


1,104 


20.7 


15.0 


Frederick 






Kent 


8 


8 


5.9 


6.6 


Carroll 


17 


11 


8.8 


7.7 


Calvert 


14 


13 


9.4 


9.9 


Worcester 


72 


34 


15.8 


8.4 


Baltimore 


94 


56 


14.3 


10.6 




24 


12 


17.0 


10.2 




43 


23 


17.9 


11.3 




22 


11 


21.4 


11.1 


Cecil 


12 


7 


19.0 


13.5 


Prince George's . . 


164 


98 


19.2 


14.0 


Garrett 



County 



Total Counties: 

1938 

1939 

Caroline 

Howard 

Talbot 

Anne Arundel . . 
Montgomery. . . 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Allegany 



First Grade 
Non-Promotions 



Number 



Boys Girls 



58 

124 
22 
84 
17 
30 

286 
45 
32 

191 
61 

235 
93 



50 
66 
18 
37 
8 
23 

183 
32 
14 

149 
40 

155 
56 



a mastery of the work presented, but probably the prevalence of 
contagious diseases which requires long absences from school is 
an important factor, and also the unwillingness of parents to 
have small children face bad weather conditions. Immaturity is 
also a cause of non-promotion for a small percentage of children. 
On the average 5.7 per cent more boys than girls were not pro- 
moted in the first grade. How^ever, two counties had more non- 
promotions for first grade girls than for boys, and in four counties 
the excess of non-promotions for first grade boys was as low as .7, 
1.1, 1.2 and 2.3 per cent. At the opposite extreme the excess of 
non-promotions for first grade boys was between 10 and 13 per 
cent in four counties. (See Table 22.) 

Causes of Non-Promotions in White Elementary Schools 

Teachers were asked to give the principal reasons why pupils 
w^ould not be permitted to enter the grade above that in which 
they received instruction in 1938-39. Unfortunate home condi- 
tions with or without lack of interest on the part of children or 
parents were reported as responsible for the non-promotion of 
4.5 per cent of the White elementary children. Mental in- 
capacity explained the failure of 1.6 per cent of the pupils, per- 
sonal illness accounted for the non-promotion of 1.2 per cent, and 
irregular attendance not due to sickness for 1 per cent. A com- 
parison of these figures with previous years is shown in the 
upper portion of Table 23. 

Teachers reported that unfortunate home conditions with or 
without lack of interest affected the non-promotion of as few as 
1.9 per cent of the white elementary pupils in one county and as 



First Grade Non-Promotions; Causes of Elementary Non- 37 
Promotions 



TABLE 23 



Causes for Non-Promotion of County White Elementary Pupils Not Promoted 
for Year Ending June 30, 1939, and for Preceding Ten Years 







Per Cent of Pupils Not Promoted by Cause 














a; 
« 












0) 






>> 




C 
rt 












o 

s 






'o 


CO 


t3 






s ^ 






o 






a 


03 
0) 


C 

a> 


e| 


CD'S 


<i>i; 
(J ~ 


03 


Year and 








a 


a 


o 




O o 




0) 


County 


Total Not 


All Causes 

Ml 


Unfortunat 
Condition 
Lack of Ii 


Mental Inc 


Personal 11 


Irregular A 
not Due t 
Sickness 


Transfer fr 
Another S 


*14 Years ( 
and Empl 


Late Entra 
Early Wit 


Other Caui 



BY YEAR 



1929 


14,756 


14.3 


4.3 


2.5 


1.9 


2.0 


.8 


1.1 


.4 


1.3 


1930 


14,333 


13.7 


4.5 


2.7 


1.7 


1.4 


.8 


1.0 


.3 


1.3 


1931 


14,524 


13.7 


4.8 


2.7 


1.6 


1.2 


.8 


.8 


.3 


1.5 


1932 


15,272 


14.2 


5.4 


2.6 


1.8 


1.2 


.8 


.7 


.3 


1.4 


1933 


16,747 


15.4 


5.8 


3.0 


1.5 


1.3 


.8 


.7 


.2 


2.1 


1934 


17.848 


16.5 


5.8 


3.3 


2.3 


1.5 


.9 


.6 


.2 


1.9 


1935 


14,730 


13.6 


4.7 


2.5 


1.9 


1.3 


.7 


.7 




1.7 


1936 


14,790 


13.8 


4.9 


2.3 


1.7 


1.4 


.7 


.8 


!l 


1.9 


1937 


14,590 


13.7 


5.0 


2.1 


1.8 


1.3 


.8 


.8 


.1 


1.8 


1938 


12,535 


11.8 


4.5 


1.8 


1.4 


1.0 


.7 


.6 


.3 


1.5 


1939 


11,769 


11.1 


4.5 


1.6 


1.2 


1.0 


.7 


. 5 


.2 


1.4 


BY COUNTY, 1938-39 




99 


5.2 


2.0 


.7 


.7 


.4 


.2 


,7 




.5 




499 


5.6 


1.9 


.3 


.8 


.5 


.3 


.2 


.2 


1.4 


Kent 


92 


7.1 


2.5 


.6 


1.2 


.4 


.8 


.3 


.2 


1.1 




606 


8.9 


4.7 


1.2 


1.1 


.7 


.6 


.5 


.1 






124 


9.0 


6.0 


.1 


.7 


.2 


.9 


.1 




1.6 




543 


9.1 


3.8 


1.3 


.7 


.8 


.9 


.5 


!i 


1.0 


Cecil 


274 


9.3 


4.9 


.9 


1.0 


.7 


.7 


.1 


.5 


.5 


Allegany 


1,119 


9.4 


3.1 


1.6 


.8 


1.1 


.2 


. 5 


.1 


2.0 


Talbot 


154 


9.7 


4.0 


2.8 


1.1 


.6 


.8 


.4 






Calvert 


82 


10.1 


5.6 


.1 


1.2 




.1 


1.2 


!3 


l!6 


Harford 


389 


10.2 


5.8 


.3 


1.0 


i!i 


.6 


.4 


.3 


.7 




397 


10.8 


4.4 


1.7 


1.8 


1.0 


.5 


.1 


.1 


1.2 


Carroll 


505 


10.9 


4.3 


3.3 


.8 


.7 


.6 


. 5 


.1 


.6 


St. Mary's 


91 


11.0 


4.0 


.5 


.2 


1.0 


1.7 


.5 


.8 


2.3 


Prince George's 


1,158 


12.0 


4.0 


3.8 


1.4 


.5 


1.2 


.1 


.3 


.7 


Howard 


246 


12.4 


5.5 


1.9 


1.7 


1.1 


.8 


.5 


.2 


.7 


Worcester 


238 


12.6 


5.9 


2.2 


1.5 


1.1 


.2 


1.0 


.1 


.6 


Washington 


1,377 


12.9 


-5.2 


2.2 


1.1 


1.3 


.7 


.9 


.2 


1.3 


Somerset 


251 


13.1 


6.0 


1.5 


1.9 


.7 


.6 


.7 


.3 


1.4 




343 


13.2 


5.2 


3.9 


.5 


1.4 


.4 


1.0 


.1 


.7 


Wicomico 


484 


14.6 


6.8 


2.9 


1.8 


.1 


.8 


.9 


.1 


1.2 




2,473 


15.1 


6.0 


.3 


1.7 


1.5 


1.0 


.8 


.2 


3.6 




225 


15.9 


6.5 


3.4 


1.7 


1.8 


1.1 


.6 


.2 


.6 



* 13 years, 1929-1931, inclusive. 



many as nearly 7 per cent in another county. Mental incapacity 
was reported as a cause of failure for less than one per cent of the 
white elementary pupils in nine counties and for nearly 4 per 
cent or more in two counties. Personal illness affected the non- 
promotion of less than 1 per cent of the pupils in eight counties 
and of from 1.7 to 1.9 per cent in six counties, while irregular 
attendance not due to illness was not given as a cause of failures 
in one county, but in two counties affected the non-promotion of 
• 1.5 and 1.8 per cent of the pupils. (See Table 23.) 



38 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TESTING OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPILS 

In February six counties and in April 1939 nine counties gave 
to 24,500 white elementary pupils in one or more grades from 3 
to 7 the partial battery of the National Achievement Tests.* The 
tests were paid for from the State appropriation to the Bureau of 
Measurements. 

These tests were recently devised and included some new 
approaches and methods of scoring. The intermediate battery 
•was used for grades 3 to 6 and the advanced battery in grade 7. 
More than 50 per cent of the pupils reached or exceeded the 
norm achieved by 50 per cent of the pupils with whom the test 
was standardized in reading comprehension ; in arithmetic reason- 
ing; and in English, except in grade 3 and grade 7 ; and in spelling 
and arithmetic fundamentals in grade 7. Spelling and arithmetic 
fundamentals in grades 3 to 6 and English in grade 7 showed poor 
results. There seems considerable doubt about the reliability of 
the standards set up for English in grade 7. 

Other Standard Tests Given Reported by Elementary School Supervisors 
Intelligence Tests 

Detroit Intelligence Tests — Grade 4, Washinton. 
Henmon Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Wicomico. 
Illinois Group Intelligence Test, Frederick. 
Kuhlmann Anderson Tests, Washington. 
Otis Quick Scoring Mental Ability Test, Allegany. 
Pintner Cunningham Test, Grade 1, Howard. 

Batteries of Tests 

Standard Graduation Examination, Anne Arundel, Kent. 
Stanford Achievement Test, Charles. 

Reading 

DeVault Primary Reading Test, Prince George's. 
Gates Reading Test, Paragraph Reading, Kent. 
Marion Monroe Reading Aptitude Test, Wicomico. 
Metropolitan Reading Test, Grade 2, Carroll. 
Reading Readiness Tests, Carroll. 

SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR HANDICAPPED 
CHILDREN, 1938-39t 

Physically Handicapped Children Aided by the State Program 

Special educational services were rendered to 185 physically 
handicapped children in the counties of Maryland under the 
supervision of the State Department of Education during the 
school year 1938-39. In addition, 26 crippled children in Balti- 
more City were transported to high schools at State expense. 
The total State aid of $14,353 for the 211 physically handicapped 



* Acorn Publishing Company, Rockville Center, New York. 

t Report prepared by R. C. Thompson, Supervisor of Special Education. 



Standard Tests in County Elementary Schools; Physically 39 
Handicapped Children 

cTiildren meant an average expenditure of $68.02 for the educa- 
tion of each child. The distribution of State aid by counties, 
together with the data concerning home teaching, transporta- 
tion, and instruction offered in special institutions for physically 
handicapped children is shown in Table 24. 



TABLE 24 

Program for Education of Physically Handicapped Children in Maryland 
Financed with State Funds in 1938-39 











Transportation 


Education in 








Home Teaching 


to Regular Class 


Hospital Schools 




Total 


County 
























Teach- 


Expendi- 




Expendi- 




Expendi- 




Expendi- 




Pupils 


ers 


tures 


Pupils 


tures 


Pupils 


tures 


Pupils 


tures 


Total Counties . 


69 


41 


$5,463.95 


21 


$1,427.55 


°95 


°$4,412.19 


185 


$11,303.69 


Allegany 


6 


4 


446.00 


5 


46.6.25 


13 


531.18 


24 


1,443.43 


Anne Arundel . . 


6 


6 


401.94 






*8 


402.60 


14 


804 . 54 


Baltimore 


24 


3 


2,150.20 




48!l9 


16 


653.76 


42 


a2,852.15 


Oalvert 








48.00 


1 


40.93 


2 


88.93 


Caroline 


i 


i 


186! 88 






1 


40.93 


2 


221.81 


Carroll 


1 


1 


59.50 




122! 66 


5 


204.30 


7 


385.80 


Cecil 


5 


5 


251.20 






*5 


280.02 


10 


531.22 


Charles 












1 


40.93 


1 


40.. 93 


Dorchester. . . . 


i 


'l 


76! 66 










1 


76.00 


Frederick 


1 


1 


84.94 




173! 50 


**7 


494! 36 


10 


752.74 


Garrett 


3 


3 


144.05 




50.00 


8 


326.88 


12 


520.93 


Harford 


1 


1 


114.00 




59.41 


1 


40.93 


3 


214.34 


Howard 


2 


2 


277.40 






7 


286.02 


9 


563.42 


Kent 


2 


1 


225.09 






2 


81.74 


4 


306.83 


Montgomery . . . 


4 


4 


224.50 






**4 


306.59 


8 


531.09 


Prince George's 


2 


2 


183.50 




9i!56 


*5 


231.41 


8 


506.41 


Queen Anne's. . 


1 


1 


6.25 






1 


40.93 


2 


47.18 


St. Mary's 












1 


40.93 


1 


40.93 


Somerset 


i 


1 


3o!oo 










1 


30.00 


Talbot 




















Washington .... 


2 


1 


186! 56 


'5 


297! 66 


'3 


122! 58 


i6 


b600!08 


Wicomico 


4 


1 


331.00 


2 


71.70 


5 


204.30 


11 


607.00 




2 


2 


97.00 






1 


40.93 


3 


137.93 


Baltimore City 








26 


3,045.45 




c. . . . 


26 


c3,045.45 


Entire State . . . 


69 


41 


5,463.95 


47 


4,473.00 


°95 


c°4,412.19 


2U 


cdl5,019.05 



* Each asterisk represents a child included who is at the Children's Rehabilitation In- 
stitute. 

° Includes State aid toward salaries of teachers who instructed county children undergoing 
treatment at the following hospital schools : Children's, 44 ; Kernan's, 32 ; Happy Hills. 12 ; 
total, 88 ; total reimbursement to Baltimore City, $3,596.19 ; Children's Rehabilitation Institute, 
7 ; total reimbursement through Baltimore County, $816, which has been prorated to the coun- 
ties from which the children came. 

a Excludes $732 paid in 1938-39 through Baltimore County for Children's Rehabilitation In- 
stitute and S84 paid in 1937-38 for summer instruction a+ the Institute. The entire S816 has 
been prorated among the counties in the column under "Education in Hospital Schools." 

b Excludes $31.45 received in 1938-39 but due in 1937-38 and included in Table 21 on page 
35 of the 1938 report. 

c Excludes $3,596.19 paid to Baltimore City as part payment of salaries of teachers at 
Children's Hospital School, Kernan's and Happy Hills. This is prorated among the counties in 
the column under "Education in Hospital Schools." 

d Includes $669.91 paid to two teachers at the Maryland School for the Deaf who tested 
county children for hearing defects. 



One class for crippled children in Cumberland and another in 
!Hagerstown, that had been conducted for the past several years, 
were discontinued at the close of the school year 1937-38 and the 
children returned to regular grades. The seven children in the 



40 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Children's Rehabilitation Institute at Reisterstown were disabled 
because of spastic paralysis and came from five different counties. 
The Institute is a State-aided hospital school conducted for the 
treatment and education of children suffering from cerebral 
injuries; a teacher is provided to give instruction of an academic 
nature on the same basis as the home teaching program which is 
conducted in the different counties. Toward this instruction the 
fund for State aid for handicapped children contributed $816 in 
1938-39. (See Table 24 and page 69.) 

Baltimore City was given $3,596 as part-payment of the sal- 
aries of two teachers at the Children's Hospital School, and one 
each at Kernan's and Happy Hills who gave instruction to 88 
county children hospitalized through the Crippled Children's 
Service of the State Department of Health. (See Table 24.) 

Home teaching was provided for 69 county children; special 
transportation to regular schools was given to 21 children in ten 
different counties and to 26 children in Baltimore City. There 
was a decrease of 10 in the number of physically handicapped 
children receiving help from the State program for the physically 
handicapped in 1939 under the number in 1938. (See Table 24.) 

Special Program for Hard of Hearing Children in Montgomery County 

Due to a curtailment of funds, the ear clinic that has been 
conducted by the Montgomery County Board of Education during 
the past few years cared for only 41 children in 1938-39, as 
compared with 205 in the previous year. Audiometer testing 
that had been done formerly by the school nurse was discontinued 
completely. Lip reading classes were conducted as usual, how- 
ever, with an enrollment of 40 pupils during the year. 

Audiometer Tests in Other Counties 

A survey to determine the hearing loss among white children 
in the public schools of the State was begun early in 1938 by the 
Maryland State School for the Deaf in co-operation with the 
State Department of Education. At the close of the school year 
in June, 1938, all public school pupils in grades 2, 5, and 8 in St. 
Mary's and Queen Anne's Counties and the City of Frederick 
had been tested, together with all children in the other grades in 
these schools who in the opinion of their teachers or parents were 
suspected of having a hearing loss. The program was continued 
in the same manner during 1938-39 and ten additional counties 
were covered. The plan calls for completion of work in the 
remaining counties of the State next year, after which a full 
report will be published. 

The two examiners from the Maryland State School for the 
Deaf are experienced teachers in this field and their advice as to 



County Physically and Mentally Handicapped Children 41 



seating arrangements and special training of the children with 
hearing loss has proved most helpful. Furthermore, their con- 
tacts with the regular grade teachers in the various schools which 
they visited have done much to create a more understanding 
attitude toward the handicap of loss of hearing. 

County Mentally Handicapped Children 

A total of 38 classes for mentally retarded children were con- 
ducted by ten different counties during the year 1938-39. The 
enrollment in these classes was 758. This was an increase of 8 
classes and 150 children over the figures for the preceding year. 
(See Table 25.) 

TABLE 25 



Special Classes for Retarded Children in Maryland Counties, 1938-39 





Number 




Average 


County 


of 


Enrollment 


Enrollment 




Classes 




per Class 


Total, 1937-38 


30 


608 


20.0 


1938-39 


38 


758 


19.9 


Allegany 


12 


244 


20.3 


Carroll 


2 


29 


14.5 


Dorchester 


1 


18 


18.0 


Frederick 


3 


67 


22.3 


Howard 


2 


34 


17.0 


Kent 


1 


25 


25.0 


Prince George's 


4 


82 


20.5 


Talbot 


2 


40 


20.0 




8 


153 


19.1 




*3 


66 


22.0 



Includes one class for colored children. 



Teacher Training 

Courses in Special Education for teachers of handicapped chil- 
dren and also regular grade teachers who are interested in the 
program were conducted as usual in the summer schools of the 
University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University. 

A meeting of all special class teachers and attendance workers 
from the counties west of Baltimore was held in Cumberland in 
the fall of 1938. The program consisted of five talks given by 
teachers, and an exhibit of industrial arts projects made by. 
special class pupils. More than 50 persons attended the con- 
ference. 

Clinical Study of Handicapped Children in the Counties 

Co-operation with the Services for Crippled Children of the 
State Department of Health in conducting orthopedic clinics in 
22 counties of the State was continued by the State Supervisor 



42 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



of Rehabilitation and Special Education. All orthopedic cases 
receiving special education were examined by the specialists who 
conducted the clinics and a medical report on each child was 
furnished to the County Board of Education concerned. (See 
page 68.) 

Child guidance clinics were held in 22 of the counties during 
the year by psychiatrists from public and private hospitals and 
institutions located in and around Baltimore. Local school 
officials co-operated by referring problem children for examina- 
tion and by assisting the psychiatrists in securing data for the 
study of cases that had been reported. (See also page 68.) 

Special Education for Baltimore City White Handicapped Pupils 

The chief changes from 1938 to 1939 in the Baltimore City 
program of class instruction for white handicapped children 
appeared in the organization at the former parental school of 
a day camp for boys, and due to the decrease in number of white 
pupils in Baltimore City, a reduction in the number of classes and 
centers for the mentally handicapped. (See Table 26.) 



TABLE 26 

Baltimore City Special Classes and Day Camp for White Pupils, Semester 

Ending June 30, 1939 













Promoted Once or 












Twice, or Making 






Net 






Satisfactory 




Number 


Roll 


Average 


Per Cent 


Improvement 


Kind of Class 


of 


June 30, 
1939 


Net 


of Atten- 








Classes 


Roll 


dance 








Number 


tPer Cent 



Physically Handicapped White Pupils 



Total 


39 


805 


814 


91 


6 


706 


87 


7 


Open Air 


15 


357 


360 


90 


4 


308 


86 


3 


Orthopedic 


11 


231 


237 


94 





196 


84 


9 


Sight Conservation 


4 


71 


71 


88 





66 


92 


9 


Hearing Conservation J 


3 


38 


38 


94 


4 


31 


81 


5 


Deaf J 


2 


20 


20 


95 





18 


90 







4 


88 


88 


91 


1 


87 


98 


9 


Day Camp for Boys 


1 


45 


41 


81 





45 


100 







Mentally 


Handicapped White Pupils 










Total 


161 


3,566 


3,638 


85 





3,047 


85. 


4 




109 


2,437 


2,418 


87. 





2,063 


84. 


6 


Shop Center 


49 


1,075 


1,166 


81. 





934 


86. 


9 


Special Center 


3 


54 


54 


84. 





50 


92. 


6 



t Per cent of net roll. 

* Includes junior high school pupils classified as follows : Orthopedic, 56 ; sight saving, 10 ; 
cardiac, 13 ; deaf, 2 ; and hearing conservation, 7. 

t In addition to pupils in classes for hearing conservation and for the deaf, training in 
lip reading was given to 105 pupils in regular grades. 



Baltimore City White Handicapped Children 



43 



The 39 classes for over 800 white physically handicapped 
children included open air, orthopedic, sight and hearing con- 
servation classes, and those for the deaf and junior high school 
pupils. 

Twice a week in their homes 35 white boys and 63 girls too 
handicapped to attend school and capable of benefiting were given 
an hour's instruction in the minimum essentials of the elemen- 
tary school curriculum. 

iSpecial speech training was given to 804 white pupils who 
were handicapped by stammering, lisping, lalling and cleft pal- 
ates, while 105 pupils were taug*ht lip reading. These pupils 
remained in regular classes and were given instruction approxi- 
mately one-half hour twice a week by six teachers of speech 
correction and one of lip reading who went from school to school. 

Nearly 3,600 white mentally handicapped pupils were given 
special advantages in 161 opportunity classes, shop and special 
centers. This was a decrease of 16 classes and over 300 pupils 
from the corresponding numbers for the preceding year. (See 
Table 26,) 

Day Camp School for Boys 

Experience with boys who have presented problems in conduct 
or attendance, or both during the past few years has indicated the 
need for adjustment facilities not to be found in the usual cur- 
ricula of the public schools. The Board of School Commissioners, 
upon recommendation of the Superintendent, authorized the 
establishment in September, 1938 of the Day Camp School for 
Boys on the site of the former parental school in Catonsville. By 
the close of the year 63 boys had been admitted. 



Individual or group projects in 
part of the curriculum : 

Arbor and Floral Baking 
culture Cooking 
Chicken raising Food preserving 



the following activities were a 



Bricklaying Purchasing 
Construction Record keeping 

Painting 



Gardening Stonemasonry Radio receiving 

General science Games 
Soil conservation 

The Psycho-Educational Clinic 

General cases of educational maladjustment, not essentially be- 
havior, attendance, or social problems, and not in need of the 
guidance of aptitude tests, are referred to the Psycho-Educational 
Clinic of the Division of Special Education for individual study 
to aid the school principal in determining upon a more suitable 
educational program. The principal supplies the child's school 
history, and the school doctor makes the necessary physical 
examination. The study of each child begins with an individual 



44 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Binet Intelligence test and in a few cases tests of subject matter 
achievement. Individual performance tests are administered 
when speech defect, severe hearing defect, or foreign language 
handicap are involved. On the basis of all the information that 
can be obtained about the child a diagnosis is made and an educa- 
tional recommendation. These are based upon a consideration of 
three focal points : 

1. The grade of school work the child should be doing according to his 
chronological age. 

2. The grade of school work he is capable of doing according to his 
mental age. 

3. The grade of work he has actually achieved according to standard- 
ized test results. 

The data obtained on these three items are studied in relation 
to one another and in the light of the child's physical condition 
before any recommendation is made. 

Individual tests of intelligence are given by the Psycho-Educa- 
tional Clinic for the Child Guidance Clinic, Division of Aptitude 
Testing and Attendance Department. 

CERTIFICATION OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS 

Because of the enactment by the 1939 legislature of a new State 
minimum salary schedule for white teachers which sets up a 
single salary schedule based on preparation and experience to 
replace the former schedule based on experience which was 
differentiated for high and elementary teachers, it was necessary 
to secure data on whether each elementary teacher and principal 
did or did not possess a degree. 

Of the 2,714 members of the white elementary school staffs, 
there were 241 holding elementary principals' certificates and 243 
holding the Bachelor of Science Certificate in Elementary Educa- 
tion, the latter figure an increase of 70 over the preceding year. 
According to the certification records in the State department 
ofRce only 29 of the elementary school principals had degrees. 
The number of teachers holding advanced first grade certificates 
increased by 97, from 843 in October, 1937 to 940 in October, 1938. 
The number holding first grade certificates dropped by 173, 
corresponding almost exactly to the increase in the number 
holding advanced first and Bachelor of Science Degree certificates. 
There was a decrease from 37 to 28 in the number of elementary 
teachers holding second and third grade certificates. (See Table 
XI, page 324.) 

Of the white elementary teachers and principals, 97 per cent 
had certificates of first grade or higher, 1 per cent held second and 
third grade certificates, while 2 per cent were substitutes. (See 
right side of Table XI, page 324.) 



Baltimore Child Guidance Clinic; Certification and Summer 45 
School Attendance of County White Elementary Teachers 



The counties varied in the per cent of the white elementary 
school staff having Bachelor of Science certificates from to 17. 
The variation in per cent of teachers having first grade or higher 
certificates from 87 to 100. (See Table XI, page 324.) 

In the one-teacher schools 95.5 per cent of the teachers, and in 
the two-teacher schools 96.7 per cent held first grade or higher 
certificates. (See Table XII, page 325.) 

SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF COUNTY WHITE 
ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

Summer school attendance of county white elementary school 
teachers and principals which declined from 1933 to 1937, in part 
because of the cuts in teachers' salaries, increased to 937 or 34.5 
per cent of the staif in 1938. (See Table 28.) 

In per cent of county white elementary teachers who attended 
summer school in 1938 the range was from fewer than 19 per cent 
in two counties to over 41 per cent in six counties. (See Table 27.) 

TABLE 27 

County White Elementary® School Teachers in Service in October, 1938, 
Reported by County Superintendents and/or Colleges as Summer 
School Attendants in 1938 



County 



Total and Average 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Montgomery 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's 

Cecil 

Prince George's . . . 

Charles 

Kent 

Washington 

Howard 

Dorchester 

Carroll 

Garrett 

Harford 

Baltimore 

St. Mary's 

Talbot 

Worcester 

Caroline 



Teachers Employed 
October, 1938, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1938 



Number Per Cent 



a937 

13 
27 
44 
90 
75 
t65 
99 
15 
31 

13 
13 
87 
t*18 
t*25 
37 
33 
35 
96 
*7 
*11 
10 



34.5 



56 
51 
49 
45 
41 
41 
38 

37.5 
34.5 
33.9 
33.3 
33.3 
32.7 
32.2 
31.7 
29.6 
28.9 
28.9 
27.1 
23.3 
22.9 
18.5 
13.6 



Summer Schools Attended 



Total 

University of Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University 

Western Maryland College 

University of Delaware 

Columbia University 

Duke University 

Shepherd State Teachers College. . . . 

University of Virginia 

Pennsylvania State College 

Madison College 

George Washington University 

Shippensburg State Teachers College 

Temple University 

University of Wisconsin 

William and Mary College 

University of West Virginia 

New York University 

Pittsburgh University 

Elizabethtown 

University of Pennsylvania 

George Peabody College 

All others 



Number 
of 
White 
Ele- 
mentary 
School 
Teachers 



bcde946 

b496i^ 
cl78 
101 
35 
d30 
23 
11 



4 
4 
4 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
e3 
2 

cl8i 



* Each asterisk represents one supervisor excluded, 
t Each dagger represents one attendance officpr excluded, 
a Excludes 6 supervisors and 3 attendance officers. 
° Teachers in junior high schools are included in the 
high school table on page 128. 



b Includes 3 supervisors and 2 at- 
tendance officers, 
c Includes one supervisor, 
d Includes two supervisors, 
e Includes one attendance officer. 



46 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 28 

County White Elementary* School Teachers Who Were Summer School 

Attendants 



Summer 



Number 



Per Cent 



Summer 



Number 



Per Cent 



1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 



826 
866 
913 
963 
596 



27.4 
28.9 
30.6 
34.6 
21.6 



1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 



806 


29.4 


655 


23.9 


661 


24.0 


608 


22.2 


937 


34.5 



* ExcliiHps teachers in junior high schools. 



The largest number of county white elementary school teachers 
and supervisors — 497 — attended the University of Maryland, 
while there were 178 attendants at Johns Hopkins University 
and 101 at Western Maryland College during the summer of 1938. 
(See right side of Table 27.) 

RESIGNATIONS OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

The number of white elementary teachers who withdrew from 
service in the county schools between October 1937 and 1938 was 

TABLE 29 

Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who Withdrew from the Mary- 
land County White Elementary Schools* Between October of 
One Year and October of the Following Year 



Cause of Resignation 



Oct. 

TO 

Oct. 


Marriage 


Retirement 


Inefficiency j 


Work Other Than 
Teaching 


Teaching in Baltimore 
City, in State Teachers 
College, or Acting as 
Supervisor or Attendance 
Officer 


Illness 


Moved Away 


Death 


Teaching in Another 
State or in Private 
School 


Provisional Certificate 
or Failure to Attend 
Summer School 


1 Position Abolished 


Rejected by Medical 
Board 


1 Other and Unknown 


Total 


1 Leave of Absence 


Transfer to Another 
County 


Transfer to Other Type 
of School Within County 


1927-28 


148 


14 


31 


43 


30 


24 


10 


10 


25 


37 






27 


399 


44 


53 


3 


1928-29 


164 


27 


27 


35 


23 


14 


8 


8 


48 


12 






18 


384 


31 


46 


9 


1929-30 


136 


27 


23 


36 


9 


15 


8 


7 


34 


15 






20 


330 


23 


47 


12 


1930-31 


122 


19 


37 


10 


11 


9 


14 


6 


15 


12 






21 


276 


22 


19 


34 


1931-32 


83 


24 


23 


2 


1 


9 


9 


7 


2 


9 


5 




24 


201 


15 


10 


6 


1932-33 


81 


28 


12 


3 




4 


1 


7 


2 


1 


7 




12 


158 


11 


3 


16 


1933-34 


93 


26 


6 


12 


3 


7 


3 


3 


5 


2 


3 




5 


168 


13 


7 


8 


1934-35 


71 


24 


9 


12 


3 


6 


1 


2 


5 


2 


1 




7 


143 


20 


10 


7 


1935-36 


89 


14 


11 


10 


8 


7 


6 


4 


3 


1 






4 


157 


23 


10 


8 


1936-37 


95 


22 


9 


6 


5 


5 


10 


3 


7 


4 


i 




9 


176 


15 


43 


9 


1937-38 


77 


15 


8 


12 


6 


5 


2 


10 


10 


15 


4 




12 


176 


26 


18 


7 



* Teachers withdrawing from grade 7 or grades 7 and 8 in junior or junior-senior high 
schools are excluded from this table. They are included in Table 84, page 130. 



Resignations and Turnover of White Elementary Teachers 47 

176, the same number as for the preceding year. Marriage was 
given as the reason for the withdrawal of 77 teachers. Fifteen 
county white elementary teachers were retired and 15 were 
dropped for provisional certificates and failure to attend summer 
school, while 12 went into work other than teaching. Ten teachers 
died and 10 left to teach in another state or in private schools. 
In addition to the above resignations, 26 teachers were given leave 
of absence. (See Table 29.) 

TABLE 30 



Number and Per Cent of W^hite Elementary School Teachers* New to the 
Elementary Schools of Each Individual County During the School Year 
1938-39, With Comparisons for Preceding Years 



Year 

AND 

County 


New to 
County 


Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 

October 
to 

October 


Number New to County Elementary 
Schools* Who Were 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Inex- 
peri- 
enced 


In 

County, 
but Not 
Teaching 
Year 
Before 


But 
New 

to 
State 


enced 

From 
An- 
other 
County 


From 
Secon- 
dary 
Schools 


Substi- 
tutes 


*County Total and 




















Average: 




















1930-31 


°343 


11.8 


—24 


238 


56 


29 


44 


5 


15 


1931-32 


°275 


9^5 


— 61 


210 


32 


17 


19 


5 


11 


1932-33 


°149 


5.3 


—81 


102 


29 


2 


10 


6 


10 


1933-34 




D . £. 


— 29 


lit; 






Q 
O 


5 


12 


1934-35 


°195 


7.0 


—13 


155 


21 


10 


7 


3 


6 


1935-36 


°166 


6.0 


— 7 


115 


33 


7 


10 


3 


8 


1936-37 


°204 


7.4 


+ 14 


141 


35 


19 


10 


3 


6 


1937-38 


°207 


7.5 


—18 


82 


52 


40 


40 


4 


29 


1938-39 


°202 


7.4 


—20 


107 


41 


22 


18 


7 


25 


Somerset 


1 


1.9 


—4 




1 










Frederick 


4 


2.2 


—9 


3 








i 




Queen Anne's 


1 


2.5 




1 












Cecil 


3 


3.3 


+2 


2 


i 










Wicomico 


3 


3.4 






3 










Dorchester 


3 


3.8 




i 


2 










Allegany 


10 


3.9 




5 










i 


Washington 


11 


4.1 


—14 


9 










1 


Talbot 


2 


4.2 




1 


i 










Howard 


3 


5.4 




1 






i 




i 


Worcester 


3 


5.6 




1 






2 






Carroll 


8 


6.4 




5 


3 










Caroline 


3 


6.8 


—4 


1 


1 






i 




Harford 


9 


7.3 


—1 


5 


3 








i 


Kent 


3 


7.3 






3 












3 


7.7 




2 










"i 


Montgomery 


18 


9.0 


+ 2 


8 


i 




i 




3 


St. Mary's 


3 


10.0 


—2 


1 






2 








12 


10.3 


—4 


6 


2 




1 


i 


i 


Baltimore 


39 


10.8 


—2 


32 


3 




1 




3 


Anne Arundel 


19 


11.9 


+ 5 


7 


5 




1 


i 


2 


Calvert 


3 


13.0 


+ 2 


2 


1 










Prince George's. . . . 


56 


21.2 


+ 20 


14 


11 


12 


5 


3 


li 


Baltimore City 


85 


5.5 


—49 


62 


9 


10 


4 






Elem. and Occup. 


75 


5.1 


—54 


55 


9 


7 


4 






Vocational 


10 


12.0 


+ 5 


7 




3 








Total State 


283 


6.6 


—69 


169 


50 


32 


22 


7 


25 



* Teachers in grade 7 and grades 7 and 8 of junior or junior-senior high schools are ex- 
cluded from this table. They are included in Table 85, page 131. 

° Excludes teachers who transferred from one county to another. 



48 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TURNOVER OF WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

There were 202 white elementary teachers new to the county 
staffs in 1938-39. They represented 7.4 per cent of the staff. 
For the past three years the turnover for county w^hite elementary 
teachers has been practically the same. Inexperienced teachers 
made up 107 of the new group of teachers, 41 were teachers for- 
merly in service in the counties but not in service the preceding 
year, 22 were experienced teachers from other states, 7 were from 
secondary schools, and 25 were substitutes. Because of consolida- 
tion of schools and smaller enrollments there were 20 fewer posi- 
tions in 1938-39 than there were in 1937-38. (See upper part of 
Table 30.) 

Among the counties turnover ranged from one teacher in two 
counties to 56 in the county with the largest turnover. In the 
latter county there were 20 additional elementary school teaching 
positions. The turnover varied from 2 to 21 per cent. (See lower 
part of Table 30.) 

In Baltimore City 75 white teachers new to the elementary 
school staffs represented 5.1 per cent of the number of teaching 
positions in the elementary schools. Of these 55 were inexperi- 
enced new appointees. There were 54 fewer positions in the white 
elementary schools in 1938-39 than there were the preceding year. 
Turnover in the vocational schools was 10, representing 12 per 
cent of the staff. Five of the positions were new in 1938-39. 
(See lower part of Table 30.) 

In Table 31 a comparison of white elementary and occupational 
class teachers in Baltimore City over a period of years shows that 
the turnover in 1938-39 was next to the lowest during an eleven 

TABLE 31 

Turnover of White Elementary and Occupational Teachers in Baltimore City 



Year 



Total 
Number 
New to 
Baltimore 
City White 
Elementary 
and Occu- 
pational 
Schools 



Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 



Teachers New to Baltimore City Schools 



Inex- 
per- 
ienced 



Who Were Experienced 



From 
other 
States 



But Not 

in 
Service 
Preced- 
ing 
Year 



In 
County 
Preced- 
ing 
Year 



In other 
Type of 

Baltimore 
City 
School 



Other 



1929- 30. 

1930- 31 . 

1931- 32. 

1932- 33. 

1933- 34. 

1934- 35. 

1935- 36. 

1936- 37. 

1937- 38. 

1938- 39. 



160 
185 
115 
67 
84 
155 
116 
127 
126 
75 



+ 12 
+ 44 
—69 
—221 
—6 
+ 43 
+ 16 
—30 
—35 
—49 



138 
160 
69 
12 
60 
132 
100 
115 
94 
55 



Turnover; Men Teachers; Pupils per White Elementary 49 

Teacher 

year period. The number of elementary school positions has 
decreased each year during the past three years, undoubtedly 
due to the declining enrollment in the white elementary schools 
in the City. (See Table 31.) 

MORE MEN TEACHERS IN COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 283 white men teaching in the first seven (eight) 
grades of the county elementary schools, an increase of 22 over the 
preceding year, continuing the trend evident since 1929-30 for the 
number and proportion of men to increase. The men included 9.6 
per cent of the staff in these grades in 1938-39. In the last 16 
years, only in 1922-23 was there a larger number of men employed 
in county white elementary schools than in 1938-39. (See Table 
X, page 323.) 

The number of men employed in elementary school grades 
varied from none in 9 counties to 46 and 69 in the counties 
employing the largest numbers. (See Table X, page 323.) 

NUMBER OF PUPILS PER WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHER 

INCREASES 

The average number of pupils belonging per county white 
elementary principal and teacher which increased gradually from 
1924 to 1933, and decreased slightly from 1933 to 1938, showed 
an increase from 1938 to 1939. The average per teacher — 35.6 
pupils in 1939 — was higher than the number for any year from 
1923 to 1932 and than the number in 1937 and 1938. The maxi- 
mum figures in 1933 to 1936 occurred during the years when 
budgets were cut to the minimum and counties did not appoint 
the total number of teachers which their enrollments justified. 
(See Table 32.) 

TABLE 32 

Average Number of Pupils Belonging per County White Elementary 
Principal and Teacher 



Average Number 



Belonging 

Year per Teacher 

1923 31.7 

1924 31.5 

1925 32.1 

1926 32.0 

1927 32.3 

1928 32.8 

1929 32.9 

1930 33.6 

1931 34.0 



Average Number 



Belonging 

Year per Teacher 

1932 34.9 

1933 36.2 

1934 36.1 

1935 36.1 

1936 35.8 

1937 35.4 

1938 35.2 

1939 35.6 



The range for 1939 among the counties was from 27.2 to 41.6 
white elementary pupils per teacher and principal. Fourteen 
counties showed an increase in pupils per teacher, seven counties 
had a decrease and two showed no change. Baltimore City showed 



50 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



a slight decrease for elementary schools bringing the average 
to 32.5 pupils per teacher, principal and vice-principal. (See 
Chart 6.) 



CHART 6 



AVERAGE iNlUMBER OF PUPILS BELONGING PER TEACHER AND PRINCIPAL 
IN miTE ELH^MTARY SCHOOLS 



COUNTY 
Co. Average 

Bal timore 

Anne Arundel 

Caroline 

Frederick 

Pr. George's 

Washington 

Wico.'Qico 

Somerset 

Charles 

Carroll 

Queen Anne ' s 

Allegany 

Calvert 

Howard 

Worcester 

Dorchester 

Cecil 

Montgomery 

Talbot 

Kent 

Garrett 

Harford 

St. Mary's 




41.7 
38.4 
36.3 
35.4 
38.1 
34.7 
35.6 
32.8 
35.8 
35.2 
34.3 
35.3 
36.1 
33.7 
35.3 
32.9 
32.9 
31.2 
32.4 
31.0 
32.3 
30.9 
26.3 



State 



41.7 
38.1 
37.4 
35.7 
36.6 
34.4 
35.6 
34.4 
34.6 
35.5 
34.9 
34.4 
34.7 
33.4 
35.3 
33.4 
33.5 
31.6 
31.0 
31.3 
31.2 
31.3 
26.1 




Balto. City 33.1 32.8 



34.5 34.4 




t Excludes 26 for junior high and 20.8 pupils for vocational schools. 

There were 16 counties in v^hich the average number of pupils 
belonging per teacher and principal was higher than it was in 
Baltimore City in 1938—32.5. This is explained by the larger 



Average Number of Pupils Belonging per Teacher 



51 



number of non-teaching principals and vice-principals and by 
the more extensive program for physically and mentally handi- 
capped children in Baltimore City than is possible in the counties. 
On the other hand there are still a number of small one- and two- 
teacher schools which reduce the average in some of the counties. 
(See Chart 6 and Table 33.) 

The average size of 260 one-teacher schools was 23.7 white 
pupils, a decrease of 29 schools and .2 of a pupil from the figures 
for the preceding year. The range among the counties in white 
pupils per teacher in one-teacher schools was from 14.8 to 26.7. 
(See Table 33.) 

For the 273 white teachers in schools with a two-teacher organi- 
zation the average number of pupils per teacher was 30.6, an 
increase of 4 teachers and a decrease of .1 of a pupil since 1938. 
The variation in average number of pupils per teacher in two- 
teacher schools was from 22.6 to 37.9 in the individual counties. 
(See Table 33.) 

TABLE 33 

Number of Teachers and Average Size of Class in County White Elementary 
One-Teacher, Two-Teacher, and Graded Schools for Year Ending 
July 31, 1939 



County 



Number 
of 

Teachers 



Schools Having 
One Teacher 



Average 
Number 

Be- 
longing 

Per 
Teacher 



County 



Schools Having 
Two Teachers 



Number 
of 

Teachers 



Average 
Number 

Be- 
longing 

Per 
Teacher 



County 



Schools Having 
Three or More 
Teachers 



Number 
of 

Teachers 



Average 
Number 

Be- 
longing- 

Per 
Teacher 



Average .... 

Pr. George's 
Allegany. . . 

Cecil 

Charles. . . . 
Garrett. . . . 
Queen Anne's 
Washington . 
Anne Arundel 

Howard 

Harford 

Dorchester . . 
Frederick .... 
Somerset .... 
Montgomery 
Wicomico . . . 
St. Mary's . . . 
Worcester. . . 

Kent 

Carroll 

Talbot 

Calvert 



260 

9 
20 
23 
2 
50 
5 
29 
1 
14 
21 
22 
7 
5 
8 
6 
9 
1 
7 
11 



23.7 

26.7 
25.8 
25.7 
25.6 
24.8 



24.5 
24.2 
23.6 
23.6 
23.6 
23.1 
23.0 
22.9 
22.9 
22.5 
22.1 
21.3 
20.0 
18.6 
18.0 
14.8 



Average 

Baltimore. . . 

Garrett 

Talbot 

Allegany .... 

Howard 

Washington . 
Frederick . . . 

Kent 

Calvert 

Cecil 

Dorchester . . 
Montgomery 
Pr. George's. 

Carroll 

St. Mary's. . . 

Caroline 

Worcester. . . 
Queen Anne's 
Somerset . . . . j 
Anne Arundel; 
Wicomico . . . 

Harford 

Charles 



273 

18 
20 

4 
18 

7 
28 
22 
12 

4 
12 

6 
12 
18 
10 
16 

4 

8 

6 



30.6 

37.9 
37.7 
35.3 
35.3 
32.9 
32.5 
31.3 
31.0 
30.6 
29.5 
29.2 
29.0 
28.9 
28.8 
28.7 
28.3 
28.3 
27.4 
26.8 
26.0 
24.5 
24.0 
22.6 



Average . . . 

Baltimore . 
Frederick . 
Somerset. . 
Caroline . . 
Anne Arundel 
Howard. . . . 
Wicomico . . 
Washington 
Queen Anne's 
Pr. George's 
Charles. . . . 

Carroll 

Dorchester . 

Kent I 

Garrett ! 

Calvert 

Cecil I 

Talbot I 

Harford | 

Worcester ... I 
Allegany. . . . : 
St. Mary's. . .1 
Montgomery 



2,413 

366 

151 
40 
46 

149 
36 
75 

236 
29 

234 
33 

110 
51 
21 
46 
18 
55 
35 
78 
46 

302 
5 

251 



37.5 



41.8 
39.3 



38 
38 
37 

37.7 
37.4 
37.2 
37.0 
36.8 
36.3 
36.1 
36.0 
35.7 
35.7 
35.3 
34.9 
34.5 
32.9 



52 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



For the 2,413 white teachers in schools having three or more 
teachers the average number of pupils per teacher and principal 
was 37.5, an increase of .5 of one pupil over 1937-38. The number 
of teachers in graded schools increased by six. The smallest 
average number of white pupils per teacher in graded schools 
was 32.9 and the largest 41.8. (See Table 33.) 

It will be noted that the one-teacher schools were smallest in 
size, 23.7 pupils, the two-teacher schools next with an average of 
30.6 pupils per teacher, and the graded schools largest with 37.5 
pupils per teacher. (See Table 33.) 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER INCREASES 
CHART 7 

Average Salary per County White Elementary Principal and Teacher, 

1923 to 1939 



$1,500 



$1,200 



$ 900 



$ 600 



$ 300 




1925 1927 1929 1931 1953 1935 195? 1939 



Average Salary per White Elementary School Teacher 53 



TABLE 34 

Average Annual Salary Per County White Elementary School Teacher and 

Principal, 1923-1939 





Average 




Average 












White 




White 


Year Ending June 30 


Elementary 


Year Ending June 30 


Elementary 


School 


School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1923 


$990 
1,030 
1,057 
1,103 
1,126 
1,155 
1,184 
1,199 
1,217 


1932 


$1,230 
1,231 
1,122 
1,135 
1,202 
1,220 
1,295 
1,314 


1924 


1933 


1925 


1934 


1926 


1935 


1927 


1936 


. 1928 


1937 


1929 


1938 


1930 


1939 


1931 





The average salary per county white elementary teacher and 
principal showed increases each year from 1923 to 1933, due to the 
additional years given to preparation and further training which 
entitled the staff to higher certificates, and to the greater number 
of years teachers stayed in the service. The average salary 
was $1,231 in 1932-33. In consequence of the salary cuts which 
went into effect in most of the counties in September, 1933, the 
average salary dropped in 1934, since which time with restoration 
of cuts in whole or in part there has been a gradual increase to 
$1,314 in 1938-39. (See Table 34 and Chart 7.) 

During 1938-39 the average salary per teacher and principal 
varied in individual counties from $1,098 to $1,552. Six counties 
had average salaries in excess of $1,300 while two had salaries 
below $1,150. Sixteen counties showed an increase in average 
salary from 1938 to 1939 while seven counties showed decreases. 
(See Chart 8.) 

The 1939 average salary was higher than the average salary 
in 1933, prior to the salary cuts, except in two counties. (See 
Chart 8.) 

The average salary per white elementary teacher and principal 
in Baltimore City, $1,836, was 40 per cent higher than the average 
salary in the counties, and 18 per cent higher than the average 
paid in Baltimore County which had the highest average salary 
paid in any county in the State. (See Chart 8.) 

The provisions of the new minimum State salary schedules 
enacted by the 1939 legislature are described on page 8. 



54 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 8 



AVERAGE SALARY PER PRINCIPAL ANC TEACHER IN WHITE ELfMETJTARY SCliOOLS 



County 
Co. Average 



1933 1937 
$1?31 $1220 




Balto. City 1701 1743 1789 
State 1435 1403 1471 



tExcludes $1,994 for junior high and $1,984 for vocational teachers. 



COST PER WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPIL 

The average current cost, excluding general control and fixed 
charges, per county white elementary pupil increased gradually 
from 1923 to 1931, then decreased until 1934, since which year 
it has increased. The per pupil cost since 1936 has included 
estimated expenditures by the county health offices for services 
to public school children. The cost per pupil in 1939, $54.95, was 
nine cents more than for 1938. (See Table 35.) 



Average Salary per Teacher; Cost per White Elementary Pupil 55 



TABLE 35 



Average Current Expense CoSt, Excluding General Control and Fixed 
Charges, Per County White Elementary Pupil, 1923 to 1939 





Average Cost 




Average Cost 


Year 


per Pupil 


Year 


per Pupil 




Belonging 




Belonging 


1923 


$39.84 
43.06 
43.67 
46.02 
47.26 
47.81 
49.49 
49.78 
50.17 


1932 


$49.27 
46.95 
44.36 
45.16 
*48.90 
*51.24 
*54.86 
*54.95 


1924 


1933 


1925 


1934 


1926 


1935 


1927 


1936 


1928 


1937 


1929 


1938 


1930 


1939 


1931 





* Part of this amount is due to inclusion of estimated expenditures on public white elemen- 
tary school children by county health offices from State and county funds. These figures were 
first included in 1936. 



The cost per per white elementary pupil in individual counties 
in 1939 ranged between $48 and $76, two counties spending less 
than $50 per pupil and six counties spending more than $60 per 
pupil. Fifteen counties therefore spent between $50 and $59 per 
White pupil belonging in elementary schools. (See Chart 9.) 



TABLE 36 

Cost Per Pupil Belonging in White One-Teacher, Two-Teacher, and Graded 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1939, Exclusive of Expenditures for 
General Control, Supervision, and Fixed Charges 



One-Teacher 




Two-Teacher 


Schools 




Schools 






County 








Cost 






Cost 


No. 


Per 




No. 


Per 




Pupil 






Pupil 






County Average 






287 


$63.33 


1938 


135 


$56.83 


260 


63.43 


1939 


137 


57.69 


1 


135.67 


Montgomery .... 


6 


82.13 


1 


93.29 




4 


74.00 


8 


87.80 




4 


73.96 


9 


77.39 


Kent 


6 


73.41 


7 


72.08 


Calvert 


2 


71.24 


9 


69.99 


St. Mary's 


8 


69.37 


22 


68.21 


Dorchester 


3 


66.78 


11 


67.30 


Anne Arundel. . . 


3 


63.83 


5 


64.42 


Queen Anne's. . . 


3 


63.58 


50 


64.16 


Carroll 


5 


62.25 


1 


63.17 


Somerset 


4 


60.52 


23 


62.26 


Caroline 


2 


60.26 


7 


61.15 


Charles 


2 


59.41 


5 


60.08 


Cecil 


6 


58.61 


6 


59.53 


Harford 


11 


58.16 


29 


59.08 


Talbot 


2 


56.36 


20 


58.44 


Prince George's . 


9 


56.16 


14 


57.07 


Frederick 


11 


55.52 


9 


56.30 


Baltimore 


9 


50.79 


21 


56.22 


Washington .... 


14 


49.02 


2 


50.52 




10 


46.30 








9 


46.19 






Howard 


4 


41.93 



County 



County 



1938 

1939 

Anne Arundel 

Calvert 

Montgomery 

Talbot 

Kent 

St. Mary's . . . 
Dorchester. . 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's 

Garrett 

Worcester. . . 

Cecil 

Frederick 

Somerset .... 
Wicomico. . . 
Washington . . 
Allegany .... 

Howard 

Prince George's 
Harford . . 
Charles. . 



County Average 



1938 


332 


1939 


327 


St. Mary's 


1 


Montgomery .... 


25 


Calvert 


4 


Charles 


6 


Queen Anne's. . . 


7 


Allegany 


32 


Talbot 


5 


Garrett 


8 


Kent 


4 


Worcester 


9 


Anne Arundel . . . 


22 


Howard 


6 


Carroll 


14 


Cecil 


7 


Baltimore 


43 


Harford 


12 


Frederick 


23 


Wicomico 


13 


Dorchester 


9 




6 




8 




29 


Prince George's. 


34 



56 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 9 



County 
Co. Average 



COST PLR PUPIL BELONGING IN WHITE ELHAHnITARY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPHJSES EXCLUDING GH'JERAL CONTROL 

1937 1938 1939 
$ 51 $ 55 



St. Mary's 
Calvert 
Montgomery 
Kent 
Charles 
Queen Anne' s 
Talbot 
Garrett 
Worcester 
Cecil 
Allegany 
Dorchester 
Carroll 
Anne Arundel 
Howard 
Harford 
Baltimore 
Wicoml CO 
Somerset 
Frederick 
Caroline 
Washington 
Prince George's 

Baltimore City 67 69 

State 57 60 




t Excludes $97 per junior high and $139 per vocational school white pupil. 

The 1939 current expense cost, exclusive of general control, 
supervision, and fixed charges per county white elementary 
pupil belonging averaged over $63 in one-teacher, nearly $58 in 
tv^o-teacher, and nearly $53 in graded schools. In one-teacher 
schools the average cost per pupil in individual counties ranged 
from $51 to $136, in tv^o-teacher schools from $42 to $82, and in 
graded schools from $46 to $83. (See Table 36.) 



Cost per White Elementary Pupil 



57 



Cost Per Baltimore City Pupil 

The expenditure per white elementary school pupil belonging 
in Baltimore City, $72.53, was exceeded in only one county. The 
cost per pupil for salaries of teachers and for operation of build- 
ings was higher in Baltimore City than in any county. (See Chart 
9 and Table 37.) 

Analysis of Cost Per White Elementary Pupil 
TABLE 37 



Cost Per Pupil in White Elementary Schools, Grades 1-7(8), for the Main 
Subdivisions of Expenditures, Exclusive of General Control, for the 
Year Ending July 31, 1939 











Textbooks 










Total 






Super- 




and Other 


Opera- 


Main- 


Auxiliary 


Current 


Caoital 


r^ATTMTV 
V/V/U 1 I 


vision 




Costs of 




tenance 




Ex- 


Outlay 










Instruction 








penses 


County Average 
























1938 


$1.32 


$36.83 


$1.84 


$4.18 


$1.96 


$8.73 


$54.86 


$7.84 


1939 


1 


.31 


36.92 


1.78 


4.23 


1 


.68 


9.03 


54 


95 


13.98 


Allegany 




.83 


38.81 


2.42 


5.24 


1 


54 


7.04 


55 


88 


31.11 


Anne Arundel 


1 


09 


35.01 


1.42 


4.35 


1 


38 


11.36 


54 


61 


3.49 


Baltimore 


1 


19 


37.44 


1.22 


4.29 


1.33 


7.35 


52 


82 


4.44 


Calvert 


3 


43 


33.71 


1.72 


4.72 


1 


09 


26.12 


70 


79 


2.45 


Caroline 


1 


59 


31.15 


1.37 


2.69 




74 


12.79 


50 


33 


40.67 


Carroll 


1 


09 


34.25 


2.16 


2.97 


1 


50 


13.09 


55 


06 


.41 


Cecil 


1 


14 


39.65 


2.64 


3.22 


1 


49 


8.02 


56 


16 


50.25 


Charles 


1 


95 


31.12 


2.08 


4.80 


3 


15 


19.92 


63 


02 


.19 


Dorchester 


1 


11 


35.93 


1.29 


3.25 


1 


74 


11.81 


55 


13 


1.31 


Frederick 


1 


25 


34.65 


1.80 


3.44 




34 


10.29 


51 


77 


.34 


Garrett 


1 


43 


36.48 


1.80 


2.69 


1 


51 


13 . 53 


57 


44 


19.08 


Harford 


1 


71 


38.11 


1.49 


3.53 


1 


79 


6.96 


53 


59 


14.79 


Howard 


1 


46 


34.05 


1.76 


3.93 


1 


31 


11.15 


53 


66 


30.06 


Kent 


2 


48 


37.30 


1.52 


6.79 


1 


69 


14.49 


64 


27 


.23 




1 


43 


47.63 


2.12 


7.33 


2 


23 


8.85 


69 


59 


16.20 


Prince George's. . . 


1 


14 


33.10 


2.15 


3.80 


3 


96 


3.53 


47.68 


28.71 




2 


04 


34.94 


1.77 


3.74 


1 


78 


17.21 


61 


48 


1.19 


St. Mary's 


3 


34 


43.45 


1.34 


2.24 


1 


61 


23.72 


75.70 






1 


32 


32.49 


1.68 


3.60 


1 


06 


11.74 


51 


89 


".6i 


Talbot 


1 


99 


36.04 


1.27 


4.64 


1 


18 


13.96 


59.08 


.10 




1 


33 


36.68 


1.63 


3.17 


1 


20 


4.48 


48.49 


6.79 


Wicomico 


1 


36 


32.47 


1.82 


4.62 


1 


81 


10.64 


52 


72 


28.41 


Worcester 


1 


57 


33.37 


.81 


4.44 


2 


01 


15.01 


57 


21 


4.80 


Baltimore City: 


























1 


71 


56.51 


1.95 


7.70 


2 


63 


2.03 


72 


53 


.03 


Junior High. . . . 


1 


91 


76.78 


3.56 


9.84 


3 


15 


1.27 


96.51 


.93 




1 


89 


95.48 


10.25 


19.36 


10 


14 


2.07 


139 


19 


.39 


Total State (Elem.) 


$1 


44 


$43.42 


$1.84 


$5.38 


$2.00 


$6.71 


$60.79 


$9.35 



* Includes estimated expenditures by State Department of Health on services to school 
children. 

For expenditures see Table XXIII, page 336. 



The average current cost per county white elementary pupil 
included $36.92 for salaries, $9.03 for auxiliary agencies (trans- 
portation, health, and libraries), $4.23 for operation, $1.78 for 
books, materials and costs of instruction other than salaries. 



58 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

$1.68 for maintenance (repairs and replacements), and $1.31 for 
supervision. Salaries , operation, and auxiliary agencies showed 
increases in cost over the preceding year, while books and costs 
of instruction other than salaries, and maintenance showed 
decreases. 

Salary costs per county white elementary pupil ranged from 
$31 to $48. There were two counties with salary costs per pupil 
of $31. One of these had classes which ranked third from the 
largest in size among the counties while its average salary per 
teacher and principal ranked eleventh from the bottom. The 
other county with the lowest salary cost per pupil ranked ninth 
in size of class (the county with the largest classes ranking first) 
while it had the lowest average salary per white elementary- 
teacher and principal in the State. The county with the highest 
salary cost per pupil was sixth from the bottom in size of class 
and had next to the highest average salary per teacher found in 
the counties. In no county was the average salary cost per pupil 
as high as it was in Baltimore City. (See Table 37.) 

Operation costs per county white elementary pupil for heating 
and cleaning buildings were between $2.24 and $2.69 in three 
counties which had small buildings without janitors and low fuel 
costs, and totaled $6.79 and $7.33 in the two counties spending 
the highest amounts per pupil, one of these counties having 
large buildings with central heating plants requiring janitors 
and engineers. The highest amount in any county was below the 
Baltimore City cost, $7.70 per white elementary pupil for opera- 
tion of buildings. (See Table 37.) 

Expenditure per white elementary pupil for maintenance 
fluctuated between less than one dollar in two counties to between 
three and four dollars in two counties. Repairs made through the 
Works Progress Administration relieved nine counties of some 
expenditures on maintenance. (See Table 37 and Table 174, on 
page 260.) 

The expenditure per pupil for books, materials and costs of 
instruction other than salaries varied from less than $1 in one 
county to over $2 in six counties. State aid for books and ma- 
terials totaled 88 1/2 cents per pupil. The average county dupli- 
cated from the county levy the State's contribution and one county 
spent from the levy nearly twice as much per pupil as the State 
allowance. (See Table 37.) 

Supervision costs per white elementary pupil were less than $1 
in one county which employed fewer supervisors than the number 
for whom it was entitled to receive State aid, while at the opposite 
extreme two counties with a small number of white elementary 
teachers spent over $3 per white elementary pupil for supervision. 
(See Table 37.) 



Analysis of Cost per White Elementary Pupil 



59 



The cost per white elementary pupil for auxiliary agencies 
varied from close to $4 in two counties to over $23 in two 
counties. Since the term ''auxiliary agencies" covers such diverse 
items as transportation, libraries, and health, further analysis 
has been made of the costs and services rendered under these three 
classifications. In Table 38, counties have been listed in the order 
of their expenditure per white elementary pupil for auxiliary 
agencies, the county with the highest expenditure appearing first. 



TABLE 38 

Expenditures and Cost Per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies in Maryland Countv 
White Elementary Schools, for Year Ending July 31, 1939 



County 


Transportation 


Libraries 


tHEALTH 


Pupils Trans- 
ported at 
Public Expense 


Amount 
Spent 


Cost 
per 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 
for 
Libraries 


Amount per 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 

for 
Health 


Amount 
per 
Pupil 


Number 


Per 
Cent 


School 


Teacher 


Total, 1938 


35,980 


33 


9 


$724,398 


$20 


13 


$18,718 


$24 


83 


$6 


31 


$161,069 


$1.54 


1939. . . . 


38,201 


35 


9 


762,578 


19.96 


17,802 


24 


59 


6 


04 


tl62,994 


1.55 • 


Calvert 


605 


74 


7 


18,054 


29 


84 


137 


19 


50 


5 


93 


2,364 


3.00 


St. Mary's 


491 


59 


6 


16,476 


33 


56 


56 


3 


10 


1 


86 


2,576 


3.16 




949 


67 


1 


23,262 


24 


51 


242 


24 


19 


6 


17 


4,053 


2.93 


Queen Anne's. . 


788 


57 


2 


19,706 


25 


01 


631 


42 


05 


15 


77 


3,347 


2.42 




1,109 


58 


8 


23,952 


21 


60 


265 


18 


93 


4 


82 


3,816 


2.04 


Kent 


602 


46 


3 


13,432 


22 


31 


615 


36 


18 


15 


49 


4,378 


3.44 


Talbot 


647 


40 


9 


18,481 


28 


56 


70 


4 


36 


1 


45 


3,105 


1.99 




1,313 


35 


6 


41,296 


31 


45 


872 


12 


83 


7 


51 


6,657 


1.81 


Carroll 


2,893 


62 


4 


54,696 


18 


91 


650 


21 


67 


4 


97 


4,380 


.96 


Caroline 


1,174 


61 


4 


20,275 


17 


27 


340 


34 


04 


6 


75 


3,803 


1.99 


Dorchester. . . . 


983 


37 


7 


24,793 


25 


22 


177 


5 


20 


2 


22 


5,564 


2.15 




956 


49 


8 


18,646 


19 


50 


23 


1 


56 




44 


3,517 


1.86 


Anne Arundel . . 


3,114 


52 





54,228 


17 


41 


665 


25 


59 


4 


26 


12,105 


2.03 




893 


45 





17,600 


19 


71 


455 


18 


94 


7 


96 


3,610 


1.85 


Wicomico 


1,156 


34 


8 


24,564 


21 


25 


899 


39 


07 


10 


15 


8,312 


2.61 


Frederick 


2,876 


42 


2 


60,967 


21 


20 


371 


9 


06 


2 


07 


8,237 


1.22 


Montgomery . . . 


3,364 


37 


7 


60,362 


17 


94 


835 


21 


41 


3 


09 


16,505 


1.88 


Cecil 


951 


32 


4 


17,565 


18 


47 


474 


13 


18 


5.26 


5,505 


1.88 


Baltimore 


5,464 


33 


3 


97,251 


17 


80 


4,735 


91 


06 


12 


35 


14,966 


.94 


Allegany 


3,009 


25 


2 


54,324 


18 


05 


1,901 


31 


16 


5 


59 


25,035 


2.14 


Harford 


1,017 


26 


7 


21,681 


21 


32 


772 


17 


54 


6 


38 


3,630 


.95 


Washington 


2,006 


18 


7 


34,848 


17 


37 


1,917 


26 


63 


6 


54 


10,732 


1.01 


Prince George's 


1,841 


19 





26,119 


14 


19 


700 


13 


46 


2 


68 


6,797 


.71 



t Includes $151,871 estimated expenditures of the county health offices for public school 
services. Also includes $8,095 for school nurses, dental clinics, and supplies and $3,028 for 
physical education activities, spent by county boards of education. 



Transportation Service for County White Elementary Pupils 

Transportation services absorbed nearly 81 per cent of the 
expenditures shown for auxiliary agencies for county white ele- 
mentary pupils in 1938-39. The total expenditures for trans- 
porting county white elementary pupils increased over the pre- 
ceding year by over $38,000 to $762,578; the pupils transported 
increased by 2,221 to 38,201 ; the per cent of county white elemen- 
tary pupils transported was higher than in the preceding year by 
2, making the 1938 percentage 35.9 ; and the cost per county white 



60 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

elementary pupil transported decreased by 17 cents, making the 
average cost $19.96 in 1939. Improvement in the type of bus and 
consolidation of schools were factors bringing about increase in 
total costs and in number and per cent of pupils transported. 

The number of white public elementary school pupils trans- 
ported varied from as few as 491 in one small county to as many 
as 5,464 in a large county. The per cent of white elementary 
pupils transported was under 20 in two counties and over 60 in 
four counties. In general, expenditure per white elementary 
pupil for auxiliary agencies, which determines the order in Table 
38, correlates roughly with per cent of pupils transported. Ex- 
penditures ranged from $13,432 to $97,251 while cost per white 
elementary pupil transported was under $18 in six counties and 
over $31 in two counties. (See Table 38.) 

Baltimore City paid for the transportation to school of 523 
white pupils, of whom 338 were physically handicapped. 

Library Expenditures for White Elementary Pupils 

Expenditures from public education funds for libraries used 
by white elementary pupils totaled $17,802 in 1939, a decrease of 
$916 under 1938. This represented an expenditure per white 
elementary school of $24.59 and per white elementary teacher of 
$6.04. These were decreases of 24 and 27 cents respectively under 
corresponding figures for the year preceding. (See Table 38.) 

The smallest amount spent for libraries from public funds by 
any county was $23 and the largest amount $4,735. According to 
Section 167 of the School Law, it is required that $10 be paid by 
the county school commissioners out of the State school fund to 
any schoolhouse district as library money if the people of the 
district raise the same amount annually. Some counties which 
have large consolidated schools pay the $10 to any room which 
raises at least $10. The law was passed in 1904 when many of 
the county schools had only one teacher. 

In addition to these public funds, the teachers, patrons, and 
pupils raised funds which were used for purchase of library books 
and equipment. For both white high and elementary schools in 
certain counties these additional amounts are reported in Table 
XXIX, pages 342-343. 

SERVICES OF MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSION* 

The most vital work of the Maryland Public Library Commission is to 
teach communities how to provide themselves with books and foster the 
development of service throughout the counties. Orig:inally the chief function 
of the Commission was the distribution throughout the State of books and 
other printed material from a central reservoir. Limited facilities in the 
average library in the counties will always make it necessary for the Com- 
mission to be the clearing house for special requests, interlibrary loans, 
research, bibliographies, and similar service. 



* Report prepared by Adebne J. Pratt, State Director of Libraries. 



Transportation and Library Services for White Elementary 61 

Pupils 



TABLE 39 



Services of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to the County 
White Elementary Schools, School Year 1938-39 







Traveling Libraries 


Package Libraries 






(30 to 35 books in 


each) 


(1 to 12 books in each) 




Total 














Year 


No. of 




N^umbGr of 






Number of 




AND 


Volumes 














County 


Supplied 






















Travelmg 






Package 






Schools 


Teachers 


Libraries 


Schools 


Teachers 


Libraries 






Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


1931 


12,022 


157 


196 


299 


89 


124 


393 


1932 


9,799 


165 


206 


275 


79 


84 


266 


1933 


16,606 


182 


275 


419 


87 


112 


334 


1934 


8,609 


96 


128 


225 


91 


107 


210 


1935 


8,675 


81 


144 


219 


77 


88 


247 


1936 


7,029 


66 


80 


184 


46 


56 


150 


1937 


8,255 


44 


52 


207 


56 


73 


237 


1938 


5,577 


39 


43 


133 


47 


52 


199 


1939 


4,258 


26 


31 


92 


66 


82 


279 




a82 


al 


al 


a2 


al 


al 


al2 


Anne Arundel . . . 


bc704 


bc4 


bc7 


bel4 


be8 


bclO 


bc35 


Baltimore 


g891 


g5 


g5 


gl2 


gl5 


g21 


glOl 


Calvert 


c30 


Ci 


Ci 


cl 


c. . . . 


e . . . . 


e . . . . 




35 


1 


1 


1 








Carroll 


c277 


c5 


c5 


c8 


■ 'c3 


"c3 


"cS 


Cecil 


ce37 


ce. . . . 


ce. . . . 


ce. . . . 


ce3 


ee3 


ce'4 


Charles 


be 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


Dorchester 


cl75 


cl 


el 


c2 


cl2 


el3 


e47 


Frederick 


cl87 


cl 


c3 


c5 


el 


cl 


e4 


Garrett 
















Harford 


bc266 


'bci 


'bci 


'bc2 


beii 


beie 


bc24 


Howard 


70 


1 


1 


2 








Kent 


1 








. . 


" "i 


. . 


Montgomery .... 


cf 1,203 


ct'.'.'.'. 


cf ! ; " 


cf34 


cf2 


cf2 


cflO 


Prince George's. 


hl21 


h2 


h2 


h3 


hi 


hi 


h5 


Queen Anne's. . . 


cl75 


c2 


c2 


c5 


el 


el 


el 


St. Mary's 


k9 


k. . . . 


k. . . . 


k. . . . 


kl 


k2 


k2 




c. . . . 


c. . . . 


e. . . . 


c. . . . 


e. . . . 


e. . . . 


c. . . . 


Talbot 


be... 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be... 


Washington 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d.... 




c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 




61 


1 


1 


1 


6 


7 


25 



a Cumberland Public Library supplied the schools in Cumberland from its own collection. 
There are other public libraries in the county at Barton, Lonaconing and Westernport. Cir- 
culation not shown here. 

b Limited library service given to schools by county library. Circulation not shown here. 

c Library privileges extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the 
days when the library is open. Circula+ion not shown here. 

d County-wide library supplements book service in the schools. Main library in Hagers- 
town. Branches in Boonsboro, Clearspring, Hancock, Sharpsburg, Smithsburg and Williams- 
port. Circulation not shown here. 

e Elementary school library books centralized in the School Board Office in Elkton. Books 
circulated to schools from that office. Circulation not shown here. 

f All traveling libraries borrowed from the Library Commission by School Board and re- 
circulated to schools of the county from that office, therefore number of schools and teachers 
served is not available. Additional service from public libraries in Bethesda, Gailhersburg, 
Kensington, Rockville, Silver Spring and Takoma Park. Circulation not shown here. 

g Centralized libraries have been organized in twenty-two of the elementary schools in 
Baltimore County. With more books and attractive rooms available within the schools them- 
selves fewer books have been borrowed from the Library Commission. Public libraries in 
Towson and Sparrows Point. 

h Public libraries in Hyattsville and Laurel. 

k Books for recreational reading may be borrowed through a county library operating 
under the WPA. 



During 1938-39 the following new community library facilities became 
available to the public and the schools: 



62 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The new public library building, financed by Cambridge, Dorchester County, and a 
P.W.A. grant, was opened to the public in May, 1939, upon the seventeenth anniversary 
of its founding. Miss Nettie V. Mace has served as secretary of the library since its 
founding in 1922. 

The Woman's Club of Vienna started the town's first public library with a basic 
collection of books donated by Mr. Mano Schwartz, of Baltimore. 

The model settlement at Greenbelt has a high school library in charge of a trained 
librarian and also a library in the elementary school. The latter will soon expand its 
services, running on a fulltime schedule, to act as a community as well as a school 
library. 

Mr. and Mrs. George Bailey, as a memorial to Mr. Bailey's mother, erected a library 
building in Cecilton on land given by the community. 

A fund of $10,000 became available for the purchase of books for the Cumberland 
Public Libray in 1938-39 as a result of the bequest of Mr. Ferman G. Pugh. who had been 
a member of the Allegany County Board of Education from 1916 to 1935. 

A number of teachers who cannot secure books from the public libraries 
in the counties, cities and towns, which are constantly increasing in number, 
still find it desirable to take advantage of the privilege of securing books from 
the Maryland Public Library Commission with offices in the Enoch Pratt 
Library Building, 400 Cathedral Street, Baltimore. 

Because of the small State appropriation for books, the Library Commission 
was not in a position to supply all of the books requested by the schools. Also 
the requirement that the cost of transporting cases and packages of books be 
met entirely by the school requesting them deterred some teachers who had 
requested a supply. The number of books sent to county white elementary 
school teachers in 1938-39, which totaled 4,258, was 1,319 fewer than for the 
preceding year, accounted for in part by the increased facilities in the school 
and community libraries in the counties. Six counties showed an increase in 
the number of volumes borrowed from the Commission for white elementary 
school pupils. (See Table 39.) 

Traveling libraries are collections of books loaned for a period of four 
months, at the end of which time they may be returned and exchanged for 
another collection or renewed for four months. Thirty books are included 
in cases sent by parcel post; thirty-five in those sent by express. They are not 
fixed collections, but are selected to suit individual needs. The cost of trans- 
portation must be met by the schools and guarantee of reimbursement for lost 
or damaged books is required. Twenty-six white elementary schools in thir- 
teen counties borrowed 92 traveling libraries in 1938-39 from the Maryland 
Public Library Commission. 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made up to meet 
special requirements for school essays, debates, individual needs, or profes- 
sional needs of the teachers. These are loaned for one month to anyone 
living in Maryland who is without access to a public library. In 1938-39 
sixty-six white elementary schools in fourteen counties borrowed 279 package 
libraries from the Maryland Public Library Commission. 

Under the sponsorship of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commis- 
sion, Works Progress Administration library projects were carried on in the 
office of the Commission and in eight counties. At the Library Commission 
office school and library books to the total of 26,251 were reconditioned so that 
they could be put back into use, 34,116 books in elementary and high schools 
and public libraries were organized and catalogued, and service was rendered 
the Commission at a cost to the Federal Government of $53,174. Books from 
fourteen Baltimore County elementary schools, from the Greenbelt Elemen- 
tary School in Prince George's County, and from the Darlington Elementary 
School in Harford County and the Cecil County Board of Education 
were brought to the Commission office for organization and cataloguing. From 
these elementary schools and others in Baltimore County, Howard, Carroll 
and Montgomery, books were brought to the Baltimore office for mending. 

The following counties carried on library projects within their own bound- 
aries but because of the difficulty of providing adequate supervision and the 
small amount of work accomplished, all except the one in Allegany County 
have been discontinued. 



Library and Health Services for White Elementary Pupils 



63 



County 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Frederick 

Wicomico 



Federal 
Expenditure 



County 



Federal 
Expenditure 



$11,877.36 
7.501.58 
6,761.75 
5,784.19 



Prince George's 

Garrett 

Worcester 

Talbot 



$4,941.52 
2,549.36 
2,120.71 
1,371.02 



Total 



$42,907.49 



The workers of the Allegany project repaired 9,149 books and catalogued 
929 in addition to rendering needed assistance in carrying on the Cumberland 
Library. One of the chief purposes of the library projects was the rehabili- 
tation and training of the workers engaged on the projects. Those counties 
which had no library projects had no suitable workers available. 

A course in library science for school librarians and teacher-librarians has 
been given each summer since 1936 at Western Maryland College. In 1939, 
three county elementary school teachers were included in the enrollment of 
19 students. 

Several teachers in charge of libraries in elementary schools joined the 
State Association of School Librarians which was organized to stimulate 
school library service and further professional interest. It holds its annual 
meeting at the time the State Teachers' Association is in session and also 
met at the Catonsville High School in April, 1939. 

Expenditures from Public Funds for Health and Physical Education 

Expenditures to promote the health of county white elementary 
pupils are estimated as $162,994 in 1938-39, an increase of SI, 925 
over 1937-38. To the expenditures of $8,095 made by county 
boards of education for school nurses, dental clinics and other 
services, and $3,028 for physical education activities, has been 
added an estimate of $151,871 for State, Federal, and county 
funds spent by county health offices on services to white public 
school children. The latter amount was calculated on the assump- 
tion that one-half of the public funds reported as expenditures 
by the county health offices were used for health work among 
public school children. The figures reported by the State De- 
partment of Health exclude $99,825 allocated to services for 
crippled children, of which $51,500 came from State and $48,325 
from Federal funds, which could not be shown opposite individual 
counties. 

In some communities in other states the health program is a 
responsibility of the school authorities, instead of, as in Mary- 
land, a responsibility of the health authorities working in co- 
operation with the school authorities. Expenditures for health 
service rendered directly by the school authorities have, of course, 
always been reported in school costs to the U. S. Office of Educa- 
tion, whereas until 1935-36, for Maryland counties no amounts 
were included to cover estimated costs of similar services ren- 
dered by a public agency other than the schools. 

Ten county boards of education spent directly over $8,000 for 
school nurses, dental clinics, and transportation of children to 
clinics. Two counties paid salaries of one or two school nurses, 
who were also considered a part of the staff of the county health 
offices. The county boards of education also spent $3,028 for 
activities connected with the physical education program. 



64 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The amounts included as estimated expenditures for health 
for white elementary pupils varied from less than S2,577 in two 
counties to over 810,000 in five counties. The estimated expendi- 
ture per white elementary pupil was less than 81.23 in six 
counties and $3 or more in three counties. (See last two columns 
in Table 39, page 59.) 

HEALTH services FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN UNDER DIRECTION OF 
STATE AND COUNTY DEPARTMENTS OF HEALTH* 
Staff and Finances for Health Services 

Every county in 1938-39 had the services of one full-time 
health officer, and three large counties each had also a full-time 
assistant health officer. In addition, two counties each had 14 
part-time county health officers. The counties employed 84 
nurses, the number varying from 2 to 9 according to size of 
county, and 34 clerks. There were 79 additional employees giv- 
ing service in county clinics and bacteriological laboratories. 

Of |420,082t spent for county health offices in 1939, the coun- 
ties contributed |l69,162, the State $124,126, the Federal Gov- 
ernment $99,880, and other agencies §26,914. These figures 
were included in Table 35 of the 1938 Report of the State Depart- 
ment of Education as expenditures for 1937-38. Actually they 
were appropriations for 1938-39. They are, therefore, not re- 
peated in this report for individual counties. These figures in- 
cluded over §8,000 reported by County Boards of Education as 
expenditures for health. It has been estimated by State Health 
Department officials that one-half of the expenditures of county 
health offices were used for services which affect the health of 
public school children. Deducting the County Board of Educa- 
tion expenditures for health, an estimate has been made of ex- 
penditures for health service for school children by the County 
Health offices. These figures are included in the third column 
under Auxiliary Agencies in Table XXI, page 334. The State and 
Federal aid in these estimated figures has been included in col- 
umns 10 and 11 of Table XVI, page 329, the county aid in column 
4 of Table XVII, page 330, and the figures in Table XXI are in- 
cluded under Auxiliary Agencies in Table XVIII, page 331. 

As reported last year, the funds for health service in the 23 
counties averaged 30 per cent from the State, 24 per cent from 
Federal aid, 40 per cent from the county levy, and 6 per cent from 
other county sources. The per cent of aid for health ranged 
among the counties for State aid between 14 and 61 per cent, for 
Federal aid between 4 and 49 per cent, from the county levy be- 
tween 7 and 75 per cent, and from other county sources from 
1 to 24 per cent. 

* Data prepared by Gertrude B. Knipp with the approval of Dr. Robert H. Riley, Director 
of the Maryland State Department of Health. 

t Excluding $99,825 for services for crippled children, of which $51,500 came from State 
and $48,325 from Federal funds ; and also $31,892 for venereal disease control from Federal 
funds. 



Services to Schools by State and County Health Offices 65 

Services Rendered Schools 

Health services in the schools in 1939, under the joint direction 
of the State and County Departments of Health and of Educa- 
tion, covered a wide range of activities. They included general 
health supervision ; the physical examination of children in some 
of the elementary grades; the examination of pre-school chil- 
dren in preparation for admission to school; the inspection of 
children in the schools by the health officers and public health 
nurses to prevent the spread of communicable diseases among 
them ; the installation of the necessary control measures against 
such diseases; dental clinics in the schools and for pre-school 
children at the health-trailer conferences during the summer 
months; and the sanitary supervision of the water supply and 
sewage disposal systems of individual schools. 

Immunization clinics for the protection of children in need of 
such services against diphtheria, scarlet fever and typhoid; for 
the vaccination of pre-school children against smallpox; clinics 
and other services for crippled children ; mental hygiene clinics ; 
and tests for the discovery of incipient cases of tuberculosis, 
supplemented the health promotion and disease prevention activi- 
ties in the schools. 

Physical Examinations and Inspections of School Children 

Over 36,000 elementary school pupils had the benefit of a com- 
plete physical examination by the county health officers assisted 
by the public health nurses. In accordance with an arrange- 
ment with the local medical society, the examinations in Mont- 
gomery County were conducted by local physicians. (See Table 
40). 

In the majority of the larger schools the examinations were 
limited to the children in the first, third and fifth grades ; and to 
other children who were scheduled for re-examination, or for 
whom examination was requested by the teachers. All of the 
children in the smaller schools were examined. In some of the 
counties, at the request of the high school principals, boys and 
girls were examined to test their fitness for athletic activities. 
At all examinations, parents were welcome, and in a number of 
instances were present by invitation. 

In the routine examinations, special attention was paid to the 
general health of the children ; to conditions that might seem to 
be of minor importance in a growing child but that would lead 
to serious handicaps eventually if neglected ; to weight and other 
symptoms of good or faulty nutrition; and, to the nose, throat, 
teeth, chest, vision and hearing. Conditions in need of correc- 
tion were pointed out to the parents either at the examinations 
or through follow-up visits to the homes by the public health 
nurses, and parents were advised to consult their family physi- 
cians promptly as to the best methods of having the corrections 
attended to. 



66 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Corrections were made possible in many instances through the 
joint activities of the Parent-Teacher Associations, county health 
and school department personnel and local service clubs. The aid 
of local groups was enlisted for special needs and treatments. 
Through their assistance, revolving funds have been established 
in several counties for the purchase of glasses or other equipment 
for children in families unable to make the necessary expendi- 
tures. 

TABLE 40 



Examinations of School and Pre-School Children by State and County 
Health Officers, 1939 



County 


Number 
OF School 
Children 


Pre-School Children 
Examined During 1939 


Per Cent of Pre-School 
Children Examined 


Exam- 
ined 


In- 
spected 


Number 


*Per Cent 


Requiring 
Vaccination 
vs. Smallpox 


Not 
Immunized 
vs. Diphtheria 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Total 


36,196 


85,426 


4,327 


1,505 


31.4 


49.5 


43.7 


31.7 


9.1 


14.2 


Allegany 


3,928 


13,510 


815 




57.2 




87.1 








Anne Arundel 


3,922 


11,865 


445 


"i89 


57.9 


49!6 










Baltimore. . . . 


4,669 


8,434 


949 


176 


44.3 


90.7 


59.2 


66!5 


■ " .2 


48;3 


Calvert 


342 


998 


45 


83 


43.7 


52.5 




4.8 


2.2 


2.4 




5 


2,959 


120 


48 


54.1 


58.5 


55^8 


27,1 


52.5 


25.0 


Carroll 


6,971 


6,264 


















Cecil 


1,135 


1,827 


'i68 


' '60 


43!3 


166.6 


16. i 


AO.b 


i6!i 


's.s 


Charles 


25 


560 


22 


66 


10.8 


31.1 


72.7 


48.5 


36.4 


25.8 


Dorchester . . . 


77 


1,267 


120 


104 


37.2 


72.2 


80.8 


94.2 


31.7 


11.5 




1,949 


3,669 


423 




48.2 




26.7 




19.4 




Garrett 


91 


873 


















Harford 


979 


1,009 


'212 


' '76 


4i;5 


96.2 


42^5 


36^3 


23.1 


■2;6 


Howard 


993 


1,783 


133 


34 


43.3 


44.2 


20.3 


17.6 


11.3 


2.9 


Kent 


530 


3,739 


118 


33 


69.8 


37.5 










Montgomery . 


5,250 


2,781 


228 


94 


18.9 


44.8 


19.7 


23!4 


'8^3 


'4;3 


Pr. George's. . 


298 


1,305 


108 


165 


7.5 


43.3 


28.7 


35.2 


30.6 


31.5 


Queen Anne's. 


221 


2,261 


48 


45 


29.1 


51.1 


60.4 


31.1 


22.9 


13.3 


St. Mary's 


5 


1,692 


43 


26 


17.8 


20.5 


32.6 


46.2 




19.2 




285 


1,673 


70 


86 


32.0 


51.5 


8.6 


1.2 


12.9 


2.3 


Talbot 


940 


2,725 


32 


53 


13.6 


44.9 




1.9 






Washington . . 


1,695 


6,345 


27 


3 


2.3 


12.5 


ii'.i 


33.3 


s.i 




Wicomico .... 


1,585 


7,444 


183 


105 


43.9 


70.5 


25.7 


11.4 


23.0 




Worcester .... 


301 


443 


18 


59 


8.3 


33.3 


88.9 


66.1 


11.1 


26^3 



Based on the number of six-year olds enumerated in the 1938 school census. 



Services for the Control or Prevention of Communicable Diseases 

Because of the readiness with which communicable diseases 
spread from child to child, and because many of these diseases 
not only cause prolonged illnesses but may also be responsible 
for damaging after-effects, control or prevention of such dis- 
eases has an important bearing on the health of the growing boys 
and girls and a large part in the health services of the schools. 

During 1939, the routine physical examinations were supple- 
mented by 85,426 inspections by the county health officers and 
public health nurses, at the request of the school authorities, of 



Services to Schools by State and County Health Offices 67 



children with symptoms of measles, mumps, scarlet fever, diph- 
theria, skin infections, or other transmissible diseases or who had 
been exposed to such diseases. Inspections were made daily, 
if necessary, to prevent the spread of the diseases, and children 
showing signs of these or of other communicable diseases, were 
excluded from school until the danger of infecting other children 
had passed. (See Table 40.) 

Other necessary control measures were instituted, and further 
protection against certain of these diseases was given through 
immunization clinics arranged by the County Health Officers. 

Immunization Against Diphtheria, Typhoid Fever, Smallpox and Scarlet Fever 

During the year over 20,000 children of pre-school and school 
age were protected against diphtheria at clinics held under the 
auspices of County Departments of Health; over 6,550 persons, 
including school and pre-school children were immunized against 
typhoid fever; 6,495 were vaccinated against smallpox; and 1,470 
were protected against scarlet fever. Intensive campaigns 
against the latter disease were continued in Allegany, Garrett 
and Washington Counties. 

Tests for Tuberculosis 

In nearly all of the counties, tuberculin testing of selected 
groups of girls and boys in the high schools and the upper grades 
of the elementary schools, as a means of discovering incipient 
cases of tuberculosis, so that corrective or control measures could 
be instituted promptly, was continued and constituted an im- 
portant part of the School Health Services. 

Through the use of the portable X-ray machines that are part 
of the field equipment of the County Departments of Health, it 
was possible for X-ray examinations to be made on all pupils 
giving a positive tuberculin reaction. Further examinations 
were made at the County Health Department chest clinics; the 
findings were interpreted at individual conferences with the 
parents present, and advice was given as to any necessary re- 
striction of activities or to follow-up care. 

Nutrition Services 

Services with regard to the nutritional requirements of school 
children and pre-school children have become an integral part of 
the school health program. Such services in 1939 included demon- 
strations of the nutritional needs of growing children, and advice 
as to dietary habits and the proper choice of foods, at moderate 
cost, to insure an adequately balanced diet for the children, by 
the Nutritionist of the Bureau of Child Hygiene of the State 
Department of Health. 



68 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Conferences were also held on request by the Nutritionist with 
managers of school cafeterias and recommendations were made 
with regard to the selection of menus and to the organization 
of cafeteria services. ''Nutrition Week," with special emphasis 
on school lunches, was observed under the auspices of the County- 
Department of Health and the local Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tions in Kent County, in October. 

Mental Hygiene Clinics 

Continuing the arrangement started in 1934, mental hygiene 
clinics, at which approximately 700 children of school age were 
examined, were held in 21 counties under the joint direction of 
the Bureau of Child Hygiene of the State Department of Health, 
the State Commissioner of Mental Hygiene, the State Mental 
Hygiene Society, the County Departments of Health and the 
school authorities. 

The State was districted and a regular schedule of clinics was 
held in each section. The cases were referred for examination by 
the courts, social agencies, school authorities, health officers, par- 
ents and physicians. The examinations were conducted by psy- 
chiatrists connected with the State or Baltimore City hospitals 
or institutions. 

Educational Services of Health Officials 

In connection with the school health services inform.al class- 
room talks were given by the health officers, public health nurses 
and the Chief of the Division of Oral Hygiene to high school 
groups and to boys and girls in the upper elementary grades, 
on communicable diseases and communicable disease control, 
health habits, nutrition, dental health, personal and community 
hygiene, and sanitation. Informational material on the organiza- 
tion and activities of the county and the State Departments of 
Health were supplied by the State Department of Health to 
teachers on request, for classroom use. 

Services for Crippled Children 

As a result of 1937 legislation, the Services for Crippled Chil- 
dren were placed for administrative purposes in the State De- 
partment of Health. This service is conducted by funds appro- 
priated on a 50-50 basis by the State and the United States 
Children's Bureau under the Social Security Act. 

During 1939 there were sixty clinics conducted for the benefit of 
all of the counties by orthopedic surgeons assisted by orthopedic 
nurses, physiotherapists and the county public health nurses. 
The entire program includes locating crippled children, diagnos- 
tic service at the clinics, hospitalization, transportation from 
patients' homes to and from the hospitals, after care by physio- 
therapists and orthopedic nurses after the patients return home, 
and the purchase of shoes, braces and appliances. (See pages 
41-2.) 



Services to Schools by State and County Health Offices G9 

Through the Services for Crippled Children, hospitalization 
and treatment of a few selected spastic patients has been con- 
tinued at the Children's Rehabilitation Institute, conducted by 
Dr. Winthrop M. Phelps at Reisterstown. (See pages 39-40.) 

The number of crippled children on the State register as of 
December 31, 1939, was 2,219. Conditions to which cripphng 
was due included the after results of poliomyelitis, arthritis, 
osteomyelitis, scoliosis, rickets, tuberculosis of bones, birth in- 
juries, cerebral palsies, club feet, congenital deformities, harelip, 
cleft palate and burns. 

Examination of Pre-school Children in Preparation for Admission to School 

In preparation for their admission to school over 5,800 five- and 
six-year old county children were examined at regularly scheduled 
or special child health conferences by the Bureau of Child Hy- 
giene and the County Health Departments. The examinations 
were similar in scope to those of the children in the upper grades 
with special attention to conditions that might have an adverse 
effect upon the general health of the children and their powers 
of resistance to disease, or might lead to a permanent handicap 
if neglected. The mothers or others responsible for the care of 
the children were present at all of these conferences, and were 
advised or assisted, as far as possible, in having conditions in need 
of correction attended to, before the children were subjected to 
the strain of school routine. (See Table 40, page 66.) 

Through the co-operation of the County Superintendents and 
the Parent-Teacher Associations, lists of incoming children were 
furnished the County Health Departments, and special con- 
ferences for the examination of these children were held at the 
school buildings, in many of the counties, during the spring term, 
before the schools closed for the summer vacation. 

For the benefit of children who had not been reached in other 
ways, special ''Summer Round Up" conferences were arranged 
through the efforts of the central organization and local branches 
of the Maryland Congress of Parents and Teachers. Others 
were examined in connection with the summer tour of the Health 
Trailer of the Bureau of Child Hygiene. The staff of the Trailer 
included a physician, a dentist, and a public health nurse. During 
the summer of 1939 the Trailer visited eleven counties and trav- 
elled over 7,000 miles, and child health conferences were con- 
ducted by the staff at 188 places. 

Of the total number of pre-school children examined in 1939, 
4,327 were white and 1,505, colored. Vaccination against small- 
pox had been neglected for 1,890 or 44 per cent of the white 
children examined and 477 or 32 per cent of the colored ; 392 or 
9 per cent of the white children and 214 or 14 per cent of the 



70 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



colored had not been immunized against diphtheria. The impor- 
tance of having these services attended to promptly was ex- 
plained to the parents, and clinics for vaccination against small- 
pox and for immunization against diphtheria were held in con- 
nection with the examinations in many of the counties. Parents 
were also reminded of the State law which will not permit any 
child who has not been vaccinated against smallpox to be en- 
rolled in any public school in the State. (See Table 40, page 66.) 

Dental Clinics 

TABLE 41 



Report of School Dental Clinics Conducted Under the Auspices of the Mary- 
land State Department of Health, August 1, 1938 to July 31, 1939 









Number of 


















Children 




Number of 






«« to 
o c 


Time Given 
















County 




to Service* 


Exam- 




















ined 




Fillings 


Teeth 






Total 




fi 




by 


Treated 


In- 


Ex- 


Clean- 


Treat- 


Opera- 








Den- 




serted 


tracted 


ings 


ments 


tions 








tists 












Total 


°34 




26,908 


13,295 


23,398 


16,563 


6,163 


2,208 


48,332 


Allegany 


1 


Full 


2,800 


2,140 


1,272 


4,884 


650 


729 


7,535 


Anne Arundel . . 


5 


Part 


4,227 


1,589 


3,456 


1,763 


763 


113 


6,095 




6 


Part 


4,965 


1,344 


2,534 


1,423 


857 


85 


4,899 


Calvertt 


1 


Part 


358 


248 


470 


274 


12 


7 


763 




t.. 


t 










Cecilt 


1 


Half 


'760 


'326 


'729 


'269 


'32i 


' "7 


i;326 


Chariest 


2 


Part 


1,190 


316 


814 


315 


112 


5 


1,246 




2 


Half 


1,715 


1,612 


2,148 


1,311 


170 


65 


3,694 


Garrett 


4 


Part 






23 


54 


2 




79 


Harford 


3 


Part 


'334 


'333 


571 


402 


263 


' ' '9 


1,245 




1 


Half 


910 


216 


933 


134 


17 


655 


1,739 


Kentt 


1 


Half 


952 


367 


533 


392 


263 


31 


1,219 


Montgomery . . . 


2 


Half 


1,113 


1,058 


3,269 


1,789 


638 


72 


5,768 


Pr. George'sf. . 
Queen Anne'sf. 


2 


Part 


1,465 


1,050 


1,450 


857 


198 


174 


2,679 


1 


Half 


533 


185 


976 


117 


177 


12 


1,282 


St. Mary'st 


1 


Part 


■ 48 


40 


31 


83 




8 


122 




t.. 


t 














2;i66 


Talbott 


2 


Half 


l!648 


'379 


1I363 


■323 


■376 


'i64 


Washington 


3 


Part 


26 


26 


158 






158 




1 


Half 


1,056 


483 


1^629 


532 


'47i 


' '36 


2,068 


Worcesterf .... 


1 


Half 


671 


234 


1,127 


558 


212 


61 


1,958 


Healthmobile . . 


4 


Full, 4 mos. 


2,737 


1,349 


730 


925 


667 


35 


2,357 



° Excluding duplicates. 

* The scope of services varies from full time and half time to part time, meaning one or 
more one-day clinics per month. 

t For additional service in the counties indicated, see "Healthmobile" which operated full 
time for four months in Calvert, Caroline, Cecil, Charles, Kent, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, 
St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot and Worcester Counties. 

Twenty-one counties benefited from the school dental clinic 
service sponsored by the Division of Oral Hygiene of the Mary- 
land State Department of Health, the county health officers and 
the county school authorities. In a few counties dentists gave full- 
time service but in others as few as ten clinic days were given 
during the year. Of 26,908 children examined, 13,295 received 
treatment which involved 48,332 operations. During August, 



Dental Clinics; Capital Outlay; Size of White Elementary 71 

Schools 

1938, and May, June, and July, 1939, the Health Department's 
trailer rendered dental service in eleven counties of the Western 
and Eastern Shores. (See Table 41.) 

For educational opportunities available to physically handi- 
capped children see pages 39 to 43, and 192 to 193, and for those 
available to adults, see pages 238 to 239. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPILS 

The capital outlay for county white elementary pupils totaled 
$1,466,956 in 1939, making the average outlay per county pupil 
113.98. Capital outlay for white elementary pupils totaled 
$364,000 in Allegany, $275,500 in Prince George's, $147,500 in 
Cecil, $142,300 in Montgomery, $90,500 in Wicomico, $77,700 in 
Caroline, $72,000 in Washington, $70,900 in Baltimore County, 
$70,000 in Garrett, $58,600 in Howard, $56,300 in Harford, and 
$20,800 in Anne Arundel. Prince George's was the only county 
which had a capital outlay of consequence for one-teacher schools, 
$10,717, while Garrett devoted $5,100 to capital outlay for two- 
teacher schools. (See Table 180, page 269, last column in Table 
XXIII, page 336, and last column in Table 37, page 57.) 

TABLE 42 



Number of County White Schools Giving Instruction in Grades 1 to 7(8) 
Having Following Number of Teachers, School Year 1938-39 



County 


Total No. Schools 


County White Schools Giving Instruction in Grades 1 to 7 (8) 
Having Following Number of Teachers 






n 




in 


tp 




00 


c> 






•if 


« 












* 




* 



eg 

> 



Total 


724 

61 
26 
52 
7 
10 
30 
36 
10 
34 
41 
68 
44 
24 
17 
39 
52 
15 
18 
15 
16 
72 
23 
14 


1261 

20 
1 

i 

ii 

23 
2 

22 
7 

50 

21 
tl5 
7 
8 
9 
5 
9 
5 
9 

29 
6 
1 


137 

9 
3 
9 
2 
2 
4 
6 
2 
3 
11 
10 
11 
3 
6 
6 
9 
3 
8 
4 
2 
15 
5 
4 


48 

5 
6 
1 
2 
1 

2 
3 
2 
1 

2 
4 
5 
4 

i 

6 
2 
1 


56 

2 
4 
A 
2 

i 
1 

2 
6 
1 
1 
2 

2 
10 
2 

'2 

7 
3 
4 


31 

2 
4 
2 

i 
1 
1 

3 
1 
3 
1 
4 

i 

3 


28 
2 
"4 

i 
1 

'2 

'2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 


34 

9 
1 
7 
1 
2 
3 
2 
1 

'2 
'3 

i 


33 

2 
1 

5 


19 

2 

3 
3 


15 
2 
"3 


8 
3 


8 

1 
2 


9 
1 


9 
1 


6 
1 


3 


3 


3 


1 
1 


3 
1 


9 
2 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel .... 
Baltimore 


1 




1 


2 


2 


1 




1 


3 


Calvert 












1 
2 
1 


'3 


1 
2 
1 
























Carroll 




















1 




Cecil 








1 


































Dorchester 


3 
2 
1 
1 
2 

i 
4 


i 


1 

1 
























Frederick 




1 


i 


1 


1 














Garrett 














Harford 














1 












Howard 


i 

2 

i 




1 




















Kent 






















Montgomery 

Prince George's . . 
Queen Anne's. . . . 
St. Mary's 


2 
1 


2 
2 


1 
2 


1 
2 


2 
1 


2 


1 


1 


1 
1 






1 














1 

i 

i 
1 
































Somerset 


2 
1 
3 
1 
1 




2 


1 


























Talbot 
















1 
1 










Washington 


1 
1 


1 
2 
2 


2 








2 


1 


1 










3 


Wicomico 


1 




1 








Worcester 

















































* The figure at the top of each cohimn indicates that this number of teachers was em- 
ployed during the entire year or part of the year, 
t Includes one having only primary grades. 



72 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



SIZE OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS INCREASES 

During the school year 1938-39 there were 724 county schools 
in which white elementary pupils received instruction, a decrease 
of 30 under the number the preceding year. The largest re- 
ductions occurred in the number of one-teacher, five-teacher, and 
three-teacher schools, there being 261 one-teacher schools, 28 
fewer than the number in operation in 1937-38. (See Table 42.) 

Nine counties instructed all of their white elementary pupils 
in from 7 to 19 schools, while five counties had from 52 to 72 
schools for their white elementary pupils. Washington County 
had 8 fewer schools, Garrett and Somerset each had 4 fewer, 
Baltimore County had 3 fewer, three counties had 2 fewer, and 6 
counties each had one fewer school in 1939 than in 1938. Mont- 
gomery was the only county which had one more school for white 
elementary pupils in 1939 than in 1938. (See Table 42.) 

In 1939 there were 163 schools having seven or more elemen- 
tary teachers compared with 147 the year preceding, while the 
number having 20 or more elementary teachers and principals 
increased from 8 to 12 in 1939. 

Fewer One-Teacher Schools 
TABLE 43 



Decrease in Teachers Employed in White One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1939 







County White Elementary Teachers 




School Year Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 






Total 












Number 


Per Cent 


1920 




2,992 


1,171 


39.1 


1921 




3,037 


1,149 


37.8 


1922 




3,054 


1,124 


36.8 


1923 




3,063 


1,093 


35.7 


1924 




3,065 


1,055 


34.4 


1925 




3,047 


1,005 


33.0 


1926 




3,067 


956 


31.2 


1927 




3,088 


898 


29.1 


1928 




3,070 


823 


26.8 


1929 




3,078 


739 


24.0 


1930 




3,050 


663 


21.7 


1931 




3,049 


586 


19.2 


1932 




3,022 


489 


16.2 


1933 




2,954 


407 


13.8 


1934 




2,947 


377 


12.8 


1935 




2,941 


365 


12.4 


1936 




2,949 


342 


11.6 


1937 




2,972 


324 


10.9 


1938 




2,965 


289 


9.7 


1939 




2,946 


260 


8.8 



Size of White Elementary Schools; One-Teacher Schools 



73 



The number of white schools with a one-teacher organization, 
i.e., having grades 1 to 7 (8), which totaled 260 for 1938-39, was 
29 fewer than the number for the preceding year and 911 fewer 
than in 1920-21. Fewer than 9 per cent of the county white 
elementary teachers gave instruction in a one-teacher organi- 
zation in 1939, whereas over 39 per cent did so in 1919-20. (See 
Table 43.) 

At one extreme there were 15 counties having from to 9 
schools with a one-teacher organization, while at the other ex- 
treme there were 6 counties with from 20 to 50 schools having 
all elementary grades taught by one teacher. The 6,152 pupils 
in schools with a one-teacher organization included 5.8 per cent 
of the total white county elementary school enrollment. Twelve 
counties had less than 5 per cent of their enrollment in one- 
teacher schools, while three counties had from a fifth to a third 
of their enrollment in this type of school. The greatest reduc- 
tions during the year in the proportion of white elementary 
enrollment in one-teacher schools occurred in St. Mary's, Somer- 
set, and Kent. (See Table 44.) 

TABLE 44 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers and Pupils in White One-Teacher Elemen- 
tary Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending June 30, 1939 



County 



Teachers in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 



Num- 
ber 



Per 
Cent 



Pupils in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 



Num- 
ber 



Per 
Cent 



County 



Teachers in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 



Num- 
ber 



Per 
Cent 



Pupils in 
One-Teachar 
Schools 



Num- 
ber 



Per 
Cent 



Total and Average 

Baltimore 

Caroline 

Anne Arundel 

Worcester 

Montgomery 

Prince George's . . . 

Frederick 

Calvert 

Charles 

Allegany 

Wicomico 



260 



8.8 



6,152 



24 
21 
183 
240 
161 
15 
51 
516 
135 



5.8 



.4 
1.1 
2.1 



Carroll 

Somerset . . . 
Washington 
Queen Anne 
Harford. . . . 

Kent 

Talbot 

Howard .... 

Cecil 

Dorchester . 
St. Mary's. . 
Garrett. . . . 



8.4 
9.4 
9.9 
12.5 
17.4 
17.6 



204 
115 
700 
122 
495 
140 
162 
330 
592 
508 
199 
1,239 



4.5 
6.1 



13.0 
11.0 
10.4 
16.9 
20.2 
19.7 
24.4 
33.7 



SUPERVISION OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 47 county supervisors in service in the white 
elementary schools in 1938-39. Eleven counties were entitled 
to employ one supervisor since they had on their staffs fewer 
than 80 white elementary teachers; three counties with 80 to 



Supervision of White Elementary Schools 



75 



119 white elementary teachers were entitled to employ two super- 
visors, but one of these employed only one; three of the four 
counties eligible to have three supervisors, since they had from 

120 to 185 white elementary teachers, employed only two super- 
visors ; two counties which could have employed five supervisors 
with State aid employed only four ; one county which could have 
appointed six supervisors employed five; and the two largest 
counties entitled to have State aid for seven supervisors of white 
elementary schools employed only 3 and 6, respectively. (See 
Table 45 and Chart 10.) 



TABLE 45 

Number of Supervising or Helping Teachers in Maryland Counties for Vary- 
ing Numbers of White Elementary Teachers October, 1938 



Number of 


Number of 






White 


Supervisors 


Number 




Elementary 


Allowed 


of 


Names of Counties 


Teachers 


By Law 


Counties 




Less than 80 


1 


11 


Calvert, Caroline, Charles, Dorchester, Howard, Kent, 
Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, Worcester, 


80 to 119.. . . 


2 


3 


Cecil (1), Garrett, Wicomico. 


120 to 185 


3 


3 


Anne Arundel (2), Carroll (2), Frederick, Harford (2). 


186 to 235.. . . 


4 






236 to 285 


5 


2 


t*Montgomery (4), °Prince George's (4). 


286 to 335 


6 


1 


fWashington (5). 


336 to 385 


7 


2 


Allegany (3), *Baltimore (6). 



f ) The number of supervising or helping teachers actually employed in October, 1938, is 
shown in parentheses for counties which employed fewer than the minimum number required 
by law. 

* Includes a supervisor of music, 
t Includes a supervisor of art. 

° Includes a part-time supervisor of music and a part-time supervisor of art. 

There were 32 supervisors who worked with elementary 
teachers in all grades in all subjects, 5 who worked with teachers 
of the primary grades only, 6 who worked with teachers of the 
upper grades only, 2 in Baltimore and Montgomery Counties 
who supervised the work in music, and 2 in Montgomery and 
Washington who supervised the art instruction. Two of the 
supervisors of upper grade work in Prince George's devoted part 
of their time to music and art in the elementary schools. 

In the spring the Assistant State Superintendent in charge of 
elementary instruction sent a questionnaire to the Superintendent 
and supervisor (s) in each county regarding the status of work 
by the county on the elementary school curriculum. At the May, 
1939 meeting of county superintendents the following summary 
from these returns was made regarding the curriculum: 

Maryland has not published a State course of study, the theory 
being that for the county supervisors and teachers to be free 
to develop their own courses of study is a means of professional 



76 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



growth. The State supervisors have assisted in the work by 
preparing and making available to all teachers a series of course- 
of-study bulletins, and by conducting and participating in con- 
ferences. 

Accomplishments in Maryland Counties 

Some counties have for more than twenty years carried on a continuous 
program of course-of-study improvement, calling in outside consultants 
from time to time. 

Some counties have courses of study well known by curriculum experts 
and by supervisors and teachers far beyond the confines of Maryland. 

Most of the counties have no printed courses of study but are supplement- 
ing modern textbooks with mimeographed units which are being developed 
by supervisors and teachers. 

Practically all counties accept the idea of a fused curriculum in the social 
studies for primary grades. Five counties have a fused curriculum for 
upper grades, while sixteen counties have units in history or geography 
enriched through correlation from the fields of science, literature, English, 
arithmetic, spelling, and art. 

Four counties have developed courses in the language arts; from fourteen 
to sixteen counties have developed units in the separate fields of reading, 
composition, and literature. 

Eight counties have developed units in hygiene; ten have developed units 
in safety, one of which is in print; three counties have developed complete 
courses in science, while ten have developed units in science supplementing 
the State syllabus. 

In six counties, the supervisors and special teachers of music have pre- 
pared mimeographed courses in music. In six counties supervisors and 
special teachers of art have prepared mimeographed courses in art, while 
eight other counties have developed mimeographed material on picture study 
and on ways of correlating art with other subjects. 

Assistance from the State Department of Education 

The State supervisors have tried to assist in course-of-study improvement 
in two ways: 

1. Preparing a series of course-of-study bulletins: 

Silent Reading, October, 1922; revised March, 1924; revised January, 
1926. 

The Teaching of Citizenship in the Elementary School, August, 1926. 
Goals of Achievement in English, December, 1926. 
Tentative Goals in History, January, 1927. 
Tentative Goals in Geography, January, 1928. 
Tentative Goals in Music, March, 1929. 
Arithmetic Goals, October, 1925; revised March, 1930. 
Goals in Social Studies for Primary Grades, October, 1931. 
Science in the Elementary School, September, 1933. 
Curriculum Materials in the Social Studies for Intermediate Grades, 
September, 1938. 



Curriculum Activities in White Elementary Schools 



77 



2. Supervisory conferences on the course of study with: 

County supervisors all together as well as in regional groups. 
County-wide meetings of teachers (on request). 
Superintendents and supervisors (on request). 
Committees of teachers (on request). 

Some Trends in Curriculum Thinking 

The following ideas are having a decided influence on the curriculum. 
Should not these ideas as well as many others contained in books included in 
the Selected Reading List be studied by supei^isors and teachers in Mary- 
land? 

The succession of experiences in a child's day is his course of study. In 
other words, a child's course of study is his way of living in school and out 
of school. In school, the teacher is, perhaps, the most significant element in 
a child's course of study. Other elements are the materials of instruction 
available and the appearance of the schoolroom. 

The course of study is more concerned with the development of whole- 
some personalities and well-integrated individuals than with the teaching of 
any body of subject matter. Therefore, we must select materials and provide 
learning experiences that will emphasize understandings, insights, apprecia- 
tions, and concepts, rather than what we may call raw information. 

In the United States education should center largely around an under- 
standing of American institutions and of the demands of social living. There 
is, therefore, a trend toward evaluating the curriculum by the extent to 
which it succeeds in promoting what we may call social competence. 

There is a tendency to reorganize the curriculum around "Areas of Living" 
(organized group life, markets and marketing, etc.) and "Levels of Child 
Development or Maturation," which will determine the sequence of learning 
activities year by year. 

In these days of intense preoccupation with the social and natural sciences, 
it is important to stress the arts as a part of everyday life. Beauty in art, 
literature, and music is valuable subject matter; therefore, the perception, 
enjoyment, and creation of beautiful things should be encouraged as never 
before. 

The newer organizations of subject matter and learning experiences, 
known as fusion, integration, or the core curriculum, will be more teachable 
and more stimulating if there is on the part of the curriculum makers under- 
standing of the nature and needs of children, allowance for wide ranges of 
ability in rate and quality of growth, competent scholarship in the various 
fields, knowledge of the background and significance of our social institu- 
tions, a plan to evaluate the worth of the newer type of organization. 

The superintendents were asked to consider and discuss next 
steps in the development of the curriculum and the part the 
State Department of Education and study groups in the counties 
could play in the publication of a social studies syllabus similar 
to the science syllabus. It was agreed to go forward with this 
program for the elementary schools under the guidance of the 
Assistant State Superintendent in charge of elementary instruc- 
tion. 



WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



GROWTH IN HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 

The enrollment in the last four years of county white public 
high schools in 1939 increased to 36,637, a gain of 2,222 over 
corresponding figures for the preceding year, continuing the 
steady growth noted since 1920. In Baltimore City the de- 
creases apparent in 1937 and 1938 were checked when the in- 
crease of 1,041 in 1939 over 1938 brought the white enrollment 
in the senior high schools and last year of junior high schools 
to 19,081. (See Table 46 and Chart 11.) 

CHART 11 



GROWTH IN imiTE HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 



Counties 



Balto. City f!223 



1919- 1920 

1920- 1921 

1921- 1922 

1922- 1923 

1923- 1924 

1924- 1925 

1925- 1926 

1926- 1927 

1927- 1928 

1928- 1929 

1929- 1930 

1930- 1931 

1931- 1952 

1932- 1933 

1933- 1934 

1954-1935 
1935-1936 
1956-1937 

•|Q'5'7_1Q'3Q 




1 



110.658 



10,933 
1^91 



i 



Y///////A 



11.792 



m 



116.053 y////////////////////////////x 

\^^:ro^V//////!!^ 



31736 



^f!>i^V/////////////////////////////777X 



\Q^*tb'////////////////////////////////Y 




78 



Enrollment in White High Schools 



79 



TABLE 46 



White Enrollment and Attendance in Last Four Years of Public High Schools 
in 23 Maryland Counties and Baltimore City for School Years Ending 
June, 1920 to 1939 





23 Counties 


Baltimore City 


Year Ending 














June 30 




Average 






Average 






iiinrollment 


Number 


Average 


JiinroUment 


Number 


Average 






Belonging 


Attendance 




Belonging 


Attendance 


1920 


9,392 




7,798 


6,208 


5,980 


5,408 


1921 


10,900 


* 


9,294 


6,899 


6,676 


6,151 


1922 


12,815 


* 


11,188 


8,320 


8,008 


7,329 


1923 


14,888 


13,844 


12,716 


9,742 


9,467 


8,656 


1924 


16,026 


14,842 


13,969 


9,783 


9,513 


8,722 


1925 


17,453 


16,168 


14,982 


10,658 


10,165 


9,340 


1926 


19.003 


17,516 


16,218 


10,933 


10,769 


9,951 


1927 


20,358 


18,770 


17,504 


11,391 


11,067 


10,233 


1928 


21,811 


20,382 


19,080 


11,792 


11,698 


10,816 


1929 


23,371 


21,802 


20,275 


12,899 


12 , 782 


11,802 


1930 


24,760 


23,186 


21,890 


13,434 


13,175 


12,261 


1931 


26,998 


25,402 


23,988 


14,549 


14,299 


13,278 


1932 


28,547 


26,835 


25,249 


16,053 


15,761 


14,696 . 


1933 


30,778 


28,877 


27,302 


17,707 


17,030 


15,831 


1934 


31,036 


29,017 


27,292 


17.807 


17,018 


15,823 


1935 


31,786 


29,723 


27,963 


18,557 


17,793 


16,567 


1936 


33,111 


31,192 


29,261 


18,869 


17,998 


16,894 


1937 


33,959 


31,938 


30,026 


18,346 


17,624 


16,549 


1938 


34,415 


32,731 


31,009 


18,040 


17,589 


16,661 


1939 


36,637 


34,900 


32,954 


19,081 


18,551 


17,448 



* Average number belonging not reported before 1923. 



The average number belonging in county white public high 
schools was 34,900, a gain of 2,169 over the year preceding, and 
the average daily attendance increased by 1,945 to 32,954 in 
1939. In Baltimore City, the average number belonging in- 
creased by 962 to 18,551, while average attendance increased 
by 787 to 17,448 in 1939 over 1938. (See Table 46.) 

The total high school enrollment combined for public and 
non-public schools in the counties has increased steadily each 
year from 1930 to 1939. In Baltimore City, while the combined 
enrollment in public and non-public schools as well as in public 
schools showed recessions in 1937 and 1938, increases in 1939 
brought the enrollment to its peak for the period. The Balti- 
more City enrollment in non-Catholic private schools showed 
small decreases in 1938 and 1939. (See Table 47.) 

The excess of the counties over the City in white enrollment 
in the secondary schools apparent in 1930 has become larger in 
succeeding years, reaching 16,002 in 1939. This excess is due in 
part to the larger white population in the counties, to the oppor- 
tunity to attend vocational schools in the City, and the greater 
availability of jobs for City youth. Enrollment in vocational 
schools in the City has been included with the elementary schools 
in Table 7, page 18. 



80 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 47 



Comparison of White High School Enrollment in Counties and Baltimore City 
in Public and Non-Public Schools, 1930 to 1939 

















Non-Catholic 




Total 


Public Schools 


♦Catholic Schools 


Non-Public Schools 


Year 






















Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


1930, ... 


27,893 


17,462 


24,760 


13,434 


1,480 


3,150 


1,653 


878 


1931 , , . 


30,193 


18,618 


26,998 


14,549 


1,509 


3,215 


1,686 


854 


1932 


31,775 


20,440 


28,547 


16,053 


1,574 


3,553 


1,654 


834 


1933 


33,678 


22,186 


30,778 


17,707 


1,542 


3,755 


1,358 


724 


1934 


34,030 


22,190 


31,306 


17,807 


1,389 


3,699 


1,335 


684 


1935 


34,823 


23,339 


31,786 


18,557 


1,592 


4,023 


1,445 


759 


1936 


36,249 


23,891 


33,111 


18,869 


1,587 


4,211 


1,551 


811 


1937 , . 


37,313 


23 , 699 


33,959 


18,346 


1,707 


4,435 


1,647 


918 


1938 


38,007 


23,439 


34,415 


18,040 


1,787 


4,562 


1,805 


837 


1939 


40,496 


24,494 


36,637 


19,081 


2,022 


4,610 


1,837 


803 



Includes enrollment taking commercial courses. 

See Tables III-V, pages 314 to 318 for information about individual non-public schools. 



LENGTH OF SESSION IN HIGH SCHOOLS 

The county high schools for white pupils were in session on 
the average 185.5 days in 1938-39, a decrease of 1.7 days under 
the year preceding. In the individual counties, length of session 
varied from 181 days to 191 days. Baltimore City schools were 
open 190 days. (See Table 48.) 



TABLE 48 

Length of Session in White High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1939 



County 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



School Year 
1938-39 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



County 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



School Year 
1938-39 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Harford 

Howard 

Cecil 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Washington 

Allegany 

Dorchester 

Garrett 

Charles 

MontRomery . . . . 
Carroll 



185.5 

191.0 
189.9 
189.0 
188.0 
187.0 
186.0 
185.4 
185.1 
184.3 
184.1 
184.0 
183.9 



9/13 

9/7 

9/7 

9/7 

9/7 

9/6 

9/8 

9/7 

9/6 

9/7 

9/13 

9/8 



6/23 

6/16 

6/16 

6/16 

6/23 

6/9 

6/16 

6/9 

6/9 

6/15 

6/20 

6/9 



Pr. George's. . 

Kent 

Queen Anne's. 

Talbot 

Somerset 

St. Mary's 

Wicomico. . . . 

Frederick 

Caroline 

Calvert 

Worcester .... 

Baltimore City 

Total State. . . 



183.5 
183.0 
183.0 
183.0 
182.3 
182.0 
182.0 
182.0 
181.8 
181.4 
181.0 

190.0 

186.8 



9/7 
9/7 
9/8 
9/8 
9/1 
9/6 
9/1 
9/7 
9/7 
9/7 
9/6 

9/13 



6/16, 6/17, 6/20 
6/9 
6/8 
6/9 
5/31 
6/8 
5/31 
6/9 
6/6 
6/9 
6/2 

6/22 



High School Enrollment, Length of Session, Attendance 81 



PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

In 1939 the per cent of the average number belonging in aver- 
age attendance in county white high schools was 94.4. This was a 
decrease of .3 under 1938. Baltimore City white high school 
attendance declined from 94.7 in 1938 to 94.1 per cent in 1939. 
(See Table 49.) 

TABLE 49 

Per Cent of Attendance in White High Schools, School Years Ending in 
June, 1923, 1937, 1938 and 1939 



County 



1923 


1937 


1938 


1939 


County 


1923 


1937 


1938 


91.9 


94.0 


94.7 


94.4 


Garrett 


90.2 


92.7 


93.5 










Anne Arundel 


92.1 


94.1 


95.1 


92.3 


95.4 


96.0 


96.1 


Kent 


90.2 


91.8 


95.2 


91.5 


95.5 


96.2 


95.9 




91.7 


93.1 


93.8 


94.8 


95.4 


95.4 


95.8 




91.2 


92.3 


93.2 


93.1 


95.3 


95.8 


95.7 




88.7 


94.7 


94.3 


91.4 


94.5 


96.0 


95.1 


Talbot 


93.2 


92.7 


93.0 


92.4 


94.3 


95.4 


94.9 




86.8 


92.5 


93.4 


91.9 


93.7 


95.2 


94.8 


Cecil 


92.0 


92.6 


93.9 


93.5 


94.1 


94.0 


94.7 




88.9 


92.5 


93.1 


88.7 


94.1 


95.1 


94.6 


Caroline 


91.2 


92.1 


92.5 


91.3 


94.0 


94.6 


94.4 










91.8 


94.4 


95.0 


94.3 


Baltimore City .... 


91.5 


93.9 


94.7 


89.9 


92.6 


93.8 


94.3 
















State Average 


91.6 


94.0 


94.7 



County Average . , 

Wicomico 

Frederick 

Allegany 

Washington 

Somerset 

Dorchester 

Queen Anne's. . . . 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Baltimore 

Prince George's . . 
Howard 



The range in per cent of attendance was from 91.2 per cent 
in the lowest to over 96 per cent in the highest county. Eight 
counties had a higher per cent of attendance in the white high 
schools in 1939 than they had the preceding year. (See Table 49.) 

The average number belonging in county white public high 
schools was at its maximum in October, 35,777, after which there 
was a decrease each succeeding month, the June figure being 
31,839 when schools in three counties were not in session. Per 

TABLE 50 



Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Last Four Years of Mary- 
land County White High Schools, by Months, for School Year 
Ending in June, 1939 



Month 


Average No. 


Per Cent 
of 

Attend- 
ance 


Month 


Average No. 


Per Cent 
of 

Attend- 
ance 


Attend- 
ing 


Belong- 
ing 


Attend- 
ing 


Belong- 
ing 


September 


34,478 
34,233 
33,839 
33 , 029 
32,981 
32,649 


35,538 
35,777 
35,592 
35,369 
35,118 
34,897 


97.0 
95.7 
95.1 
93.4 
93.9 
93.6 




32,365 
32,186 
31,813 
30,529 

32,954 


34,564 
34,242 
33,900 
31,839 

34,900 


93.6 
94.0 
93.8 
95.9 

94.4 
















Average for Year . . 



82 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



cent of attendance was highest in September and June, 97 and 
95.9, respectively. The lowest per cent of attendance, 93.4, was 
found in December. (See Table 50.) 



IMPORTANCE OF HIGH SCHOOLS 

Of every 100 white pupils attending county public elementary 
and secondary schools, 25.2 attended secondary schools in 1938- 
39. This was an increase of .9 over the corresponding figure 
of 24.3 for the year preceding. For Baltimore City correspond- 
ing ratios were 22.5 in 1939 as against 21.1 in 1938. (See Chart 
12.) 

The ratio of number belonging in the white high schools to 
the combined average enrollment in high and elementary schools 
varied among the counties from 19.1 to 32.1. Counties in which 
the elementary school enrollment is decreasing more than in the 
average county show a higher percentage of pupils in high 
school than counties in which the white elementary school en- 
rollment is increasing. Twenty of the 23 counties showed in- 
creases from 1938 to 1939 in ratio of white pupils in high school. 
(See Table 51.) 

TABLE 51 

Ratio of "Number Belonging" in Last Four Years of White High Schools to 
"Number Belonging" in White Elementary and White High Schools Combined 



1924 



1937 



1938 



1939 



County 



1924 


1937 


1938 


1939 


19.9 


24.9 


25.4 


26.4 


18.3 


25.3 


25.9 


26.2 


14.9 


23.7 


24.4 


25.5 


11.6 


23.1 


24.1 


24.9 


12.7 


22.9 


24.7 


24.6 


13.5 


22.0 


22.2 


23.9 


13.9 


22.2 


22.9 


23.7 


11.0 


21.8 


22.1 


23.5 


8.4 


20.6 


21.3 


23.3 


15.5 


23.9 


22.4 


20.3 


11.1 


17.9 


18.5 


19.1 


9.7 


20.2 


20.5 


21.9 


11.8 


22.0 


22.5 


23.7 



13.3 

3.0 
18.7 
14.3 
18.9 

5.5 
14.8 
18.8 
15.2 
10.2 
15.2 
13.7 
16.7 



23.2 

27.2 
28.3 
26.5 
26.8 
27.0 
26.8 
25.3 
25.3 
26.5 
29.3 
24.1 
24.9 



23.8 

30.6 
28.7 
28.5 
27.8 
28.3 
27.5 
25.5 
26.4 
26.1 
28.3 
25.5 
24.7 



24.9 

32.1 
29.2 
29.0 
29.0 
28.7 
28.0 
27.8 
27.5 
27.3 
27.3 
27.1 
26.7 



Wicomico 

Queen Anne's. . 

Frederick 

Prince George's. 

Howard 

Allegany* 

Montgomery*. . 

Baltimore 

Garrett 

Calvert 

Washington*. . . 



Baltimore City* . , 
State Average 11.8 



* County has 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization as against 7-4 or 6-5 plan in remaining 
counties. 



If conditions permitted no retardation in any grade and four 
years of high school attendance by every elementary school 
graduate, the maximum percentage that could possibly be en- 
rolled in the four years of high school would be 33.3 in counties 
having the 8-4 or 6-3-3 plan and 36.4 per cent in counties organ- 
ized on the 7-4 plan. These percentages assume that there is 
a uniform number entering school each year, which of course 
is not the case. (See Table 51.) 



Ratio of High School to Total White Enrollment and 83 
Attendance 



CHART 12 



THE NUMBER OF PUPILS ATTENDING WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR EVERY 100 WHITE PUPILS ATTENDING SCHOOLS 
IN THE COUNTIES AND BALTIMORE CITI 
1917 - 1939 



1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 

1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 



1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1950 

1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 



1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 - 1939 



1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 



Maiyland Counties 



Baltimore City V77A 




\(i.2////////////////////77A 



ffl 



7///////////////////////\ 



\^.0V////////////////////////////////\ 



'5.3 y////////////////////, 



Y//////////////////////X^ 




84 



1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



NUMBER OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES INCREASES 

There were 6,306 graduates from the county white high schools 
in 1939, an increase of 376 over the preceding year. This con- 
tinued the upward trend noted in every year since 1919, with 
the exception of 1935. Of the graduates 2,750 were boys and 



CHART 13 



Comity 



NULiBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS GRADUATED IH)M VrrilTE HIGE SCHOOLS 

Total 1939 

1938 1939 ■■ Boys F77771 Girls 



Baltimore 

Allegany 

Monteomerj' 

Pr. Geo.'s 

V/ashington 

A. ArtJidel 

Frederick 

Carroll 

Harford 

Wiconico 

Garrett 

Cecil 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Somerset 

Howard 

Kent 

Charles 

Q. Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 



emy//////////////////////////^^^ 



■boi 

ram///////////////////^^^ 



2T4 I 

fssaawtfitiiiiiiMittiitfttutiititiiiti 



229 

^tiiiiifiiiiiiiiiiiiitMiiiiiiititigiiitiiii 



105 
101 
62 



^uiititttmiiitititiiitiitttiitiiii 



TSSMtiMiiiiiitiiiUtiiiiiitiiiMiin 



457 453 

369 437 El 

367 432 

274 316 ^^WfH^^^ ^TTTTTTU 

273 290 ^W^^^^f^ ^mimn 

202 223 ^^^^B!za 
181 215 W^^^^^^TTm 
222 198 ^^^zZZZZZZa 

186 187 ^^^B^znm 

153 141 ¥^^^77^ 

125 126 ^^n rn 

122 120 ^^Wti 
116 117^^71 
108 103 TiW/////X 
94 100 [^BR 
94^fflj 

91 f^^Vh 

75 ^^7A 

h 



47 28 



Belto.City 2918 3006 1503* 
15C3* 



White High School Graduates and Persistence to Graduation 85 



3,556 were girls. Baltimore City also showed an increase in 
the number of high school graduates, 3,006 in 1939 compared 
with 2,918 in 1938. (See Table 52.) 

TABLE 52 



Four-Year White High School Graduates in Maryland, 1919 to 1939 



Year 


Boys 


23 Counties 
Girls 


Total 


Baltimore 
City 


1919 


323 


681 


1,004 


653 


1920 


378 


772 


1,150 


698 


1921 


470 


893 


1,363 


806 


1922 


599 


1,034 


1,633 


948 


1923 


686 


1,267 


1,953 


1,167 


1924 


813 


1,405 


2,218 


1,348 


1925 


929 


1,610 


2,539 


1,141 


1926 


1,045 


1,574 


2,619 


1,450 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


2,887 


1,528 


1928 


1,142 


1,851 


2,993 


1,503 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


3,395 


1,757 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


3,785 


1,775 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


4,204 


1,970 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


4,397 


2,167 


1933 


2,114 


2,807 


4,921 


2,371 


1934 


2,220 


2,902 


5,122 


2,485 


1935 


2,052 


2,787 


4,839 


2,469 


1936 


2,283 


3,039 


5,322 


2,759 


1937 


2,361 


3,111 


5,472 


2,865 


1938 


2,566 


3,364 


5,930 


2,918 


1939 


2,750 


3,556 


6,306 


3,006 



The number of graduates varied from 28 in the county with 
the smallest to 803 in the county with the largest white school 
population. Fifteen counties had more high school graduates 
in 1939 than in 1938. As in previous years, in every county the 
number of girls graduated exceeded the number of boys gradu- 
ated. In Baltimore City there were 1,503 boys and 1,503 girls 
graduated in 1939. These figures included 38 boys and 39 girls 
who completed the new special curriculum, who received certif- 
icates instead of diplomas. (See Chart 13.) 

PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 

If the number of graduates in 1939 is compared with the 
first year enrollment of 1936, it is possible to obtain a rough 
estimate of persistence to high school graduation of those who 
were classified as in the first year of high school in 1936. Al- 
though the first year enrollment included repeaters of the pre- 
ceding year, these were partially offset by the pupils who en- 
tered high school after the first year. 

The average per cent of persistence to high school graduation 
in 1939 was 56, which included 48.6 for boys and 63.4 per cent 
for girls in county white high schools. This was a higher per- 
sistence for both boys and girls than was shown in any year pre- 
viously reported. (See Table 53.) 



86 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Among the counties the percentage of persistence ranged from 
36.8 to 75.2. Sixteen counties showed gains in 1939 over the 
1938 persistence. For boys the range in per cent of persistence 
ran from 29.0 to 72.9 and for girls from 42.2 to 79.3. In every 
county the percentage of persistence to high school gradua- 
tion was higher for girls than for boys, although in Washington it 
was very close. (See Chart 14.) 

CHART 14 



PER CIUT OF PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUAl'IOK 

First Year 
Enrollment % 

1936 1939 WM Boys I I Girls 
11.267 56.0 PP— i^^M 
Iflontgomery 733 75.2 [BBaB— ■— — ^ ^ 



Kent 



Herford 449 64.6 |M 

Charles 147 63.9 



2LSL 



Caroline 203 62.1 ^ 

Garrett 349 61.6 



St. Mary's 124 60.5 |BSB 
Dorchester 310 60.3 



Talbot 209 57.4 



Allegany 1,224 55.1 ^§ 
Anne Arm. 799 54.7 
Worcester 268 52.6 



Frederick 830 52.0 BE 

Cecil 396 50.0 

Baltimore 1,682 47.7 ^ 
Wicomico 475 46.9 

Howard 
Somerset 
Calvert 



Q. Anne's 150 60.7 [BBpi— ^ ^ 

Carroll 521 60.7 



Pr. Geo/s 888 59.9 , 

Washington 783 57.9 





Persistence to High School Graduation ; Teachers College 87 

Entrants 

TABLE 53 



Persistence to Graduation by County Wliite High School Pupils 







Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 






Four Years Later 


Year 


First Year 










Enrollment 












Total 


Boys 


Girls 


1923 


5,756 


45.3 


38.4 


51.8 


1 QOA 


6 311 


45.7 


36.0 


54.5 


1925 


6^772 


44.2 


35.6 


52.0 


1926 


7,548 


45.0 


38.2 


50.9 


1927 


7,895 


47.9 


40.3 


55.0 


1928 


8,486 


49.5 


42.2 


56.3 


1929 


8,587 


51.2 


42.9 


58.9 


1930 


9,038 


54.4 


47.1 


61.6 


1931 


9,777 


52.4 


44.8 


60.2 


1932 


9,662 


50.1 


42.1 


58.3 


1933 


10,548 


50.5 


42.6 


58.6 


1934 


10,629 


51.5 


44.7 


58.2 


1935 


11,062 


53.6 


46.0 


61.4 


1936 


11,267 


56.0 


48.6 


63.4 



INCREASE IN GIRLS ENTERING TEACHERS COLLEGES 

The number of 1939 county girl high school graduates enter- 
ing the three Maryland State Teachers Colleges in the fall of 
1939 increased from 151 in 1938 to 179 in 1939. These repre- 
sented 4.9 per cent of the girls graduated from county high 
schools in 1939 compared with 4.5 per cent the preceding year. 
(See Chart 15.) 

The 1939 girl graduates entering State teachers colleges 
ranged from none at all from 3 counties and less than 2 per cent 
from 1 county, to 18.4 per cent of Queen Anne's graduates. The 
largest numbers entered from the counties in which the teachers 

TABLE 54 



Boy Graduates from White Public Hiffh Schools Entering Maryland State 
Teachers Colleges, 1939 



County 


Total 
Number 
White 
Boy 
Grad- 
uates 


Boy Graduates 
Entering Mary- 
land Teachers 
Colleges 


County 


Total 
Number 
White 
Boy 
Grad- 
uates 


Boy Graduates 
Entering Mary- 
land Teachers 
Colleges 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and County 










350 


9 


2.6 


Average 


2,750 


79 


2.9 


Washington 


204 


5 


2.5 






Queen Anne's. . . . 


42 


1 


2.4 




101 


25 


24.8 


Charles 


44 


1 


2.3 




52 


7 


13.5 


Kent 


49 


1 


2.0 


Caroline 


50 


4 


8.0 


Frederick 


181 


2 


1.1 




92 


4 


4.3 


Harford 


118 


1 


.8 


Dorchester 


74 


3 


4.1 ■ 








Allegany 


301 


12 


4.0 


Baltimore City . . . 


1,503 


17 


1.1 


Talbot 


54 


2 


3.7 






Worcester 


61 


2 


3.3 


State 


4,253 


96 


2.3 













88 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 15 



GIRL GRADUAT£S 01 WHITE PUBLIC HIGii SCHOOLS ENTFJtING tJARYLAND 
TEACHERS COLLEGES THE FALL FOLLOWto"G GRADUATION 



County 


Nunber 


Per Cent 


L957 


1938 


1939 


1938 


1939 


County 
Averufe 


118 


151 


179 


4.5 B^H^^H 


Q. Anne'e 


2 


3 


9 


5.7 




VVlcoriico 


17 


18 




1 4 ^ 




Somerset 




b 


7 

1 


9.0 




Calvert 






2 


2.9 




Caroline 


6 


4 


1 


6.1 




Allegany 


22 


29 


32 


ft 




Baltimore 


12 


29 


28 


6.5 




Talbot 


3 




4 






Harford 


6 


10 


10 


6.8 




Dorchester 




3 


6 


3.0 




IVorc ester 


4 


g 


4 


9.5 




Frederick 


Q 

o 




11 


1.0 




Ho-A-ard 


1 




3 






C ecil 


5 


9 


5 


6.8 




Washington 


6 


7 


9 


2.7 




Garrett 


5 


2 


4 


1.9 




Montgomery 


1 


2 


8 


.7 




A. Arundel 


5 


5 


6 


2.3 




St. Mary's 






1 






Carroll 


6 


1 


3 


.6 




Charles 


3 


3 




4.7 




Kent 


4 


7 




11.3 




Pr. Gea»6 


2 


1 




.4 1 


Balto.City 


72 


83 


54 


5.7 DHH 


State 


190 


234 


230 


4.9 BS^^^H 



colleges are located. Sixteen counties sent a larger number 
of 1939 than of 1938 girl graduates to Maryland State teachers 
colleges. (See Chart 15.) 

Baltimore City sent 54 girl graduates of 1939 to Towson State 
Teachers College, a decrease of 29 under the number for 1938. 
There were 230 girl graduates of 1939 from the county and City 
public white high schools who entered the State teachers col- 
leges in September, 1939. (See Chart 15.) 

Similar data for 1939 boy graduates indicated 96 entrants 
to the State teachers colleges of whom 79 came from 15 counties 
and 17 from Baltimore City as against 82 and 21, respectively, 



Teachers College Entrants; Occupations of White High 89 
School Graduates 

for the preceding year. As with the girls, the largest number 
of county boys who entered came from the counties in which 
the iState teachers colleges are located. (See Table 54.) 

OCCUPATIONS IN 1938-39 OF 1938 COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL 
GRADUATES 

The discussion on the preceding pages was concerned with 
graduates of 1939. In order to follow up on occupations of 
graduates during 1938-39, it was necessary to investigate activi- 
ties of the 1938 graduates who numbered 2,566 boys and 3,364 
girls. Of the boys graduated there were 745 or 29 per cent, and 
of the 1938 girl graduates 1,114 or 33 per cent, who continued 
their education in 1938-39. On the other hand, 347 boys or 13.5 
per cent and 1,249 girls or 37 per cent of the 1938 county gradu- 
ates were reported as staying or working at home or married 
the year following graduation. (See Tables 55 and 56.) 

TABLE 55 



Comparison of Number and Per Cent of County White High School Graduates 
Continuing Education or Staying or Working at Home Year 
Following Graduation, 1926 to 1938 



Graduates 

OP 


Total Number 
of Graduates 


Number 


Per Cent 


Continuing 
Education 


Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 


Continuing 
Education 


Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1926 


1,045 


1,574 


507 


856 


88 


323 


48.8 


54.3 


8.5 


20.5 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


472 


913 


99 


417 


44.1 


50.3 


9.3 


22.9 


1928 


1,142 


1,851 


480 


947 


118 


432 


41.8 


51.2 


10.3 


23.3 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


527 


1,051 


125 


455 


39.3 


51.3 


9.3 


22.1 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


542 


1,031 


223 


694 


35.3 


45.8 


21 .5 


28.7 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


574 


953 


361 


994 


33.5 


38.2 


21.2 


39.8 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


471 


820 


495 


1,321 


26.6 


31.2 


27.9 


50.4 


1933 


2,114 


2,807 


469 


701 


447 


1,453 


22.2 


25.0 


21.1 


51.8 


1934 


2,223 


2,904 


522 


803 


473 


1,348 


23.5 


27.7 


21.2 


46.4 


1935 


2,052 


2,787 


498 


800 


367 


1,172 


24.3 


28.7 


17.9 


42.0 


1936 


2,283 


3,039 


613 


980 


244 


1,036 


26.9 


32.3 


10.7 


34.0 


1937 


2,361 


3,111 


652 


1,078 


354 


1,081 


27.6 


34.7 


15.0 


34.7 


1938 


2,566 


3,364 


745 


1,114 


347 


1,249 


29.0 


33.1 


13.5 


37.1 



The number of white county boys and girls continuing their 
education beyond high school graduation in 1938-39 is the larg- 
est ever reported, considerably higher than in 1929 and 1930, 
the years preceding the depression, which had showed the larg- 
est numbers up to that time. In 1938-39 there was an increase 
of 93 boys and 36 girls over the corresponding numbers for the 
preceding year who went on studying after graduation. (See 
Table 55.) 

^ The per cent of county white high school graduates who con- 
tinued their education the year following graduation decreased 



90 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



gradually from 1926 to 1933 and showed slight gains from 1933 
to 1938, except for girls in 1938. There were 49 per cent of the 
white boys and 54 per cent of the white girls graduated in 1926 
who followed their high school course with further study. These 
percentages dropped to 22 for boys and 25 for girls in 1933, after 
which they increased gradually with 29 per cent for boys and 
33 per cent for girls reported for 1938 graduates. (See Tables 
55 and 56.) 

On the other hand, the number and per cent of boys staying 
or working at home the year following graduation increased 
steadily for graduates of the years 1926 to 1932 and fluctuated 
thereafter with 347 of the 1938 graduates at home during 
1938-39. The boy graduates at home the year following gradu- 
ation ranged between 8.5 per cent of the boys graduated in 1927 
and 27.9 for those graduated in 1932, dropped to 10.7 per cent 
for 1936 graduates and increased to 13.5 per cent for 1938 gradu- 
ates. (See Tables 55 and 56.) 

The rise and fall in number staying or working at home for 
girls who graduated during the period from 1926 to 1938 are 
similar to those for boys, except that the maximum number at 

TABLE 56 



Occupations of 1938 Graduates as Reported by Principals of County White 
High Schools in 1938-39 





Number 


Per Cent 


Occupations 










Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 




745 


1,114 


29.0 


33.1 




333 


318 


13.0 


9.5 




80 


150 


3.1 


4.5 




20 


1 


.8 






27 




1.0 




Physical Education, Home Economics, and Kindergarten Train- 










9 




.3 




' "8 




■ ■ ^3 






173 


396 


6.7 


ills 


College Preparatory Schools 


69 


17 


2.7 


.5 




25 


55 


1.0 


1.6 




10 


22 


.4 


.6 






146 




4.3 




159 


578 


6.2 


17.2 




188 


418 


7.3 


12.4 






253 




7.5 




388 


322 


is.i 


9.6 




320 


91 


12.5 


2.7 




321 




12.5 






132 


302 


5.1 


'9.6 




59 




2.3 






41 




1.6 








■ 39 




1.2 


Actors, Artists, Dancers, Musicians 


• ■ • j 


5 


■ ■ .3 






60 




l!8 




' "i 


4 


' ' .3 


.1 


Died 


2 


2 


.1 


.1 




197 


176 


7.7 


5.2 


Total 


2,566 


3,364 


100.0 


100.0 



Occupations in 1938-39 of White County High School 91 
Graduates of 1938 

home was reached for 1933 rather than for 1932 graduates. 
The girls who stayed or worked at home the year following 
graduation increased from 20.5 per cent for those graduated 
in 1926 to 51.8 for graduates of 1933, dropped to 34 for 1936 
graduates and increased to 37 per cent for 1938 girl graduates. 
(See Tables 55 and 56.) 

In addition to those 1938 graduates who were at home or at 
school, there were 388 boys and 322 girls employed as clerks or 
salespeople, 15.1 and 9.6 per cent of the total number of boy and 
girl graduates, respectively; 320 boys and 91 girls in shops or 
factories, 12.5 and 2.7 per cent of the boys and girls graduated; 
321 boys on farms, in the water industries, or in the Civilian 
Conservation Corps, 12.5 per cent of the boys graduated; and 
132 boys and 302 girls doing office work, 5.1 and 9 per cent of 
the boys and girls graduated, respectively. Various occupations 
were reported for the remaining white county 1938 graduates 
during 1938-39. (See Table 56.) 

Occupations for Pupils in Individual Counties 

The occupations of 1938 graduates in 1938-39 varied con- 
siderably among the counties. As few as 10 per cent of the boys 
in one county and as few as 13 per cent of the girls in another 
who graduated in 1938 continued education in 1938-39 in school 
or college or hospital, while at the opposite extreme 45 per cent 
of the boys in one county and 48 per cent of the girls in another 
county were able to supplement their education after high school 
graduation. (See Table 57.) 

At one extreme as few as 4 per cent of the boys and 2 per 
cent of the girls in one county and at the other extreme as many 
as 34 per cent of the boys and 27 per cent of the girls in another 
county went to liberal arts colleges and universities. Teachers 
colleges and schools for teacher training had no boy entrants 
from seven counties, and as few as 1 and 2 per cent of the girls 
graduated from eight counties, and as many as 17 per cent of 
the boys and 15 per cent of the girls from one county in which a 
teachers college is located. Commercial and vocational schools 
attracted no boys from three counties and 1 and 2 per cent of the 
girls from two counties as compared with 17 per cent of the boys 
and 23 per cent of the girls from other counties. No boys from 
four counties and no girls from nine counties returned for post- 
graduate high school work or found it necessary to attend college 
preparatory schools, but as many as 11 per cent of the boys from 
two counties and 15 per cent of the girls from another continued 
study at the high school level after graduation. Only 1 per 
cent of the girls from three counties entered hospitals for train- 
ing as nurses, while 11 per cent of the girls from one county 



92 



1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Occupations in 1938-39 of White County High School 93 
Graduates of 1938 

entered training. The availability of institutions of higher 
education in close proximity to the homes of the graduates, 
financial status, faith in the availability of better positions for 
those with advanced training, interest in further education 
fostered by teachers, parents, and friends, and lack of available 
positions all probably were factors in determining whether gradu- 
ates continued their education beyond high school graduation. 
(See Table 57.)- 

The 1938 graduates staying or working at home, including 
married girls not working outside the home, varied from 3 per 
cent for boys in two counties to 36 per cent in one county and 
for girls from 23 to 74 per cent. (See Table 57.) 

The extremes for boys working at farming, fishing, forestry, 
or in C.C.C. camps were 5 and 57 per cent. Boy graduates en- 
gaged as clerks in stores or as salesmen ranged from 3 to 26 per 
per cent among the counties, while corresponding extreme per- 
centages for girls were 3 and 17 per cent. The minimum and 
maximum percentages for boys engaged in manufacturing, 
mechanical, mining, and building trades were in two counties 
and 25 per cent in another. No girls were reported as factory 
workers in nine counties, while there were 12 per cent in the 
county with the highest proportion. 

In one county no graduates were working in offices or as tele- 
phone or telegraph operators, while 12 per cent of the boys and 
19 per cent of the girls in another county were employed in these 
fields. The business of transportation, including work on rail- 
roads and acting as chauffeurs, attracted none of the boys in six 
counties and 8 per cent from one county. No girl graduates 
from four counties became waitresses, while in one county 17 
per cent of the girls followed this occupation. No boys from 
ten counties went into the army, navy, or aviation, while from 
one county 6 per cent entered these services. Beauty parlor 
work was engaged in by no girls from nine counties, while 2 per 
cent of the girl graduates in six counties took up this type of 
work. (See Table 57.) 

The high school principals of two counties reported the occu- 
pations of every one of their white boy graduates of 1938. while 
at the opposite extreme one county reported the occupations of 
25 per cent of the boys as ''other and unknown." Five counties 
reported the occupation of every one of their 1938 girl gradu- 
ates, but in one county the occupations of 13 per cent were re- 
ported as ''other and unknown." Several of the counties having 
a large proportion whose occupations were other or unknown 
have a population which moves about a great deal. (See Table 
57.) 



94 



1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Colleges Attended by 1938 White High School Graduates; 95 
1938 Youth Census of Ages 14 to 20 

Maryland Colleges Attended by 1938 Graduates 

The 1938 graduates attended Maryland institutions of higher 
education in 1938-39 in greatest numbers if they were located 
in the county of or adjacent to that of the residence of the gradu- 
ates. The only exception to this is the large enrollment at the 
University of Maryland from Baltimore County. (See Table 
58.) 

The colleges are listed in Table 58 from left to right accord- 
ing to size of enrollment. Forty-three per cent of the county 
boys and 25 per cent of the girls who entered colleges went to 
the University of Maryland. The State teachers colleges at- 
tracted 23 per cent of the county boys and 40 per cent of the girls 
who went to college. Western Maryland attracted 10 per cent 
of the county boys .and 15 per cent of the county girls who were 
college entrants in September, 1938. (See Table 58.) 

1938 SCHOOL CENSUS OF COUNTY WHITE YOUTH OF AGES 
14 TO 20 YEARS 

It was thought that the data on school attendance, employment 
and unemployment for boys and girls of ages 14 to 20 from the 
November, 1938 school census would be interesting to compare 
with the data on occupations of 1938 high school graduates. Of 
48,970 Maryland county white boys and 45,241 white girls of the 
age group 14 to 20 years enumerated in the November, 1938 school 
census, 12 per cent of the boys and 21 per cent of the girls not 
suffering from physical or mental handicaps were reported un- 

TABLE 59 

Distribution of White Youth of Ages 14-20 Years Inclusive Enumerated 
in 23 Maryland Counties, November, 1938 



Per Cent of Total Number of Ages 14-20 Years Inclusive 





Total 
























Number 




Not Employed 














Ages 14-20 






















Ages 


Years 














Employed 


In School 








Not 


Physically 


Mentally 
















Handicapped 


Handicapped 


Handicapped 












Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 




(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


(10) 


(11) 


(12) 




























Total and 


























Average. . . . 


48,970 


45,241 


11.7 


20.9 


.6 


.6 


.4 


.2 


39.3 


26.8 


48.0 


51.5 


14 


7,932 


7,407 


2.9 


4.5 


.5 


.5 


.5 


.3 


6.0 


3.7 


90.1 


91.0 


15 


7,539 


7,338 


7.5 


10.0 


.7 


.6 


.4 


.2 


13.7 


8.9 


77.7 


80.3 


16 


7,519 


7,093 


12.6 


17.9 


.6 


.7 


.4 


.3 


27.9 


15.9 


58.5 


65.2 


17 


7,375 


6,859 


16.6 


28.5 


.6 


.6 


.5 


.2 


43.0 


27.5 


39.3 


43.2 


18 


7,349 


6,730 


17.0 


31.5 


.7 


.5 


.3 


.3 


58.2 


42.3 


23.8 


25.4 


19 


5,903 


5,205 


14.8 


31.6 


.5 


.6 


.2 


.2 


69.6 


50.6 


14.9 


17.0 


20 


5,353 


4,609 


12.1 


30.0 


.6 


.6 


.2 


.2 


76.7 


58.5 


10.4 


10.7 



96 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



employed. One per cent of the boys and nearly one per cent 
of the girls were reported physically or mentally handicapped 
and unemployed, 39 per cent of the boys and 27 per cent of the 
girls were reported employed, and 48 per cent of the boys and 
more than 51 per cent of the girls were in school or college. The 
enumeration is obviously further from being complete for each 
succeeding age group, there being 5,353 boys of age 20 in con- 
trast with 7,932 at age 14, and 4,609 girls of age 20 as against 
7,407 for age 14. (See Table 59.) 

The per cent of unemployed white boys rose from 3 per cent 
at age 14 to a maximum of 17 per cent at age 18, and decreased 
to 12 per cent at age 20. This reduction, however, may be due 
to incomplete reporting for the age groups 19 and 20. Of the 
white girls, over 4 per cent of the 14-year-old group were un- 
employed, while unemployment was at its • maximum, nearly 
32 per cent, for the 19-year-old group, and dropped to 30 per 
cent for 20-year-old girls. The excess of unemployment for 
white girls over boys was greater with each succeeding age 
group. This may be accounted for in part by the number of 
girls who stay or work in their parents' or their own homes and 
consider themselves unemployed since they do not earn wages. 
(See columns (3) and (4) of Table 59.) 

The employed boys included 6 per cent of the 14-year-old 
group and nearly 77 per cent of the 20-year-old group. Corre- 
sponding figures for girls showed nearly 4 per cent of the 14- 
year-old group employed and over 58 per cent of the 20-year-old 
group. A larger percentage of boys than of girls was employed 
at each age group and the excess in employment of boys over 
girls was greater for each succeeding age group from 14 to 19 
years. (See columns (9) and (10) of Table 59.) 

The per cent of white boys and girls in school or college de- 
creased from approximately 90 per cent at age 14 to around 10 
per cent at age 20. (See columns (11) and (12) of Table 59.) 

In the individual counties the per cent of white boys of ages 
16 to 20 years without physical or mental handicap who were 
unemployed was under 5 per cent in three counties and over 
20 per cent in three counties. In two counties under 10 per cent 
of the white girls of ages 16 to 20 years without physical or 
mental handicap were unemployed, while this was the case for 
over 35 per cent in eight counties. (See columns (3) and (4) in 
Table 60.) 

There is variation among the counties in the per cent of 
youth of ages 16 to 20 physically handicapped — from none to 
2 per cent for boys, from none to one per cent for girls ; and for 
the mentally handicapped — from none to 1.6 for boys and from 
none to .7 of one per cent for girls. (See columns (5), (6), (7) 
and (8) of Table 60.) 



1938 Census of White Youth of Ages 16 to 20 Years 



97 



TABLE 60 



Distribution of White Youth of Ages 16-20 Years Inclusive Enumerated 
in 23 Maryland Counties, November, 1938 



County 


Total 
Number 
Ages 16-20 
Years 


Per Cent of Total Number of Ages 16-20 Years Inclusive 


Not Employed 


Employed 


In School 


Not 
Handicapped 


Physically 
Handicapped 


Mentally 
Handicapped 


Boys 
(1) 


Girls 

(2) 


Boys 
(3) 


Girls 

(4) 


Boys 
(5) 


Girls 

(6) 


Boys 
(7) 


Girls 
(8) 


Boys 
(9) 


Girls 
(10) 


Boys 
(11) 


Girls 
(12) 


Total and 


























Average .... 


33,499 


30,496 


14.8 


27.5 


.6 


.6 


.3 


.2 


53.0 


36.7 


31.3 


35.0 


Allegany 


3,537 


3,302 


21.5 


35.6 


.7 


.7 


.3 


.1 


41.2 


25.4 


36.3 


38.2 


Anne Arundel 


1,551 


1,384 


19.7 


39.1 


.8 


1.0 


.2 


.4 


45.2 


24.0 


34.1 


35.5 


Baltimore. . . . 


5,355 


4,871 


17.1 


31.0 


.6 


.7 


.2 


.3 


53.6 


39.2 


28.5 


28.8 


Calvert 


225 


249 


15.5 


52.2 


1.8 








66.7 


21.7 


16.0 


26.1 




658 


629 


13.1 


20.2 


1.1 


.8 


!6 


^5 


62.9 


51.6 


22.3 


26.9 


Carroll 


1,523 


1,340 


12.5 


22.0 


.5 


.3 


.5 


.1 


64.5 


52.0 


22.0 


25.6 


Cecil 


1,058 


968 


17.1 


31.3 


.4 


.1 


.2 


.1 


57.0 


34.9 


25.3 


33.6 


Charles 


497 


447 


15.1 


35.1 


1.6 




1.6 


.7 


49.5 


25.5 


32.2 


38.7 


Dorchester. . . 


910 


797 


7.3 


23.1 


.3 


'.7 


.2 


.4 


69.8 


46.7 


22.4 


29.1 


Frederick 


2,373 


2,144 


10.3 


21.5 


.8 


.7 


.8 


.4 


63.8 


50.3 


24.3 


27.1 


Garrett 


1,207 


1,035 


27.8 


37.7 


.7 


1.0 


.2 


.4 


50.4 


35.3 


20.9 


25.6 


Harford 


1,227 


1,116 


32.6 


43.1 


.9 


.9 


.5 


.3 


38.5 


20.9 


27.5 


34.8 


Howard 


685 


622 


12.7 


28.8 


.7 


.8 


.3 




65.3 


44.8 


21.0 


25.6 


Kent 


465 


439 


3.7 


17.1 


.2 


.2 






64.9 


42.4 


31.2 


40.3 


Montgomery . 


2,725 


2,592 


6.1 


13.2 


.3 


.5 


.2 


.2 


30.6 


17.5 


62.8 


68.6 


Pr. George's, . 


2,675 


2,399 


12.0 


18.5 


.2 


.1 


.1 


.2 


47.4 


39.3 


40.3 


41.9 


Queen Anne's. 


543 


413 


.2 


3.4 


.4 


.2 






70.3 


65.4 


29.1 


31.0 


St. Mary's. . . . 


610 


526 


5.9 


27.0 


2.0 


.7 


1.6 


.4. 


69.8 


35.2 


21.3 


36.7 


Somerset 


590 


485 


17.6 


45.4 


.8 


1.0 


.2 


.2 


55.8 


22.1 


25.6 


31.3 


Talbot 


472 


418 


4.7 


9.3 










69.5 


62.0 


25.8 


28.7 


Washington . . 


2,783 


2,672 


14.6 


26.9 


^6 


.8 


.2 




56.9 


40.7 


27.7 


31.3 


Wicomico. . . . 


1,122 


1,092 


9.4 


20.8 


.3 


.4 


.4 




65.8 


54.7 


24.1 


24.0 


Worcester .... 


708 


556 


11.1 


38.7 


.6 


.3 


.6 


'a 


66.1 


31.5 


21.6 


29.1 



The per cent of white boys of ages 16 to 20 years employed 
was as low as 31 per cent and as high as 70 per cent. Fewer than 
25 per cent of the white girls of ages 16 to 20 years were em- 
ployed in five counties, while over 60 per cent in two counties 
were reported as employed. (See columns (9) and (10) of Table 
60.) 

School and college attendance included as high as 63 per cent 
and as low as 16 per cent of white boys 16 to 20 years old. Cor- 
responding extremes for girls were 69 per cent and 24 per cent. 
(See columns (11) and (12) in Table 60.) 

When a comparison is made between the 1936 and 1938 school 
census, it is evident that the percentages of unemployment and 
of school and college attendance are greater in the later year 
for white youth in the age groups 15 to 20 years, inclusive, which 
means that the percentage of white youth employed was lower. 



98 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ENROLLMENT OF COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS BY YEAR 

The enrollment in the first year of high school showed steadily- 
mounting figures from 1925 to 1936, with the exception of a 
slight decrease in 1932, still apparent in the third and fourth 
year enrollments in 1934 and 1935. Although both the first 
and second year enrollments in 1938 showed slight decreases 
under the 1937 figures, the enrollment reached its peak in every 
year in 1939. From 1925 to 1939 the per cent of increase in 
enrollment was 78 in the first year, 110 in the second year, 146 
in the third year, and 137 in the fourth year, compared with an 
average increase of 110 per cent in enrollment for all four years. 
(See Table 61.) 

TABLE 61 



Enrollment in Each Year of Last Four Years of Maryland County White 
High Schools, by Year, 1925-1939 



Year 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


Post- 
Graduates 


Total 


1925 


6,772 


4,453 


3,281 


2,732 




17,238 


1926 


7,558 


4,777 


3,610 


2,748 




18,693 


1927 


7,871 


5,363 


3,856 


3,067 




20,157 


1928 


8,487 


5,636 


4,257 


3,178 




21,558 


1929 


8,587 


6,100 


4,694 


3,612 




22,993 


1930 


9,038 


6,292 


5,080 


3,981 


■ 26 


24,417 


1931 


9,777 


6,969 


5,490 


4,338 


21 


26,595 


1932 


9,662 


7,636 


6,070 


4,646 


153 


28,167 


1933 


10,548 


7,658 


6,720 


5,207 


169 


30,302 


1934 


10,629 


8,016 


6,381 


5,404 


91 


30,521 


1935 


11,072 


8,162 


6,731 


5,110 


153 


31,228 


1936 


11,267 


8,749 


6,927 


5,526 


127 


32,596 


1937 


11,267 


8,907 


7,456 


5,675 


93 


33,398 


1938 


11,256 


8,883 


7,586 


6,080 


113 


33,918 


1939 


12,064 


9,332 


8,062 


6,478 


198 


36,134 



SUBJECTS OFFERED IN HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM 

There were increases from 1938 to 1939 in the number of 
county white high school boys and girls taking every subject, 
except for boys taking Spanish, German, and home economics, 
and girls taking French and German. Increases in 1939 over 
1938 occurred in per cent of enrollment taking industrial edu- 
cation and agriculture for boys, in Spanish and vocational home 
economics for girls, and in science, commercial subjects, phys- 
ical education, and art for boys and girls. (See Table 62.) 

Since English is a required subject for four years, all pupils, 
except post-graduates and irregulars, were enrolled. Of the 
36,719 pupils taking English, 32 per cent were taking first 
year work, 26 per cent second year, 22 per cent third year, and 
18 per cent fourth year English. For the girls there was a 
smaller proportion than for boys of the total enollment taking 
English in the first and second years, and a higher proportion 
in the third and fourth years, indicating greater persistence of 
girls in completing the work of the later years. (See Table 63.) 



County High School Enrollment by Year and Subject 99 



TABLE 62 



Distribution of Enrollment, Excluding Withdrawals for Removal, Transfer, 
Commitment or Death, in Last Four Years of Maryland County White High 
Schools by Subjects Taken for Years Ending June 30, 1938 and 1939 



Subject 


Number Enrolled 


Per Cent 


Number 
of High 

Schools 
Offering 
Subject 
1938-39 


Per Cent of 
Total Enroll- 
ment Enrolled 
in Schools 
Which Offer 
Each Subject 
1938-39 


1937-38 


1938-39 


1938-39 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


15,920 


17,998 


17,139 


18,995 






150 






15,824 


17,890 


17,018 


18,809 


99.3 


99.0 


150 


100.0 


Social Studies 


13,609 


15,090 


14,362 


15,652 


83.8 


82.4 


150 


100.0 


Science 


11,564 


11,695 


12,807 


12,806 


74.7 


67.4 


150 


100.0 


Mathematics 


11,375 


11,250 


12,077 


11,494 


70.5 


60.5 


150 


100.0 


Latin 


2,115 


3,155 


2,249 


3,276 


13.1 


17.2 


80 


79.6 




1,545 


2,664 


1,547 


2,663 


9.0 


14.0 


112 


88.7 




34 


20 


25 


29 


.1 


.2 


1 


2.8 




27 


10 


17 


5 


.1 




1 


1.9 




8,422 


27 


9,160 


62 


53.4 


" ' .3 


91 


82.7 




7,844 


27 


8,318 


62 


48.5 


.3 


88 


78.6 


Education 


578 




842 




4.9 




13 


21.1 


Home Economics 


29 


9^898 




10^946 




57!6 


126 


95.9 


General 


29 


8,105 




8,333 




43.9 


92 


79.5 


Vocational 




1,793 




2,613 




13.7 


57 


37.4 


Agriculture 


i;833 


2 


2;647 


2 


ii!9 




56 


29.0 


Commercial 


3,343 


5,313 


3,965 


5,877 


23.1 


36!9 


73 


77.8 


Physical Education . . . 


5,793 


5,917 


6,935 


6,934 


40.5 


36.5 


52 


60.4 




7,333 


9,519 


7,840 


9.967 


45.7 


52.5 


113 


89.4 


Art 


910 


1,159 


1,534 


1,984 


9.0 


10.4 


42 


49.1 



The English program has expanded to include English V, pub- 
lic speaking, journalism, and remedial reading. The enrollment 
in public speaking and journalism was larger in 1938-39 than 
in the preceding year. (See Table 63.) 

Social studies were taken in 1938-39 by 84 per cent of the boys 
and 82 per cent of the girls. During the four-year course at 
least two units of social studies, one of which must be United 
States history, are required, but most of the pupils take three 
and even four units in the fields of history, civics, and economics. 
(See Table 62 and Table 69, page 107.) 

Approximately 75 per cent of the boys and 67 per cent of the 
county white high school girls took work in science in 1938-39. 
Only one unit of science is required, but many pupils take two 
or three units and some even four units during the high school 
course. (See Table 62 and Table 70, page 109.) 

Mathematics was taken by 70.5 per cent of the boys and 60.5 
per cent of the girls in 1938-39. During the four-year course 
only one unit of mathematics is required, but, in most cases, 
especially among the boys, two, three and in a few instances, 
four years of work in mathematics are pursued. (See Table 62 
and Tablell, page 110.) 



93126 



100 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 63 



County White High School Enrollment in English Excluding Withdrawals for 
Removal, Transfer and Death Distributed by Year of English 
Taken in 1937-38 and 1938-39 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 
















Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


1937-38 


I 


11,016 


5,567 


5,449 


32.0 


34.3 


30.0 


II 


9,017 


4,267 


4,750 


26.2 


26.3 


26.1 


Ill 


7,723 


3,488 


4,235 


22.4 


21.5 


23.3 


IV 


6,289 


2,739 


3,550 


18.3 


16.9 


19.5 


V 


49 


18 


31 


.1 


.1 


.2 


Journalism 


126 


47 


79 


.4 


.3 


.4 


Remedial Reading 


94 


56 


38 


.3 


.4 


.2 


Public Speaking 


89 


37 


52 


.3 


.2 


.3 


Dramatics 


9 


5 


4 








Total 


34,412 


16,224 


18,188 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


1938-39 


I 


11,913 


6,025 


5,888 


32.4 


34.4 


30.6 


II 


9,420 


4,552 


4,868 


25.7 


26.0 


25.3 


Ill 


8,227 


3,810 


4,417 


22.4 


21.8 


23.0 


IV 


a6,675 


2,923 


3,752 


18.2 


16.7 


19.5 


V 


47 


15 


32 


.1 


.1 


.2 


Public Speaking 


205 


97 


108 


.6 


.6 


.6 




143 


43 


100 


.4 


.2 


.5 


Remedial Reading 


89 


34 


55 


.2 


.2 


.3 


Total 


36,719 


17,499 


19,220 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



a Includes 2 boys and 14 girls taking a course in Language Usage. 



Enrollment in Foreign Languages Shows Little Change 

In 1939, Latin was taught in 80 county white schools which 
took care of nearly 80 per cent of the high school enrollment. 
Although the total high school enrollment in the counties has 
more than doubled, the number of pupils taking Latin has not 
shown great variation during the period from 1925 to 1939. The 
white enrollment taking Latin was at its minimum in 1938 with 
5,270 and at its maximum in 1932 with 6,242. The 1939 enroll- 
ment of 5,525 was only 116 more than that of 1925 and 255 more 
than the 1938 enrollment. Apparently there is a relatively 
stable number of boys and girls who continue to study Latin, 
because of the traditional value attributed to it, or because it 
is the only foreign language olTered in certain smaller high 
schools. The per cent of high school pupils taking Latin was 
just over 15 per cent in 1939 compared with 31 per cent in 1925. 
in 1939 slightly more than 17 per cent of the county high school 
girls took Latin in contrast with just over 13 per cent of the 
boys. (See Tables 62 and 64.) 



Enrollment in English and Foreign Languages 



101 



TABLE 64 



Enrollment of Maryland County White High School Pupils in the Foreign 
Languages* for Years Ending June 30, 1925 to 1939 



Year Ending June 30 


Latin 


French 


Spanish 


German 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1925 


2,076 


3,333 


1,411 


2,306 


38 


39 


8 


10 


1926 


2,154 


3,497 


1,400 


2,428 


31 


29 


6 


2 


1927 


2,335 


3,535 


1,379 


2,532 


24 


17 






1928 


2,494 


3,510 


1,420 


2,690 


19 


10 






1929 


2,271 


3,475 


1,656 


2,751 


34 


26 






1930 


2,338 


3,446 


1,567 


2,713 


46 


57 






1931 


2,534 


3,684 


1,598 


2,786 


22 


13 






1932 


2,559 


3,683 


1,762 


2,967 


53 


26 






1933 


2,421 


3,713 


1,989 


3,237 


46 


26 






1934 


2,460 


3,746 


1,850 


3,149 


30 


28 






1935 


2.272 


3,409 


1,601 


2,966 


36 


52 






1936 


2,106 


3,208 


1,604 


2,872 


36 


48 






1937 


2,141 


3,218 


1,589 


2,617 


36 


29 


io 


3 


1938 


2,115 


3,155 


1,545 


2,664 


34 


20 


27 


10 


1939 


2,249 


3,276 


1,547 


2,663 


25 


29 


17 


5 



Excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 



French which was offered in 112 schools attended by 89 per 
cent of the 1939 enrollment shows trends similar to those of 
Latin. In 1925 there were 3,717 county white high school pupils 
taking French. This increased to a maximum of 5,226 in 1933 
followed by decreases which have left the number at slightly 
over 4,200 since 1937. The French enrollment in 1939 included 
less than 12 per cent of county white high school pupils as against 
22 per cent enrolled for French in 1925. In 1939, 9 per cent 
of the boys and 14 per cent of the county high school girls took 
French. (See Tables 62 and 64.) 

One county high school offered Spanish and one German. 
These two languages were taken by 76 pupils in 1939. (See 
Tables 62 and 64.) 



Increased Enrollment in Industrial Arts, Trade and Industrial Work, 
Agriculture, and Home Economics 

In 1939 industrial arts and/or trade and industrial work were 
taught in 91 county high schools enrolling nearly 83 per cent of all 
county white high school boys. Industrial arts was offered in 
88 schools and trade and industrial education in 13. Of the total 
number of white high school boys 48.5 per cent took industrial 
arts and just under 5 per cent had trade and industrial educa- 
tion. (See Table 62, page 99.) 

In 1939 there were 74 high schools which offered industrial 
arts in the first two years, 11 of these schools which had beyond 
the second year a third year elective course, and 38 of the original 



102 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



74 schools which had two years of elective work beyond the first 
two years. The classes were offered from two to six periods a 
week. These figures do not include junior high schools. 

Trade and industrial education courses were offered for four 
years in 9 schools, for three years in 1 school, and for two years 
in 3 schools. 

There has been considerable growth in interest in industrial 
arts since 1925 when the enrollment was 4,333. Each year until 
1931, with the exception of 1926, more boys were given instruc- 
tion in shop work. After the drop to 6,043 in 1932, there has 
been a steady increase until the maximum enrollment of 8,380 
was found in 1939. Trade and industrial work for ten periods 
a week was elected by 842 white county boys in 13 high schools 
in 1939. The enrollment was only 69 in 1929. (See Tables 62 
and 65.) 

TABLE 65 



Enrollment of Maryland County White High School Pupils* in Industrial 
Work, Agriculuture and Home Economics for Years Ending June 30, 
1925 to 1939, Inclusive 



Year Ending June 30 


Industrial Work 


Agriculture 


Home Economics 


Industrial 
Arts 


Vocational 
Industrial 


General 


Vocational 


1925 


4,333 




853 


6,258 


465 


1926 


4,256 




936 


6,595 


546 


1927 


4,905 




922 


7,304 


618 


1928 


5,349 




949 


7,798 


587 


1929 


5,534 


' '69 


985 


8,085 


516 


1930 


5,721 


117 


933 


7,766 


497 


1931 


6,450 


225 


1,100 


7,753 


566 


1932 


6,043 


418 


1,264 


7,464 


770 


1933 


6,388 


520 


1,260 


7,827 


720 


1934 


6,536 


410 


1,278 


7,908 


780 


1935 


6,873 


403 


1,389 


8,065 


1,040 


1936 


6,928 


772 


1,482 


8,259 


1,330 


1937 


7,489 


521 


1,644 


8,184 


1,324 


1938 


7,844 


578 


1,833 


8,105 


1,793 


1939 


8,380 


842 


2,049 


8,333 


2,613 



Excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 



In April, 1939 the State high school supervisors approved the 
following requirements for the vocational diploma in trades and 
industries: Units in English, 4; in social studies, 2, of which 
one must be United States history; mathematics, 2; science, 
2 ; trades and industries, 4 ; electives, 2. 

In 1939, agriculture was taught in 56 schools enrolling 29 
per cent of all county w^hite high school boys. There were four 
miore schools and 214 more white boys enrolled for agriculture 
than in 1938. The course which was offered for only two years 
in most schools was taken by nearly 12 per cent of the boys en- 



Enrollment in Industrial Work, Agriculture, Home 103 
Economics 

rolled in county white high schools. The enrollment of 2,049 tak- 
ing agriculture in 1939 was 2.4 times the enrollment of 853 in 
1925. (See Tables 62 and 65.) 

In April, 1939 the State high school supervisors approved the 
following requirements for the vocational diploma in agriculture : 
Units in English, 4; in social studies, 2, of which one must be 
United States history; mathematics, 1; science, 3; agriculture, 
3; electives, 3. The 3 units in agriculture do not include farm 
shop, for which proper unit value may be allowed if the subject 
is offered. 

Home economics, general and vocational, was taught in 1939 
in 126 schools enrolling 96 per cent of all county white high 
school girls. This was an increase of 3 schools and 1,048 girls 
over the corresponding number in 1938. These courses, which 
include training in homemaking, child care, as well as in foods, 
clothing and consumer education, were taken by nearly 58 per 
cent of all county white high school girls. 

The girls taking general home economics totaled 6,258 in 1925. 
There was an increase to 8,085 in 1929, after which the number 
declined to 7,464 in 1932, increased to 8,259 in 1936, dropped 
in 1938 to 8,105, and increased to 8,333 in 1939, the maximum 
enrollment in general home economics for the entire period. 
(See Tables 62 and 65.) 

In 1925 the usual practice was to offer courses in general home 
economics for two periods a week during the entire four-year 
cours^. In 1939 there were 73 high schools which had home 
economics courses in the first two years, 17 of these schools which 
had beyond the second year a third year elective course, and 
31 of the original 73 schools which had two years of elective 
work beyond the first two years. The classes were offered from 
2 to 6 periods a week. The junior high sdhools are not included 
in these figures. 

The girls taking vocational home economics have with slight 
fluctuations increased from 465 in 1925 to 2,613 in 1939. These 
girls are required to carry on and manage home projects in 
which the theory and practice of home-making given in the 
ten school periods a week of home economics and related art 
and science are applied and adapted to home conditions. Six- 
teen schools offered major courses in home economics of two 
years, 14 of three years, and 23 of four years. (See Tables 62 
and 65.) 

The State high school supervisors in April, 1939 approved 
the following requirements for the vocational diploma in home 
economics: Units in English, 4; social studies, 2, one of which 
must be United States history; mathematics, 1; science, 2; 
home economics, 4; electives, 3. 



104 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Enrollment in Commercial Subjects 

In 1939 commercial subjects were taught in 73 schools in which 
78 per cent of all county white high school pupils were enrolled 
and were taken by 23 per cent of the boys and 31 per cent of the 
girls enrolled. Since the major part of the commercial work 
is offered in the junior and senior years, a much larger pro- 
portion of third and fourth year pupils were enrolled for these 
courses than the above percentages would indicate. (See Table 
62, page 99, and Table 72, page 112.) 

Music, Art, and Physical Education 

Music was offered in 113 schools enrolling over 89 per cent 
of the county white high school pupils and was taken by 46 per 
cent of all county high school boys and 53 per cent of the girls 
during 1938-39. The number of boys enrolled for music in- 
creased from 7,119 in 1931 to a maximum of 7,840 in 1939. For 
girls enrollment in music increased from 8,645 in 1931 to a maxi- 
mum of 9,967 in 1939. (See Tables 62 and 66.) 

TABLE 66 



Enrollment of Maryland County White High School Pupils* in Music, Art, 
and Physical Education for Years Ending June 30, 1931 to 1939, Inclusive 



Year 


Music 


Art 


Physical Education 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


• Girls 


1931 


7,119 


8,645 


315 


378 


3,594 


3,614 


1932 


7,031 


8,477 


671 


714 


3,976 


4,168 


1933 


7,714 


9,128 


741 


737 


4,722 


4,387 


1934 


7,465 


8,865 


529 


541 


4,601 


4,572 


1935 


7,461 


8,840 


537 


538 


4,813 


4,699 


1936 


7,526 


9,134 


418 


571 


5,413 


5,182 


1937 


7,579 


9,422 


535 


594 


5,483 


5,276 


1938 


7,333 


9,519 


910 


1,159 


5,793 


5,917 


1939 


7,840 


9,967 


1,534 


1,984 


6,935 


6,934 



* Excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer and death 



In 1939 art was offered in fifteen counties in 42 high schools, 
an increase of 16 over the number of schools the previous year, 
and 31 more than the number two years before. Forty-nine 
per cent of all county white pupils in the last four years of high 
school were enrolled in these 42 schools. Nearly 10 per cent 
of all county pupils in the last four years of high school work 
received instruction in art. The boys enrolled for art included 
315 in 1931, increased to 741 in 1933, dropped to 418 by 1936, 
and reached a maximum of 1,534 in 1939. For girls taking art, 
the enrollment of 378 in 1931, increased to 737 in 1933, receded 
to 538 by 1935, and increased to 1,984 in 1939, the maximum 
for the period. (See Tables 62 and 66.) 



Enrollment in Commercial Work, Music, Art, Physical 105 
Education, and English 

Physical education courses given as regularly assigned in- 
struction were available in 52 county high schools enrolling 
60 per cent of all white high school pupils. The number of 
boys enrolled increased from 3,594 in 1931 to 6,935 in 1939, while 
the corresponding gain for girls was from 3,614 to 6,934. Over 
38 per cent of the total white county high school enrollment 
had work in physical education. (See Tables 62 and 66.) 



English Enrollment in Individual Counties by Year 

The county enrollment taking the four years of English is 
shown for 1938-39 and the Dreceding year. The enrollment 
was 11,913 in English I, 9,420 in English II, 8,227 in English 
III, and 6,675 in English IV. Two schools had pupils in English 
V, two counties offered public speaking, three journalism and . 
two remedial reading. Due chiefly to increase in enrollment,^ 
the English enrollment in each year was larger than in the pre- 
ceding year, except in English V and remedial reading. (See 
Table 67.) 



TABLE 67 



Number of Maryland County Pupils in Last Four Years of High School 
Enrolled in Various English Courses, 1938-39 



County 


I 


II 


English 
III 


IV 


V 


Public 
Speak- 
ing 


Journal- 
ism 


Reme- 
dial 
Reading 


Total, 1937-38 


11,016 


9,017 


7,723 


6,289 


49 


89 


126 


94 


1938-39 


11,913 


9,420 


8,227 


6,675 


47 


205 


143 


89 


Allegany 


1,327 


1,001 


917 


a733 


6 




80 




Anne Arundel 


755 


569 


503 


498 


41 










1,819 


1,376 


1,117 


826 










Calvert 


71 


48 


58 


32 








54 




255 


204 


174 


131 












574 


479 


359 


336 










Cecil 


438 


353 


273 


211 












178 


145 


138 


99 












322 


230 


218 


213 












768 


624 


577 


446 












394 


287 


261 


220 












448 


395 


386 


295 












233 


190 


149 


112 










Kent 


128 


126 


123 


107 










Montgomery 


879 


708 


645 


567 




114 


45 


35 


Prince George's 


1,128 


903 


738 


557 




91 


18 




Queen Anne's 


157 


140 


115 


91 










St. Mary's 


123 


112 


90 


77 












233 


200 


184 


136 










Talbot 


205 


173 


157 


124 










Washington 


826 


675 


599 


481 












388 


278 


271 


234 












264 


204 


175 


149 











a Includes 16 pupils taking language usage. 



106 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Art 


Girls 


o>-«t o eo-^«o • t- ;o CO 00 o CO ■ • -icto . • -t^oco • 
1-1 as 


Boys 


Ot}< 05 COOOCO • t- tJ< CO CO 00 N Tj" . . -rfCO . • • 


Music 


Girls 


05 1- c<i <J5 cj to in ^ ^ ■ c^ Ti< o N N 00 c<i ^ .cr>^t>c> 

1-1 «D lO T)< tl* ;0 CO CD OS • lO Tj< <0 C- t- 00 N N lO CO • CO «D 

m OS 
oTaT 


Boys 


coo CO t-int-c-inoo ■ t- m o o 05 CO 00 CO N t- -oot-o 
co-'i" in -"it 00 • lo CO U5 1> CO t- rH Ti< CO U5 •coioeow 
CO 00 


Physical 
Education 


Girls 


t> ^ C- t-OC0t-OC~ • -OOO^t-Tj" .t-00 • • • -CO.-! • 

r-<00 CO Tj<(Na>i-lCD • -COCOrHiHlO -TfCO • ■ • -CON • 

in CO 


Boys 


CO in o in in o> in a> • • t> i-i c<i oo -005 • • • -o^ • 
CT5C0 incjoi CD • -cocoMNin -coco • • • -coco • 

10 CD 


Commer- 
cial 
Subjects 


Girls 


CO c- . 1-1 00 CO (M ■ w t- CO 1-1 CD 1-1 OS t- CO Tj< c<J 05 • -ooincDi-icD 

i-iC- CO -^Tjic^ • M t-l T}< CO (N T-^CONCOCO • •■^tCONlM 

CO 00 
in in 


Boys 


CO in CO a> 00 • 05 00 co t- as co r}< ^ m • •r^t>T-icO'-< 

■«l<CO N Tj<M,-( • COrHCOCOrH i-l CO N (N W • • T}< CO N i-( N 
CO Oi 

CO CO 


ajn^jnouSy 

{BUOiqiBOO^ 


Boysj 


coo^ (N ri<coinoi^(M -cot-ooomN • rH ,-( c<J 00 t- i-c<k co 

CO-* r-l TjlinrH • 1-4 rH r-l (N CO • iH Tj< CO N rH (M 
00__O 


Home 
Economics 


IBUOpBDOA 


Girls 


COCO 00^ ■t-coinrHin • -t-rtfo -Tifc-t-eo -osm -oi 

05^ rH »H -TJC^J Cvli-I • •ineO-"!' -T-IC^NCO • 1-1 • 


IBjauao 


Girls 


in CO T}< 00 <M OS • OS 1* N CO ijj 1-1 • in CO CO in -cot-i-iooo 
oco Tjtinco • c^i t~ CO Ti< in • (N co n co •Tj<Tj<eoNin 

T-< CO 

00" 00" 


Industrial 


IBU^^snpuj 

IBUOpBOO^ 


Boys 


in 00 


lBu:^snpui 


Boys 


rfO 05 COC<JO -COt-OO-^i-lt-OSCOMasNCDO •l>00(NTj<t~ 

^00 'ij'cot- • Tj< t- 1- CO (N CD CO CD Tj< in t> -w^cgcqin 

oo^co^ 

t^oc 


French 


Girls 


■^t- oo>i-iOiinooc^cD005t-oooO'-iTHOoocoooo>oooin 

0505 iH tHi-(t-I »Hi-ItH iH r-( r-l rH N rH CO rH r-l rH rH rH 

CD CD -1— 


Boys 


C005 Oi CO (N 00 (M 05 ■<a< CO -f t> M 05 OS 00 CD t- 00 t- in w in 1- 

000 rH (M lH rHrHrH rH rH 

CO in 


Latin 


Girls 


incD coco ^ 00 rH CO CO X in rH (N (N c~ oo> incg CD M 

int- tH (MrHlMrHrH i-H CO rH rH (N W rH N rH M rH rH 
rHN 

CO CO 


Boys 


in CT) CO T)< 05 00 in T}< rH t- rH 05 in IM CD in C~ CO Tj< rH t- N CO C<I 05 
rH^ rH rHrHrHIN rH rH rH i-H rH rH rH rHrHrH 
rH(N 


Mathe- 
matics 


Girls 


0-<t rH CO in CO CO Tj< Tl< M 0; (N rH rH t- rH rH 00 IM CO 00 rH CO 05 

in 05 CD in in t- CO CO in t- Tj< in CO CO t- t- in in 00 CO in Tj< in t- CO 
eg 


Boys 


int> rHcoinc~coa5005oocD05cot-rHineoot-(M05ooi-HO 
t-t- t- CD t- 00 CD CO in 00 in in CO CD t- Ti< 00 CD c- 00 1- CD in CD 00 00 
CO 

rHM" 


Science 


Girls 


inco t- in CO 05 00 in Tf CD rH 05 N in CO OS r-l CD 05 00 CO N 

050 CD CD CD CD 00 t- t> X CD t- in 00 t> t- CO in CO CD t- CO CD CD CD t> 
CD 00 

rHC<r 


Boys 


Tj<t- in in X o5 1- in CO X t- 05 CO rH rH CO c- X t- 1- X in r)< c- CO t> 

COO t- t-t-I>XXXXC-COCDXXXCDCOCDCOC-t>CDt-t-CD 

inx^ 

rH Co" 


Social 
Studies 


Girls 


OCO CO t> CO X CO CO in CO 05 05 CO CD CO X OS CO t- 05 rH in 05 05 
05in X t-xt-cno5050505XXXxcDxt-xt-inxxxc-t> 

CDCO^ 

in in 


Boys 


05 CO rH [- X rH rH CO CO Tl< in rH t> CD X rH X X •"1< rH CO 05 CD 

oco X t-XC-05050505OJXO5XXt>XXXC-t-X05Xt-X 

CO CO 
co-^ 



2 

* c 



C-T)<Tl<C0C0OC0-^05Tj<Tl<05C0C0rHOXXCDXCDOt- 

CDt-CDCOrHCOt-rH-r)<COrHOt-Tj<inCOCDrHOO-^CDCOrH 

OrHCDrHTi<05COcoinc-Jcoxcoco-^t-cocococococo-<a< 



rHXXC0rHC0Xin-rt>O3XrHC0C0Tj<XC0C0OXC^rHX 

OrHt~t~incoc-cococo-^rH05mcococoxcDcoococo 
XrHT«< CO X in CO ■"S' rH in t- CO CO CO in CO rH CO CO CO CD CO 



X 05 

coco 
C35 05 



6 E 



0) o C tn 



c 



0) o c3 jj -tJ S 5^ * 



S c C3 



Enrollment in Individual Counties by Subject and in 107 
Social Studies 

Enrollment in Individual Counties in the Social Studies 

In the individual counties the range for boys taking the social 
studies was from 71 to 96 per cent, and for girls from 59 to 96 
per cent. (See Table 68.) 

The enrollment in civics, early and modern European history, 
United States history, problems of democracy, and economic 
geography was larger in 1939 than in 1938. On the other hand 

TABLE 69 



Enrollment* in the Various Branches of Social Studies in Maryland County 
White High Schools, by Years, 1931 to 1939, and by County, 1938-39 



Year 

AND 

County 


Civics aud 
Social Studies I 


World History 


Early M 
3 


pean 

c 

(_ 

(U 
T3 




Industrial 
History 


United States 
History 


Problems of 
Democracy 


Economics 


Sociology! 


Economics and 
Sociology § 


Economic 
Geography 


Business 
Training § 


1930-31 


3,379 
3,636 
4,009 
4,175 
4,022 
4,747 
3,969 
3,875 
4,577 


3,090 
4,137 
4,135 
3,998 
4,607 
5,373 
4,265 
4,543 
3,681 


3,470 
3,521 
3,529 
4,218 
3,420 
3,019 
4,633 
4,174 
4,594 


3,434 
3,475 
4,037 
4,204 
3,923 
3,849 
4,327 
4,214 
4,417 


796 
282 

' '75 

170 
178 
101 


5,359 
5,981 
6,790 
6,102 
7,002 
6,668 
7,170 
7,336 
7,990 


3,109 
3,094 
3,741 
4,108 
3,454 
3,998 
3,108 
3,211 
3,460 


79 
436 
338 
450 
490 
445 
tl,355 
689 
812 










1931-32 










1932-33 










1933-34 










1934- 35 

1935- 36 

1936- 37 

1937- 38 

1938- 39 


' '86 
152 


'772 
475 


574 
868 
953 
861 
1,057 


1,235 
xl,070 


By County, 1938-39 


Allegany 


571 


395 


167 


340 




916 


392 


229 








23 


Anne Arundel . . 


365 


258 


315 


171 




537 


224 


59 


' '43 




18 






266 


734 


942 


948 




851 


286 


42 






45 




Calvert 


19 




56 


39 




57 


10 


18 






15 




Caroline 


252 


'ii2 




40 




161 


114 






20 


54 




Carroll 


65 


44 


'255 


432 




338 


246 


' 'ii 




73 


45 


'27i 


Cecil 


321 


193 


94 


164 




245 


96 






74 


63 


36 


Charles 


74 


98 


80 


97 




159 


84 








21 


17 


Dorchester. . . . 


293 


125 




44 




253 


150 








30 




Frederick 


126 


128 


'56i 


503 




564 


290 


' '42 










Garrett 


127 


177 


126 


58 




282 


155 


t53 




' *45 


' '34 




Harford 


223 


209 


99 


95 




422 


164 


55 




76 


110 




Howard 




26 


110 


74 




153 


24 


19 




57 






Kent 


"98 


111 




30 




118 


42 


22 






' ' "8 


' '27 


Montgomery . . . 


301 


220 


'499 


262 




581 


220 


89 




' "69 


54 




Prince George's 


507 


203 


545 


444 


' "26 


723 


215 


43 




61 


123 


" '44 


Queen Anne's. . 


105 


93 








111 


60 








30 


16 


St. Mary's 


37 


63 








91 


61 








52 


39 


Somerset 


196 


36 




■ 'si 




157 


72 


' '66 


■ '68 




39 




Talbot 


198 


99 




22 




156 


96 








87 




Washington . . . 




33 


'iio 


511 


' '75 


605 


259 


"i9 


" '26 




53 


'539 


Wicomico 


237 


192 


35 






307 


140 


15 


15 




118 




Worcester 


196 


132 




" '62 




203 


60 








58 


"58 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or removal to institutions. 
§ Not reported separately prior to 1937-38. 
t Probably includes some taking sociology. 
t Commercial law and business economics. 

X The enrollment shown includes all classes in business training taught by teachers certi- 
ficated for social studies. The remaining classes in this subject will appear in Tables 71 
and 72, pages 110 and 112. 



108 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

there were decreases in the number enrolled for world and in- 
dustrial history, economics and sociology, and business training 
when it was the only commerical work offered and was taught 
by teachers certificated for the social studies. The fluctua- 
tions evident in European history courses in the period from 
1931 to 1938 may be due chiefly to the way these courses were 
designated. In the later years an attempt to standardize this 
nomenclature has been made. For United States history the 
variations are due in part to alternation with problems of de- 
mocracy in the smaller schools. (See Table 69.) 

In schools which offered no commercial subjects except busi- 
ness training, which was taught by the regular social studies 
teacher, it has been classified among the social studies. This 
applies to one or more of the high schools in ten counties. (See 
Table 69.) 

Two counties gave no work in civics. Every county taught 
either world history or early and modern European history. 
Six counties offered no work in economics or sociology. All, 
except three counties, taught economic geography. Only two 
counties offered industrial history in connection with their 
vocational industrial education courses. 

Courses in Science in Individual Counties 

Science courses were reported as taken by 62 per cent of the 
boys in one county and by 88 per cent in another. Correspond- 
ing extremes for girls were 59 and 88 per cent. (See Table 68.) 

The enrollment in every branch of science offered, except 
bacteriology, showed increases in 1939 over 1938, and in every 
branch which increased, the 1939 enrollment was larger than 
ever before reported. Courses in related science given by 
teachers of agriculture and vocational home economics were 
included with general science, biology, and chemistry. In the 
past these courses have not always been reported under science. 
(See Table 70.) 

Four counties offered no courses in physics. There were 
three counties which taught hygiene and physiology. Six 
counties gave a course entitled senior science. Two counties 
offered applied science III in connection with their vocational 
industrial education courses. Four counties provided instruc- 
tion in biology II, one county in zoology, and one county in 
bacteriology. (See Table 70.) 



Enrollment in Social Studies, Science and Mathematics 109 



TABLE 70 



Enrollment* of Maryland County White High School Pupils in the Various 
Branches of Science, by Year, 1931 to 1939, and by County, 1938-39 



Year 
County 


General 


Biology 


Chemistry 


Physics 


Hygiene and 
Physiologyt 


Senior 
Science t 


Applied 
Science iiit 


Biology lit 


Zoology t 


Bacteriology 4: 


1930-31 .... 


7,643 


5,741 


2,986 


1 ,896 














1931-32. . . . 


7,420 


6, 156 


3,572 


2,284 














1932-33. . . . 


8, 181 


6,831 


3,929 


2,429 














1933-34 .... 


8, 154 


6,785 


3,852 


2,348 














1934-35. . . . 


8,389 


7,453 


3,764 


2,490 














1935-36. . . . 


8,864 


7,996 


4, 139 


2,284 














1936-37. . . . 


8,508 


8,248 


4,428 


2,250 














1937-30 .... 


8 737 


8 116 


4 060 


2 468 


570 


69 






45 


16 


1938-39. . . . 


9^396 


8^765 


4, '502 


2,' 532 


578 


242 


■ '87 


" '77 


61 


14 


Allegany 


984 


tl,056 


326 


311 






41 








Anne Arundel . 


t548 


t560 


247 


156 










"ei 




Baltimore. . . . 


tl,260 


tl,363 


798 


336 




37 


"46 










t50 


47 


87 


















t231 


tl91 


tl43 


"52 














Carroll 


t574 


t450 


140 


167 








■ 36 






Cecil 


429 


339 


186 


114 




"io 












169 


tl43 


43 


55 














Dorchester. . . 


303 


215 


127 


37 








' ' '9 






Frederick 


t477 


t428 


359 


204 
















t365 


t265 


257 


32 


"is 














t382 


t409 


184 


188 


30 


' 34 










Howard 


tl84 


t211 


85 


38 














Kent 


118 


135 


67 
















Montgomery . 


°t583 


°t672 


364 


"ieo 








"i9 






Pr. George's. . 


925 


t767 


218 


207 




■ "5 








"ii 


Queen Anne's. 


tl37 


tl44 


55 
















St, Mary's 


tl23 


tll6 


56 
















Somerset 


229 


199 


85 


' 24 














Talbot 


tl49 


153 


98 


21 








' 13 






Washington . . . 


t547 


t525 


332 


263 


533 












Wicomico .... 


375 


208 


174 


133 














Worcester .... 


254 


169 


71 


34 




" 24 











* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or commitment to an institution. 

$ If these courses were given prior to 1937-38, they were not reported separately. 

t Includes pupils taking courses in related science given in connection with vocational 
home economics and agriculture. 

° Figures for 1937-38 for Montgomery were incorrectly reported and should have read 472 
for general science and 686 for biology. 



Mathematics Courses in Individual Counties 

The percentage of boys and girls taking mathematics ranged 
from 47 per cent in one county to over 80 per cent for boys in 
three counties and for girls in one county. (See Table 68.) 

Enrollment in all mathematics courses, except plane geometry, 
trigonometry, mathematics and arithmetic review, showed gains 
from 1938 to 1939. Enrollment in general mathematics I 
and II combined, solid geometry, vocational and applied mathe- 
matics, commercial and business arithmetic, and introduction 
to business taught by teachers certificated in mathematics 
was larger than in any year preceding. (See Table 71.) 



110 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 71 



Enrollment* of Maryland County White High School Pupils in the Various 
Branches of Mathematics, by Year, 1931 to 1939, and by County, 1938-39 



Year 

AND 

County 


General 
Mathematics I 


General 
Mathematics II 


Algebra I 


Algebra il 


Plane 
Geometry 


Trigonometry 


Solid 
Geometry 


Mathematics 
Review 


Arithmetic 
Review 


Vocational 
and Applied 
Mathematics 


Commercial 
and Business 
Arithmetic 


Introduction 
to Business 


1930-31 


2,054 




8,775 


3,663 


4,425 


963 


460 


558 


336 




75 






1 QQ1 _Q9 


2,158 




8,455 


4,527 


4,020 


914 


456 


447 


641 




174 






1932-33 


2,462 




9,071 


4,272 


4,412 


965 


417 


646 


467 




166 






1933-34 


2,509 




9,082 


3,915 


4,507 


1,067 


560 


455 


807 




204 






1934-35 


3,881 




8,508 


3,865 


4,269 


713 


528 


260 


502 




193 






1935-36 


5,858 




7,384 


3,598 


4,183 


792 


533 


330 


418 




178 


447 




1 QQft_Q7 


6,174 




7,292 


3,482 


3,938 


757 


500 


241 


339 




43 


284 




1 OQ7_Qfl 


6,309 




7, 172 


3,225 


4,033 


694 


558 


281 


161 




32 


t983 




1938-39 


°5,861 


°i;i82 


7,594 


3,255 


3,643 


676 


594 


136 


58 




208 


tl,234 


'tso 


A 11 


454 


40 


874 


316 


278 


78 


83 


25 






87 


108 




Ann8 Arundel . . 


398 


32 


389 


204 


186 


58 


54 








t34 


177 




Baltimore 


1,313 


144 


1,604 


536 


398 


103 


134 


' '32 






40 


43 






22 




45 


24 


26 


8 




7 








18 




Caroline 


177 


' '40 


127 


60 


66 


21 
















Carroll 


442 




157 


163 


164 


13 




"13 








■ '50 




Cecil 


266 


'ioo 


223 


95 


127 


23 


' ' '8 


15 








122 




Charles 


71 




133 


27 


56 














28 




Dorchester. . . . 


297 


"i2 


82 


43 


86 


10 












32 




Frederick 


210 




545 


227 


319 


33 


' '25 


' ' '8 








205 






207 




239 


80 


87 




11 




' '28 






146 






298 


'285 


139 


169 


122 


' '28 


18 


' '24 


18 






16 




Howard 


111 




120 


18 


65 


















Kent 


115 


' '65 


41 


62 


85 














"12 




Montgomery . . . 


369 


61 


510 


186 


329 


104 


88 










70 




Prince George's 


395 


86 


798 


288 


497 


58 


63 














Queen Anne's. . 


105 


81 


70 


82 


49 














"i9 






59 


55 


46 


58 














41 




Somerset 


152 


"79 


91 


56 


37 








12 








Talbot 


135 


15 


67 


35 


48 














' '28 




"Washington 


62 


32 


763 


219 


355 


123 


44 


12 
















390 


276 


149 


16 


61 










"73 






'203 


"iio 


132 


43 


56 




5 










46 





* Exclusive of withdrawal for removal, transfer, death, or commitment to an institution. 

t The enrollment shown includes all classes taught by a teacher certificated in mathematics. 
The remaining classes in this subject will appear on the commercial Table 72, page 112. 

° For the first time in 1938-39 general mathematics has been separated into gen. math. I 
and gen. math. II. 

t Includes 14 boys taking a course in surveying. 

Only one county offered no work in general mathematics. 
Trigonometry was not available in nine counties, solid geometry 
in eleven counties. Mathematics or arithmetic review^ was 
taught in ten counties. Vocational and applied mathematics 
was taught in five counties which had courses in vocational 
industrial education. All except one county gave work in com- 
mercial or business arithmetic taught either in the mathema- 
tics or commercial department. Schools in three counties had 
as their only commercial subject, introduction to business taught 
by teachers certificated in mathematics. (See Table 71, also 
Table 72.) 



Mathematics, Foreign Languages, Industrial Work, 111 
Agriculture, Home Economics 

The Foreign Languages by Counties 

In one county only one per cent of the boys and three per 
cent of the girls had instruction in Latin, while in another 
county 28 per cent of the boys and in still another 30 per cent 
of the girls took Latin. (See Table 68, page 106.) 

French was taken by as few as four per cent of the boys and 
six per cent of the girls in one county, and by as many as 22 per 
cent of the boys in one county and 38 per cent of the girls in 
another county. (See Table 68.) 

One county high school gave instruction in Latin, French, 
and Spanish ; another in Latin, French, and German ; 58 schools 
offered Latin and French; 19 taught Latin only; 52 French 
only; leaving 11 regular and seven junior high schools without 
instruction in a foreign language. (See Table 62, page 99, and 
Table XXXI, pages 350 to 355.) 

Industrial Arts, Agriculture, and Home Economics 
One or more high schools in every county gave instruction 
to boys in either industrial arts, industrial educatioin, or agri- 
culture in 1938-39. Two counties offered agriculture, but no 
industrial arts. In the 21 counties in which work in industrial 
arts was given, the per cent taking it varied from 9 to 78. In 
addition to industrial arts, Cumberland, Hagerstown and Spar- 
rows Point and schools in four additional counties offered train- 
ing in trades and industries. In the seven counties which offered 
this training the per cent of boys taking it ranged from 5 to 18 
per cent. (See Table 68, page 106.) 

Cecil and Kent Counties had no high school which gave in- 
struction in agriculture to white boys. In the 21 counties in 
which agriculture was taught, the per cent of all county boys 
taking the subject ranged between 1 and 51 per cent. (See Table 
68, page i06, and Table XXXI, pages 350 to 355.) 

Every county gave instruction in general or vocational home 
economics, or both, during 1938-39. The per cent of county girls 
taking general home economics varied from 20 to 74 per cent 
in the 20 counties in which it was offered. Courses in voca- 
tional home economics involving the carrying on of home pro- 
jects were taken by from 5 to 63 per cent of the girls in 17 
counties. Three counties which offered vocational home eco- 
nomics gave no instruction in general home economics. (See 
Table 68, page 106, and Table XXXI, pages 350 to 355.) 



112 



1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 




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Offerings in Commercial Subjects 



113 



Offerings in Commercial Work 

All counties, except Calvert, Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's, 
offered commercial subjects to white high school pupils. The 
three exceptions did offer work in business arithmetic or junior 
business training, but this was taught by mathematics or social 
studies teachers. The per cent of the county enrollment taking 
commercial work varied from 6 to 49 per cent for the boys 
and from 9 to 48 per cent for girls. (See Table 68, Table 72, 
and Table XXXI, pages 350 to 355.) 

Formerly most of the commercial work was limited to stenog- 
raphy, typewriting, and bookkeeping offered in the last two 
years of the high school course. The number of boys taking 
stenography and bookkeeping has shown little change in the 
past nine years. Comparing 1938 with 1939, there are increases 
in the number of both boys and girls who took typing, book- 
keeping, business arithmetic, junior business training, com- 
mercial geography, office practice and salesmanship. More boys 
took commercial law in 1939 than in 1938. The number of boys 
and girls enrolled for stenography, business economics, and 
banking, and the number of girls enrolled for commercial law 
decreased from 1938 to 1939. (See Table 72.) 

All counties, except Baltimore, Calvert, Caroline, and Garrett, 
offered courses entitled junior business training, introduction 
to business, or business training, and the enrollment for them 
is included not only in the table for commercial subjects but 
also in that for social studies or mathematics. Commercial or 
economic geography was taught in every county, but some of 
this work is included in the table with the commercial subjects 
and some with the social studies. Caroline was the only county 
which offered no work in business or commercial arithmetic. 
Some of the offerings of this subject are included in the table 
for commercial subjects and some in the mathematics table. 
(See Tables 69, 71, and 72.) 

Carroll was the only county w^hich gave typing to second year 
high school pupils; seven counties gave courses entitled office 
practice; two, Allegany and Montgomery, offered work in sales- 
manship; five gave commercial law; five business economics; 
and Montgomery was the only one which taught banking. 

Physical Education, Music, and Art 

Baltimore County offered the most extensive opportunities 
for physical education through the employment of trained 
leaders on the staff of the Playground Athletic League. Approxi- 
mately 95 per cent of the boys and 93 per cent of the girls in 
this county were enrolled in physical education classes. It 



114 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



was a regular part of the curriculum in 14 other counties, reach- 
ing over one-half of the enrollment in Caroline, Howard, Mont- 
gomerj^ and Allegany, although fewer than 20 per cent of the 
pupils in four of the 14 counties were reported in these classes. 
(See Table 68, page 106, and Table XXXI, pages 350 to 355.) 

Music Opportunities for County White High School Pupils 

Music was taught in the high schools of all counties, except 
Cecil and Somerset. In 11 of the 21 counties offering music, 
from 50 to 87 per cent of the pupils had instruction in music 
in 1939, w^hile at the other extreme in one county only 18 per 
cent enrolled in the last four years of high school elected music 
courses. (See Table 68 and Table XXXI, pages 350 to 355.) 

Instrumental and choral music involving participation in en- 
semble groups, orchestra, band or glee club was an elective in 
the music course in 63 white high schools of 18 counties. There 
were 38 schools in 13 counties which had orchestras made up 
of 452 boys and 261 girls. In 60 schools in 18 counties the 
glee clubs attracted 934 boys and 2,202 girls. (See Table 73.) 

There were 73 county high school students who were members 
of the Maryland All High School Orchestra which played for the 
twelfth time for the State Teachers Association in October, 
1938. They came from 22 high schools in ten counties. Forty 
played string instruments, 13 woodwind, 19 brass, and one 
handled the percussion instruments. There were 56 members 
of the orchestra from Baltimore City. (See Table 74.) 

Major Courses in Music and Instruction in Instrumental Music 
in Baltimore City 

Baltimore City had 16 eleventh and twelfth grade pupils 
who received major credit for their study of piano or an orches- 
tral instrument, either from a private teacher of music or the 
Peabody Conservatory of Music, and 24 ninth and tenth grade 
pupils preparing to major in music during the eleventh and 
twelfth grades, who studied music as an additional subject. In 
grades eleven and twelve major credit of one unit for each year 
of successful work is offered. In this way students may earn 
one-sixth of their credits for graduation in music. 

Through the co-operation of the Peabody Conservatory of 
Music and the Baltimore Public Schools, the Instrumental In- 
struction Plan, authorized in May, 1937, by the Board of School 
Commissioners, was continued in 1938-39. Under the provi- 
sions of the plan, four special teachers of instrumental music, 
three of whom were from Peabody, gave class instruction in 



Offerings in Physical Education and Music 



115 



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116 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 74 



County Members of Maryland All-High-School Orchestra, October, 1938 



County and School 


Total 


Strings 


Wood- 
Wind 


Brass 


Percussion 


Violin 


Viola 


Cello 


Bass 


Flute 


Clarinet 


Saxaphone 


Trumpet 


Horn 


Trombone 


Tuba 


All Counties 

Allegany 

Fort Hill 

Bruce 


73 

11 

7 
1 

8 
4 
2 

1 

3 
3 
1 
1 
1 

12 
2 
1 
1 

1 

5 

1 
2 
4 


35 

6 
1 


1 


2 

i 


2 
1 


5 
1 


8 

1 
2 


5 
1 


7 
1 

i 
1 


1 
1 


5 

i 


1 

"i 


1 


Baltimore 

Franklin 

Catonsville 


4 
2 






i 


1 


1 






1 
1 
1 






Towson 




1 








Caroline 

Caroline 












1 






Carroll 


3 

i 






















Manchester 

Taneytown 


1 






1 




1 












Hampstead 










1 














Elmer Wolfe 


1 

4 






















Frederick 

Middletown 




1 






1 


1 
1 


3 
1 




1 




1 


Emmitsburg 


1 










i 










Garrett 

Oakland 


1 

5 
1 

1 

2 

2 






















Harford 
























Havre de Grace 
























Montgomery 

Bethesda-Chevy Chase 
























Prince George's 
























Washington 








2 







































violin, flute, clarinet, trumpet, mellophone, baritone, trombone, 
tuba, and the percussion instruments. There were 14 classes with 
an enrollment of 70 pupils v^ho were taught in 23 periods a v^eek. 
Instrumental ensemble instruction was also given by these in- 
structors to seven bands and orchestras and to 17 bugle and drum 
corps. 

Art Courses in the Counties 

Courses in art were offered in 42 high schools in 15 counties 
in 1938-39 and in these counties were taken by from 2 to 28 per 
cent of all county high school boys and by from 3 to 35 per cent 
of the girls. (See Table 68 and Table XXXI, pages 350 to 355.) 

Major Courses in Art in Baltimore City 

In 1938-39 in Baltimore City 105 pupils were enrolled in the 
eleventh year and 77 in the twelfth year in the art major courses 
in four senior high schools. In addition six pupils in schools not 



Music and Art in High Schools; Failures in One or More 117 

Subjects 

offering any art major course were enrolled as special students, 
making a total of 188 pupils taking art as a major subject in 
the senior high schools. Many of these students were also 
registered in art unit courses offered by the Preparatory De- 
partment of the Maryland Institute which this year enrolled 
167 boys and girls from the Baltimore public high schools, an 
increase of 65 over the previous year. The art major courses, 
since their introduction in 1927, have aimed to provide a founda- 
tion in art appreciation and art training for the 1,359 boys and 
girls enrolled, many of whom, since their graduation, have be- 
come designers, artists, and teachers of art. 

Carnegie Corporation Grant to the City of Baltimore 

On June 5, 1939, public announcement was made of a grant 
of $172,100 to the Johns Hopkins University, Goucher College, 
Peabody Conservatory of Music, Maryland Institute, and the 
Baltimore Public Schools for the advancement of music and art. 
This generous grant makes possible the broad community pro- 
gram in art and music which the joint committee of these in- 
stitutions has been formulating for more than a year. For the 
teachers of the Department of Education the number of courses 
in art and music will be greatly expanded during the next three 
years. For the pupils in the public schools scholarships at the 
Peabody Conservatory of Music will be awarded to those qualified 
to study piano or orchestral instruments. There will be 20 
available in 1939-40, 30 in 1940-41, and 50 in 1941-42. Instru- 
ments will be loaned to those who are financially unable to afford 
them. 

HIGH SCHOOL FAILURES AND WITHDRAWALS BY SUBJECTS 
IN MARYLAND COUNTIES 

Failure in One or More Subjects 

Of the total number of high school boys, 1,395 freshmen who 
represented 24 per cent of the freshmen boys, 915 sophomores or 
20.8 per cent of the sophomore boys, 799 juniors, 22 per cent 
of the junior boys, and 202 seniors, comprising 7.3 per cent of the 
senior boys, failed from one to four major subjects in 1939. 
Although the total number of boys failing decreased for each 
succeeding year of high school, the percentage failing ranged 
between 24 and 21 per cent for the first three years of high 
school, but dropped to 7 per cent in the senior year. In every 
case failure in one subject affected the largest and failures in 
four subjects the smallest number of pupils. The percentage 
of boys failing one subject was 11.1 per cent for freshmen, 11.8 
for sophomores, rose to 13.6 for juniors, and declined to 5.7 
per cent for seniors. The per cent of boys failing two subjects 



118 1939 Report op Maryland State Department of Education 



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High School 



Failures by Classes in 1, 2, 3 and 4 Subjects 



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120 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ranged between 4.5 and 5.3 in the first three years and dropped 
to .8 per cent for seniors. For boys faiHng three subjects, the 
highest per cent was 3.9 for freshmen and the lowest .1 per cent 
for seniors. The percentage of boys failing in four subjects 
decreased from a maximum of 3.7 per cent for freshmen to a 
minimum of .1 for seniors. (See Table 75.) 

Of the high school enrollment for girls there were 660 fresh- 
men who comprised 11.4 per cent of the first year girls, 570 
sophomores, representing 11.9 per cent of the second year girls, 
557 juniors, or 13 per cent of the third year girls, and 133 seniors, 
3.7 per cent of the fourth year girls who failed from one to four 
major subjects during 1938-39. Although the total number 
of girls failing decreased each year, the percentage of girls fail- 
ing increased each succeeding year from the first to the third, 
but showed a sharp decline in the fourth year. The per cent of 
girls failing one subject was 6.7 in the freshmen year, increased 
to 8.9 in the junior year, and declined to 3.2 in the senior year. 
For girls failing two subjects, the per cent for the freshmen, 
2.6, decreased slightly for sophomores and juniors and dropped 
to .5 per cent for seniors. The per cent of girls failing three 
subjects was 1.3 per cent for freshmen and sophomores, 1.4 for 
juniors, and decreased until there were none at all in the fourth 
year. For girls failing four subjects the percentages were 
.8 and .9 respectively, for freshmen and sophomores, .4 for 
juniors, and .1 per cent for seniors. (See Table 76.) 

There were more boys than girls failing from one to four 
subjects in every grade of the high school course. Apparently 
some of those pupils who fail in the freshmen year continue 
in high school to become failures in the succeeding years, until 
the complexity of the work and the requirements for graduation 
force them to withdraw in the fourth year. Only the number, 
not the percentage, of pupils failing from one to four subjects 
in each county has been given. It would be desirable for each 
county to compute its percentages and for each high school 
principal to compute and make a study of the percentages for 
his particular school. (See Tables 75 and 76.) 

Withdrawals and Non-Promotions by Each Subject 

The number and per cent of withdrawals and non-promotions 
in every subject in the white county high schools were lower 
for both boys and girls in 1939 than for the preceding year. 
(See Table 11.) 

The combined percentage for white high school boys and girls 
withdrawn (for causes other than removal, transfer or death) 
and not promoted in 1938-39 was highest for mathematics and 
lowest for French. 



High School Failures and Withdrawals by Subject 121 
TABLE 77 



Number and Per Cent of Withdrawals* and Failures in Maryland County 
White High Schools by Subjects, for Year Ending June 30, 1938 and 1939 





Number 


Per Cent 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Subject 




































£5 




e 




c 










2 


o 




0) 
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o 




O 




o 




1 

o 




s 

O 




•S 


S 




s 


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s 




s 


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TJ 


S 


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t3 


s 




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■^^ 2 














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1 


1=- 




1^ 




1^ 


1 


1^ 


1 




1 





1937-38 



English 


2,349 


2,041 


1,361 


1,552 


988 


489 


7 


6 


8 


10 


5 


3 




1,570 


1,968 


974 


1,291 


596 


677 


7 


9 


8 


11 


5 


6 


Social Studies 


2,161 


2,002 


1,233 


1,291 


928 


711 


7 


6 


8 


9 


6 


4 


Science 


1,753 


1,560 


1,063 


1,002 


690 


558 


7 


6 


9 


8 


6 


5 


Latin 


149 


413 


57 


1,249 


92 


164 


3 


8 


3 


12 


3 


5 


French 


119 


175 


55 


112 


64 


63 


3 


4 


3 


7 


2 


2 




1,168 


1,187 


494 


553 


674 


634 


7 


7 


8 


9 


6 


5 


Agriculture 


213 


72 


213 


72 






11 


4 


11 


4 







1938-39 



English 


2,434 


1,970 


1,461 


1,512 


973 


458 


7 


5 


8 


9 


5 


2 




1,670 


2,097 


1,074 


1,337 


596 


760 


7 


9 


9 


11 


5 


7 




2,139 


1,949 


1,277 


1,279 


862 


670 


7 


6 


8 


8 


5 


4 




1,872 


1,481 


1,149 


974 


723 


507 


7 


6 


9 


7 


6 


4 




137 


486 


56 


310 


81 


176 


2 


9 


2 


14 


2 


5 


French 


137 


194 


72 


134 


65 


60 


3 


5 


5 


8 


2 


2 




1,331 


1,167 


568 


589 


763 


578 


7 


6 


8 


9 


6 


5 




233 


74 


233 


74 






11 


3 


11 


3 







* Excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer, death or commitment to institution. 



Per Cent Withdrawn and 
Not Promoted Combined 



Subject 


Boys 


Girls 


Mathematics 


20 


12 


Commercial Subjects 


17 


11 


Science 


16 


10 


Social Studies 


16 


9 


English 


17 


7 


Latin 


16 


7 


Agriculture 


14 




French 


13 


■4 



In every subject the percentage of withdrawals and failures 
was higher for boys than for girls. The order from highest 
to lowest in the per cent who withdrew and failed was the same 
for boys and girls in the various subjects, except that English 
ranked third for boys, and fifth for girls. (See Table 77.) 

Withdrawals and Failures in Individual Counties 

The range in the combined per cent of withdrawals and non- 
promotions by subjects for the individual counties is shown next: 



122 



1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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High School Failures and Withdrawals by Subject; 123 
Testing 



Per Cent of Withdrawals and Non-Promotions Combined, 1938-39 



Boys 



Girls 



Subject 

English 

Mathematics 

Social Studies 

Science 

Latin 

French 

Commercial Subjects 
Agriculture 



Lowest 
County 



Highest 
County 



Lowest 
County 



Highest 
County 




26 
35 
29 
25 
36 
22 
30 
32 



2 
3 
3 
4 


1 



12 
17 
22 
20 
33 
14 
23 



In a few counties the percentage of withdrawals and non- 
promotions was greater for girls than for boys. This was the 
case in one county in Latin, in one county in French, and in com- 
mercial subjects in three counties. (See Table 78.) 



There was no State-wide testing program in the county high 
schools during 1938-39. From the comprehensive reports of 
principals to the State high school supervisors, it was found that 
a number of standard tests were given. The standardized tests 
used in various schools are classified according to type and sub- 
ject. 

Intelligence Tests 

Detroit Advanced Intelligence — Thurmont 

Henmon-Nelson Mental Ability — Grantsville, Slate Ridge, Oxon Hill, 
Centreville 

Kuhlmann Anderson — Greenbelt, South Potomac, Woodland Way 
Otis Intelligence — Greenbelt 

Otis Quick Scoring Mental Ability — Carroll Manor, Seventh District, 
East New Market, Walkersville, Ellicott City, Smithsburg 

Otis Self-Administering Mental Ability — New Windsor, Mt. Airy, 
North East, Leland, Centreville, Trappe 

Pintner General Ability — George Biddle, Maryland Park 

Terman Group Intelligence — Randallstown, Emmitsburg, Millington 

Battery of Tests 

Iowa High School Content — New Windsor, Mt. Airy 
Metropolitan Achievement Advanced — Denton 
Sones-Harry — Southern, Slate Ridge 



TESTING IN COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 



Reading 

Iowa Silent Reading — New Windsor, Ellicott City, Greenbelt 



124 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
English 

Clapp Young English — Mt. Airy 
Cross English Usage — Glen Burnie 
Inglis Vocabulary — Bethesda, Chevy Chase 
Pressey Diagnostic — North East 

Mathematics 

Co-operative Algebra — Leland 

Co-operative Mathematics — Beall IV 

Orleans Algebra and Geometry Prognosis — Elkton 

Schorling-Clark-Potter Arithmetic, Form A — Linthicum Heights, Brook- 
lyn Park 

Social Studies 

Brown-Woody Civics — New Windsor, Mt. Airy 
Co-operative American History — New Windsor, Mt. Airy 
Social Science Survey — New Windsor 
Vocational Information — South Potomac 
Wesley Social Terms— Oldtown III-IV 

Science 

Co-operative Chemistry — Mt. Airy 

Co-operative General Science — New Windsor, Mt. Airy 
Co-operative Physics — New Windsor 

Latin 

Co-operative Latin — Leland 
Orleans-Solomon Latin Prognosis — Dundalk 
Pressey Latin Syntax — Glen Burnie 
Stevenson Latin Derivative — Glen Burnie 

French 

American Council Beta French — Glen Burnie, Linthicum Heights, 

Brooklyn Park, St. Michaels 
Columbia Research Bureau French — Glen Burnie 
Luria-Orleans Modern Language Prognosis — North East 

THE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING STAFF 

In 1938-39 in the last four years in the county hig^h schools, a 
white teaching staff, equivalent to the full-time service of 1,440 
teachers, was employed, 78 more than for the preceding year. 
Every subject, except the foreign languages, had a larger white 
teaching staff on a full-time basis than in 1938. (See Table 79.) 

English, with 288 teachers on a full-time basis, employed the 
services of more teachers than any other subject. The number 
of teachers of social studies on a full-time basis was 209, while 
science required 176 and mathematics 170 teachers. French, 
Spanish, and German had approximately 49 teachers and Latin 
required 42 teachers on a full-time basis. (See Table 79.) 



Testing; White High School Teaching Staff by Subject 125 



TABLE 79 



Number of Teachers Distributed by High School Subjects in County White 
High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1939 



Subjects 


Number of Teachers 
on Full-Time Basis 
Distributed by Time 
Devoted to Different 
Subjects 


Number 
of High 
Schools 
OfTering 

Each 
Subject 


Number of Cases Where 
Special Teachers Instruct 
in More Than One School 
Each Week or Term 


Approximate 
Number of 
Different 
Teachers of 
Special 
Subjects 


1938 


1939 


Teachers 


Schools 




232.4 


238.0 


150 










^uu . o 


one n 


150 










164.7 


176.0 


150 










164.2 


169.5 


150 








French 


49.5 


47.7 


112 








Latin 


42.4 


42.4 


80 










.5 


.5 


1 










.4 


.4 


1 








Library 


24.3 


27.3 


46 








Commercial 


119.0 


127.2 


73 








Home Economics 


*94.7 


*102.7 


126 


"i2 


' 25 


137 




*70.0 


*81.6 


91 


11 


24 


105 




*44.5 


*48.4 


113 


19 


54 


79 


Physical Education . . . 


*36.4 


*39.2 


52 


2 


4 


62 




33.1 


35.2 


56 


7 


14 


49 


Art 


*11.0 


*18.3 


42 


6 


18 


30 


Administration and 














Supervision 


74.4 


76.4 










Total 


1,361.8 


1,439.5 











* Time given to grade 7, or grades 7 and 8 not included. 



From 1938 to 1939 there was an increase of 11 teachers in 
science, of 8 in the social studies, of 6 in EngHsh, and of 5 in 
mathematics. (See Table 79.) 

Forty-six high schools reported having librarians or teacher- 
librarians which required the equivalent of full-time service from 
27 individuals, 3 more than for the preceding year. (See Table 
79.) 

The full-time equivalent of 127 teachers was required for in- 
struction in the commercial subjects. Home economics with 103 
white teachers on a full-time basis actually required the services 
of 137 different teachers instructing in 126 schools. Time de- 
voted by these teachers to related science was classified with 
science. Some home economics and industrial arts teachers also 
taught in grades 7 (8) and this time was not included in Table 79. 
Industrial arts and trades and industries with a full-time staff 
of 82 teachers included 105 individuals who taught in 91 schools. 
For the last four years of high school work there was an increase 
of 8 commercial, 8 home economics, and 12 industrial arts and 
trade teachers on a full-time basis from 1938 to 1939. (See 
Table 79.) 



126 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



There were 35 white teachers of agriculture on a full-time 
basis, since time given to teaching related science was allocated 
to science. Actually there were 49 teachers of agriculture who 
gave instruction in 56 schools. There were 2 more white teachers 
of agriculture on a full-time basis than were in service the preced- 
ing year. (See Table 79.) 

Art with the equivalent of 18 teachers on a full-time basis was 
taught by 30 different teachers in 42 county white high schools. 
On a full-time basis there was an increase of 7 art teachers over 
the number employed in 1938. (See Table 79.) 

Administration and supervision required the equivalent on a 
full-time basis of over 76 principals and vice-principals, 2 more 
than during the preceding year. Thirteen principals in large 
county high schools in seven counties did no teaching but devoted 
all their time to administration and supervision. (See Table 79.) 

Seven counties employed clerks in 25 large schools at an annual 
salary cost of $19,376. The average clerk's salary of $763 is much 
lower than that of a teacher, and the principal is relieved of many 
clerical and routine duties making it possible for him to devote 
his time to constructive professional supervision. (See Table 80.) 

TABLE 80 



Number of Clerks in County Schools, 1938-39 





Number of Clerks 






County 






Total 


Average 








Salaries 


Annual 




1937-38 


1938-39 




Salary 




23 


25.4 


$19,376 


$763 




7 


8.4 


9,020 


1,074 




7 


7 


4,250 


607 




5 


5 


2,875 


575 




2 


2 


1,746 


873 




1 


1 


600 


600 


Carroll 




1 


480 


480 


Wicomico 


'i 


1 


405 


405 



CERTIFICATION OF COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

In October, 1938, of 946 principals and teachers giving instruc- 
tion in the work of the last four years of high schools organized 
on the 7-4 or 8-4 plan in 21 counties, 96.6 per cent held regular 
certificates, and '32 or 3.4 per cent were assistant teachers hold- 
ing tprovisional certificates or employed as substitutes. Of 579 
principals and teachers in grades 7-12 or 7-11 of senior-junior and 
senior high schools in six counties having the 6-3-3 or 6-5 plan, 
92.2 per cent held regular high school certificates, 32 or 5.5 per 



t Provisional certificates are issued for certain special subjects only. 



White High School Teaching Staff, Certification, Summer 127 
School Attendance 

cent held regular elementary certificates*, and 13 or 2.3 per cent 
were substitutes or held tprovisional certificates. Of 142 princi- 
pals and teachers in grades 7-9 or 7-8 in junior hig*h schools in 
5 counties, 93.8 per cent were certificated as principals or regular 
high school assistants, 3.4 per cent as holding regular elementary 
certificates,* and 4 or 3.4 per cent were substitutes or fprovi- 
sionally certificated. (See Table XIII, page 326.) 

SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL 

TEACHERS 

Of the white high school teachers in service in October, 1938, 
there were 515 or 30.9 per cent Who attended summer school in 
1938, an increase of 147 in number and 7.7 in per cent over cor- 
responding figures for 1937. This was a larger number than ' 
ever before attended summer school. (See Table 81.) 



TABLE 81 

County White High School® Teachers Who Were Summer School Attendants 



Summer 


Number 


Per Cent 


Summer 


Number 


Per Cent 


1929 


367 
410 
448 

472 
357 


33.5 
34.3 
36.1 
35.1 
26.3 


1934 


356 
371 
399 
368 
515 


25.6 
25.6 
26.6 
23.2 
30.9 


1930 


1935 


1931 


1936 


1932 


1937 


1933 


1938 







• Includes teachers in junior, junior-senior, senior and regular high schools. 



Among the counties the range in summer school attendants 
was from 18 to 49 per cent. All counties, except five, showed an 
increase in the number and per cent of white high school summer 
school attendants in 1938 over the number in 1937, and three of 
these five counties had the same number of attendants both 
years. (See Table 82.) 

The University of Maryland attracted 178 or nearly 35 per 
cent of the county white high school teachers who went to sum- 
mer school. Jdhns Hopkins University and Columbia came 
second and third with 54 and 53 summer school attendants, 
respectively, and Western Maryland College was fourth with 47 
attendants, these three institutions taking care of 30 per cent 
of the white high school summer school attendants. Other 
colleges attended by from 3 to 20 white high school teachers are 
listed in Table 82. 



t Provisional certificates are issued for certain special subjects only. 
-.1, * '^^^hers of grade 7 or grades 7 and 8 in a junior high school organization holding 
either a B. S., advanced first, or first grade certificate. 



128 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 82 

County White Regular, Junior and Senior High School Teachers in Service in 
October, 1938, Reported by County Superintendents and/or Colleges as 
Summer School Attendants in 1938 



County 



Total and Average 

Wicomico 

Cecil 

Worcester 

Kent 

Talbot 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery 

Queen Anne's 

Calvert 

Washington 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Baltimore 

Anne Arundel 

Allegany 

Caroline 

Howard 

Carroll 

Somerset 

Prince George's. . . 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Harford 



Teachers Employed 
October, 1938, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1938 



Number 



Per Cent 



515 


30.9 


26 


49.1 


25 


47.2 


18 


41.9 


10 


41.7 


14 


41.2 


6 


40.0 


83 


38.2 


10 


37.1 


4 


36.4 


43 


34.4 


30 


34.1 


14 


30.4 


49 


27.7 


25 


27.2 


55 


26.4 


11 


25.0 


7 


24.2 


20 


24.1 


7 


23.3 


31 


22.6 


6 


22.2 


9 


21.4 


12 


17.9 



Summer School Attended 



Total 

University of Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University .... 

Columbia University 

Western Maryland College. . . 
Pennsylvania State College . . . 

Duke University 

Cornell University 

University of Wisconsin 

George Washington University 

University of Virginia 

University of Delaware 

Catholic University 

University of California 

University of North Carolina . . 

New York University 

University of West Virginia — 

Pittsburgh University 

Syracuse Unive^-sity 

University of Colorado 

Harvard University 

University of Maine 

Stout Institute 

42 others 



GROWTH OF STAFF IN COUNTY JUNIOR, JUNIOR-SENIOR, AND 
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

Until the fall of 1926, the counties operated their school 
systems on the 7-4 or 8-4 plan, i. e., with seven or eight elemen- 
tary grades and four years of high school. In the fall of 1926, 
Allegany, which had had the 8-4 plan, started the 6-3-3 plan in 
its city schools, i. e., six elementary grades, three junior high 
and three senior high school years. In some schools all 12 grades 
were under the same roof, in others the elementary and junior 
high school grades were together, or in still others the junior 
and senior high school years were in the same building. Allegany 
still continues to have two of its rural hig'h schools on the 8-4 plan. 

Montgomery started experimenting with the 6-3-3 plan in 
the fall of 1927 and now has its entire system on this basis. 
Prince George's with the 7-4 plan throughout the county has had 
the 6-5 plan in one or two schools for nine years. Washington 
County has had the 6-3-3 plan in Hagerstown schools for eight 
years with the 8-4 plan in the rest of the county. Frederick had 
the 6-5 plan in Brunswick for seven years, but discontinued it in 



Summer School Attendance; Junior-Senior High Schools; 129 
Resignations 

1938-39. The 7-4 plan has been in practice in the remainder of 
the county. Baltimore County has had the 6-5 plan in most 
of the county for six years. Caroline County reorganized the 
Federalsburg iSchool on the 6-5 plan in 1937-38 after having 
tried and discontinued the plan at Denton several years pre- 
viously. All the Caroline schools were reorganized on this plan 
in 1938-39. 

The Baltimore City school system is organized on the 6-3-3 
plan. 

The number of teachers employed in junior, junior-senior, and 
senior high schools grew from 154 in one county in October, 1926, 
to 755 in eight counties in October, 1938. Montgomery had the 
largest number, 217 teachers in junior, junior-senior, and senior 
high schools, Allegany was second with 198, and Baltimore Coun- 
ty with one less grade was third with 177. (See Table 83.) 



TABLE 83 

Teachers in County White Junior, Junior-Senior, and Senior High Schools 







Alle- 


Mont- 


Prince 


Wash- 


Fred- 


Caro- 


Balti- 


Dor- 


Anne 


Car- 


Oct. 


Total 


gany 


gomery 


George's 


ington 


erick 


line 


more 


chester 


Arundel 


roll 


1926. . 


154 


154 




















1927. . 


182 


161 


2i 


















1928. . 


202 


165 


37 


















1929. . 


207 


165 


42 


















1930. . 


245 


166 


51 


28 
















1931. . 


398 


174 


96 


33 


80 


15 












1932. . 


424 


178 


101 


33 


79 


15 


is 


5 








1933. . 


575 


180 


109 


23 


79 


15 


13 


148 








1934. . 


576 


177 


123 


25 


79 


17 




155 








1935. . 


625 


183 


155 


26 


79 


17 




159 




6 




1936. . 


669 


185 


179 


36 


81 


17 




160 




6 


5 


1937. . 


723 


190 


210 


41 


80 


18 


9 


164 


. . 6 


5 


1938. . 


755 


198 


217 


22 


86 




44 


177 


. . 6 


5 



Baltimore City had 1,159 white and 218 colored principals and 
teachers in junior and senior high schools in June, 1939. 



RESIGNATIONS FROM COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

Between October, 1937, and October, 1938, there were 122 
resignations from the regular four-year and junior and junior- 
senior high schools in the counties, as compared with 131 for 
the preceding year. In only three years of the last eleven was 
there a smaller number of resignations than between October, 
1937 and October, 1938. The largest number of resignations 
from the county high schools, 193, occurred between October, 
1928, and October, 1929. (See Table 84.) 



130 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 84 



Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who Withdrew from the Mary- 
land County White Regular, Junior, Junior-Senior and Senior High Schools 
Between October of One Year and October of the Following Year 



October 

TO 

October 


Married 


Teaching in Baltimore 
City, Another State 
or in Private Schools 


Work Other Than 
Teaching [ 


Inefficiency 


1 Retirement 


Administrative, Super- 
visory or State Teachers 
College Positions in 
the State 


Provisional Certificate or 
Failure to Attend Sum- 
1 mer School, Substitutes 


1 Death 


Illness 


1 Moved Away 


1 Abolished Positions 


Rejected by 
Medical Board | 


[ Other and Unknown 


Total 


Transfer to 
Another County 


1 Leave of Absence 


Transfer to Other 
Type of School in 
the Same County 


1927-1928 


44 


43 


22 


23 


2 


5 


2 


2 


5 


3 






14 


165 


38 


8 


10 


1928-1929 


49 


64 


23 


21 


5 


11 


7 




4 


3 






6 


193 


52 


18 


11 


1929-1930 


48 


53 


19 


21 


6 


2 


6 


3 


4 


4 






16 


182 


37 


11 


26 


1930-1931 


43 


39 


18 


39 


4 


2 


12 


3 


6 


1 






10 


177 


28 


4 


72 


1931-1932 


29 


6 


8 


28 


5 


2 


18 


3 


3 


2 


9 


2 


18 


133 


16 


7 


32 


1932-1933 


24 


4 


11 


8 


4 


2 


6 


2 


3 


5 


13 


6 


10 


98 


8 


6 


128 


1933-1934 


43 


17 


20 


7 


8 


6 


3 


3 


7 


3 


2 




7 


126 


13 


4 


31 


1934-1935 


29 


19 


26 


2 


4 


3 


2 


3 


6 


2 


1 


2 


12 


111 


19 


22 


1 


1935-1936 


30 


21 


22 


13 


3 


3 


3 


3 


8 


4 


1 


1 


3 


115 


12 


15 


3 


1936-1937 


44 


25 


23 


10 


7 


5 


3 


3 


2 


1 






8 


131 


23 


16 


2 


1937-1938 


49 


18 


16 


11 


3 


6 


7 


3 


2 


1 


i 




5 


122 


25 


12 


13 



TURNOVER IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS 

The number and per cent of teachers new to the county white 
regular, junior and senior high schools, 233 or 13.8 per cent in 
1939, were smaller than for the preceding year. There were 85 
additional high school positions in 1939 compared with 88 addi- 
tional the preceding year. The continued increases in high school 
enrollment, especially in those counties growing in population, 
ihave necessitated appointing additional teachers to the staffs, 
as well as the desire on the part of more schools for teachers of 
Vocational work, of art, and of physical education, and for libra- 
rians or teacher-librarians. (See Table 85.) 

Of the 233 teachers new to the county White high schools in 
1938-39, there were 144 inexperienced teachers, 37 with experi- 
ence outside the counties, 16 who formerly had experience in the 
counties but were not teaching in 1937-38, 13 from elementary 
schools, and 23 substitutes. There were also 25 high school 
teachers who transferred from one county to another. (See 
Table 85.) 

Among the counties the number of new appointments to the 
high schools ranged from to 35 and the per cent of turnover 
ran from to over 27 per cent. (See Table 85.) 



Resignations and Turnover of Maryland White High School 131 

Teachers 

TABLE 85 

Number and Per Cent of White Regular, Senior High, Junior High, and Jun- 
ior-Senior High School Teachers New to the Schools of Each Individual 
County During the School Year, 1938-39, with Comparisons 
for Preceding Years 





New to 
County 




Number New to County Who Were 


Year 






Change in 
Number of 








Experienced 








Teaching 














AND 






Positions 














County 






October 


inex- 






In Counties 


From 








jrer 


to 


peri- 


JjUt 


r rom 


but not 


Ele- 


oUDStl- 




ber 


v^eni 


October 


enced 


New 


A n 

An- 


in 


mentary 


tutes 












to 


other 


Service 


Schools 














State 


County 


Preceding 


in Same 


















Year 


County 




Total and 




















Average: 




















1930-31 


°348 


25 


+ 107 


^uo 


32 


39 


71 


10 


ou 


1931-32 




1 fi Q 
lo . 


+ 94 


172 


1 Q 
ly 


01 

£, i 


50 


2 


A 

4 


1932-33 


lc54 


1 f» 


—15 


01 


01 
zi 


Id 


23 


1 


Q 



1933-34 


oi no 


n Q 


+ 14 


70 


1 '7 
1 t 



y 


14 


1 


D 


1934-35 


°172 




+ 36 


122 


17 


1 a 
Id 


28 


3 




1935-36 


°205 


14 


+ 60 


i4y 


17 


1 K 
ID 


20 


8 




1936-37 




1 Q Q 
lo . 


+ 50 


123 


00 


13 


ZD 


Q 




D 


1937-38 




1 s n 


+ 88 


129 


oo 


25 


21 


10 


lo 


1938-39 


°233 


13.8 


+ 85 


144 


37 


25 


16 


13 


23 


St. Mary's 




















Carroll 


'5 


'eio 


'+2 


'5 












Queen Anne's. . . 


2 


7.4 


+2 


1 










'i 


Cecil 


5 


9.4 


+ 3 


2 


i 


i 






1 




9 


10.2 




7 




1 






1 




22 


10.5 




9 


'4 


1 


i 




4 




6 


10.9 


+ 1 


3 


1 


1 


1 








14 


11.2 


+ 6 


7 


2 


1 


1 




"2 




5 


11.9 




3 










2 


Montgomery. . . . 


27 


12.3 


+i6 


13 


6 




'4 






Kent 


3 


12.5 




2 






1 






Talbot 


5 


14.3 


'+i 


4 




'i 








Anne Arundel . . . 


16 


18.2 


+5 


10 


'4 


1 








Harford 


13 


19.4 


+ 6 


10 




3 










35 


19.4 


+ 13 


20 


'3 


6 


'4 








6 


20.0 




4 


1 




1 








9 


20.9 


■+3 


5 


2 


i 








Charles 


6 


21.4 


+ 1 


3 




1 










7 


23.3 


+ 1 


5 


'i 










Prince George's . 


35 


24.6 


+ 14 


15 


11 


'4 








Garrett 


13 


26.5 


+4 


8 






'2 






Calvert 


3 


27.3 


1 






1 






Caroline 


12 


27.3 


"+4 


7 


i 


"3 




i 




Baltimore City*{ 


10 
40 


2.0 
6.3 


{+23} 


5 
30 


2 
4 


i 


3 
1 


t 
1 


'3 


Entire State .... 


282 


10.0 


+ 108 


179 


43 


26 


20 


14 


26 



t Excudes teachers in Baltimore City transferred from junior high to senior high school. 
° Excludes teachers who transferred from one county to another. 

* In Baltimore City the top row includes senior and the bottom row junior high school 
teachers. 



The turnover in Baltimore City of 40 in junior and 10 in senior 
high schools for white pupils in 1939 was smaller than for the 
preceding year. There were 35 inexperienced teachers appointed 
to the junior and senior high schools in 1939. (See Tables 85 
and 86.) 



132 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 86 

Turnover of White Junior and Senior High School Teachers in Baltimore City 



Total 
Number 
New to 
Baltimore 
City White 
Junior and 
Senior High 
Schools* 



Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 



Teachers New to Baltimore City Schools 



Inex- 
per- 
ienced 



Who Were Experienced 



From 
Other 
States 



But Not 

in 
Service 
Preced- 
ing 
Year 



In 

County 
Preced- 
ing 
Year 



In Other 
Type of 
Baltimore 
City 
School 



Other 



1929-30. . . . 


83 


1930-31 


108 


1931-32. . . . 


108 


1932-33 .... 


39 


1933-34 


6 


1934-35. . . . 


32 


1935-36 


33 


1936-37 


62 


1937-38 


54 


1938-39 


49 



+ 33 
+ 54 
+ 81 
—30 
+ 38 
+ 22 
+ 12 
+ 17 
+ 15 
+ 23 



* Excludes transfers from one type of school to another. 



Of the 144 inexperienced teachers appointed to the high school 
staffs in the counties during 1938-39, 99 graduated from colleges 
in Maryland, 13 from colleges in Pennsylvania, 8 from Virginia 
colleges, 5 from Wisconsin, and 4 from District of Columbia 
colleges. Of those graduated from Maryland colleges, 40 were 
from Western Maryland College, 34 from the University of Mary- 
land, 10 from Washington College, and 8 from Hood College. (See 
Table 87.) 

Of 37 teachers appointed in the Maryland counties after having 
had experience in other states, 8 and 7 had received their train- 
ing at schools in Pennsylvania and Maryland, respectively. (See 
Table 87.) 



MARYLAND 1938 COLLEGE GRADUATES WHO MET CERTIFICATE 
REQUIREMENTS AND WHO RECEIVED COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL 

POSITIONS 

The Maryland colleges reported on their 1938 graduates from 
the counties and Baltimore City who were eligible to receive 
Maryland higih school certificates and who actually received 
county high school positions. Of 180 Maryland county 1938 
graduates eligible, the colleges reported county high school posi- 
tions in 1938-39 for 121 or 67 per cent. (See Table 88.) 

The excess in placement of graduates of all colleges except 
Hood in Table 88 over Table 87 is undoubtedly due to the inclu- 
sion in Table 88 of substitutes not included in Table 87. 



Turnover; Placement of Inexperienced County High School 133 
Teachers; Men 



TABLE 87 

State of College Attended, and for Maryland, College Attended by Inexperi- 
enced White High School Teachers in Junior, Junior-Senior, Senior and Reg- 
ular High Schools; Also State of College Attended for Teachers with Teach- 
ing Experience in Other States, Who Were Employed in Maryland 
Counties, for School Year, 1938-39 



State of 
College 
Attended 


Total 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Harford 


Howard 


1 Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


Inexperienced Teachers Employed for School Year, 1938-39 


Total 


144 


9 


10 


20 


1 


7 


5 


2 


3 


3 


7 


8 


10 


5 


2 


13 


15 


1 




4 


4 


7 


3 


5 






99 
40 
34 
10 
8 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
13 
8 
5 
4 
3 
2 
2 
6 
2 


5 
3 
1 

1 


6 
1 
3 
1 

i 


12 
3 
4 
2 
1 
1 
1 


1 
1 


6 
3 
1 
2 


5 
1 
4 




1 


2 


6 
1 


6 
4 
1 


9 
5 
3 


5 
4 
1 


2 
2 


7 
1 
6 


14 
6 
5 
2 
1 


1 
1 




2 
2 


2 
2 


3 

i 


3 
1 
2 


1 
1 


Western Maryland 


University of Maryland . . 
Washington 




1 


1 
1 










Hood 








4 


1 














1 




































Notre Dame 


















1 
























Maryland Institute 








































Peabody 








































1 






St. Joseph's 




















1 
1 
























2 
2 


3 

i 










1 


i 


1 


1 


1 








1 










2 
1 




2 




2 
1 
2 
1 




1 








2 






1 
























Washington, D. C 










1 














1 
1 
















Illinois 






























1 






































1 


































1 
1 














1 
1 


6 Other States 






1 
1 








1 








1 
















1 


i 




Unknown 

































































Teachers with Experience in Other States Employed for School Year, 1938-39 



Total 


37 


4 


4 


3 




1 




1 












1 




6 


11 






1 




2 


1 


2 














Pennsylvania 


8 
7 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
9 
1 




2 


2 
























2 
1 
















2 


Maryland 








1 












1 




3 
2 














Delaware 


























1 










Indiana 


1 


1 






























1 






Missouri 


1 




































Ohio 
























1 












1 




1 
1 




























1 
4 
1 










9 Other States 


1 






1 




















2 

































































































MEN EMPLOYED ON COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING STAFFS 

In 1938-39 there were 551 men employed on the county white 
teaching staffs giving instruction in the last four years of high 
school work. They represented 38.6 per cent of the total staff. 
This was an increase of 29 in number over the preceding year 
and a larger number than has been reported since 1922-23. One 
county employed more men than women on the high school staff, 
and in three counties the number of men and women on the high 
sdhool faculties were almost the same. In all other counties 
there were more women than men which corresponds with the 
excess of girls over boys in the high school enrollment. (See 
Table X, page 223.) 



134 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 88 

Maryland Students Who Completed in June, 1938, at Colleges Indicated, the 
Education Courses Necessary for Certification Compared with the 
Number of Graduates Who Took Positions in the County 
High Schools in the Fall of 1938 



College or Universitt 



Western Maryland College 
University of Maryland . . . 

Washington College 

Hood 

St. Joseph's College 

Goucher 

College of Notre Dame . . . . 
Johns Hopkins University . 



Number of Graduates 



Who Met Requirements 
for Certification from 



Maryland 


Baltimore 


Counties 


City 


66 


11 


66 


21 


24 


3 


10 




6 


'2 


4 


7 


3 


8 


1 


6 



Who Received 
Md. County 
High School 
Positions 



45* 

50 

11 

7 

5 



* In addition, five 1938 graduates were placed in 1939-40. 

TABLE 89 

Number of Public White High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1939 



Year and 
County 



Total 



Group 



County 



Total 



Group 



Total Counties 
1920 , 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . 
Baltimore .... 
Calvert 



82 

148 
150 
152 
153 
151 
152 
153 
152 
149 
151 
150 
151 
148 
150 
150 

11 
6 

10 
2 



*69 

*130 
n36 
*137 
141 
141 
142 
144 
140 
136 
136 
136 
136 
135 
136 
135 

9 
4 



tl3 

tl8 
tl4 
tl5 
12 
10 
10 
9 
12 
13 
al5 
al4 
bl5 
bl3 
cl4 
bl5 

U2 
2 
14 



Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 

State 



7 
6 
8 
4 
4 
11 
12 
5 
2 
4 
5 
8 
7 
5 

23 

173 



142 



n 



U2 



xl6 
31 



° First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30. an attendance of 25. and 
two teachers. 'They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an 
enrollment of 15, an attendance of 12. They give a two-year course. Schools in Baltimore 
County giving a one-year course are classified as second group schools. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2, prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

t Each t represents one junior high school. 

a Includes 7 junior high schools. 

b Includes 10 junior high schools. 

c Includes 11 junior high schools. 

X Junior high schools. 



136 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



NUMBER OF PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS FOR WHITE PUPILS 

There were 150 white hig'h schools in the Maryland counties 
in 1938-39, the same number as for the preceding year. Of these 
schools 135 were classified as first group, and 15 as second group. 
The change in the number of high schools occurred in Mont- 
gomery County which opened the Kensington Junior High School, 
and in Talbot County which closed the Oxford High School. Two 
counties had only two high schools, while one county had as 
many as 12 high schools for white pupils. (See Table 89 and 
CMrt 16.) 

SIZE OF WHITE TEACHING STAFF IN COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

The number of county high schools having fewer than 5 
teachers has shown a decided decrease from 1925 to 1939. 
Whereas in 1925 there were 94 high schools staffed with one to 
four teachers, inclusive, by 1939 the number had decreased to 39. 
The number of one-teacher hig^h schools has been reduced from 
19 in 1925 to only one in 1939, and those having two teachers 
from 20 to 10. On the other hand, schools employing from 5 to 8 
teachers, inclusive, increased from 31 in 1925 to 47 in 1939, and 
those having 9 or more teachers from 25 to 64. (See Table 90.) 

In 1938-39 the median county four-year white high school 
had a staff of 8 teachers including the principal. The three 
high schools having the largest staffs were at Catonsville with 42 
teachers, at Hagerstown with 40 teachers, and at Frederick with 
39 teachers. (See Table 92, page 138.) 



TABLE 90 

Distribution of Maryland County White High Schools According to the Num- 
ber of Teachers Employed on a Full-Time Basis, 1925-1939 



Total 



Number of High Schools Having Following Number of Full-Time 
Teachers 





Number 
Schools 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Over 
10 


1925 


150 


19 


20 


26 


29 


14 


5 


7 


5 


7 


5 


13 


1926 


154 


15 


21 


25 


28 


18 


8 


11 


4 


3 


5 


16 


1927 


153 


8 


22 


23 


26 


20 


10 


12 


6 


3 


8 


15 


1928 


152 


6 


21 


26 


27 


16 


10 


14 


1 


6 


7 


18 


1929 


152 


6 


18 


21 


30 


21 


6 


14 


5 


3 


4 


24 


1930 


152 


7 


13 


22 


27 


20 


13 


8 


6 


4 


6 


26 


1931 


153 


4 


13 


21 


26 


22 


11 


9 


6 


6 


5 


30 


1932 


152 


4 


12 


13 


29 


18 


15 


9 


6 


8 


6 


32 


1933 


149 


6 


13 


11 


25 


18 


13 


13 


4 


11 


4 


31 


1934 


151 


5 


14 


13 


22 


21 


10 


15 


8 


9 


4 


30 


1935 


149 


5 


13 


13 


25 


17 


11 


13 


7 


10 


5 


30 


1936 


151 


6 


13 


12 


21 


20 


9 


14 


13 


8 


4 


31 


1937 


148 


3 


12 


14 


23 


14 


12 


12 


11 


9 


4 


34 


1938 


150 


3 


11 


15 


18 


18 


11 


11 


10 


12 


5 


36 


1939 


150 


1 


10 


9 


19 


13 


15 


9 


10 


16 


10 


38 



Size of Teaching Staff and Enrollment in County White 137 
High Schools 

SIZE OF ENROLLMENT IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

There has been considerable change in the distribution of en- 
rollment in the county high schools. In 1925 there were 109 
high schools or 72 per cent which enrolled 100 pupils or less. By 
1930 this number had dropped to 83 or 55 per cent, and by 1939 
to 55 or 37 per cent of all county hig^h schools for white pupils. 
The opposite side of the picture is presented when the number of 
high schools having over 200 pupils is shown. In 1925 there 
were 19 or 12.5 per cent, in 1930 there were 30 or 20 per cent, in 
1935 there were 39 or 26 per cent, and in 1939 there were 50 or 
33 per cent with an average enrollment of over 200 pupils. (See 
Table 91.) 

TABLE 91 



Distribution of Maryland County White Public Secondary Schools by Size of 
Pupil Groups, 1925, 1930, 1935, and 1939 







Number 




Cumulative Per Cent 


Average Number 


















Belonging 




















1925 


1930 


1935 


1939 


1925 


1930 


1935 


1939 


Total 


152 


152 


149 


150 










1- 25 


26 


7 


2 




17.1 


4.6 


1.3 




26- 50 


31 


21 


16 


14 


37.5 


18.4 


12.0 


'9!3 


51- 75 


37 


35 


25 


24 


61.8 


41.4 


28.8 


25.3 


76- 100 


15 


20 


15 


17 


71.7 


54.6 


38.9 


36.6 


101- 125 


7 


17 


22 


12 


76.3 


65.8 


53.6 


44.6 


126- 150 


9 


6 


8 


13 


82.2 


69.7 


59.0 


53.3 


151- 175 


5 


10 


9 


10 


85.5 


76.3 


65.0 


60.0 


176- 200 


3 


6 


13 


10 


87.5 


80.2 


73.7 


66.7 


201- 250 


4 


6 


8 


14 


90.1 


84.1 


79.1 


76.0 


251- 300 


2 


5 


5 


6 


91.4 


87.4 


82.5 


80.0 


301- 400 


6 


9 


6 


8 


95.3 


93.3 


86.5 


85.3 


401- 500 


4 


2 


6 


3 


97.9 


94.6 


90.5 


87.3 


501- 600 


1 


1 


3 


4 


98.6 


95.3 


92.5 


90.0 


601- 700 


1 


2 


4 


3 


99.3 


96.6 


95.2 


92.0 


701- 800 




3 


1 


3 


99.3 


98.6 


95.9 


94.0 


801- 900 


i 




2 


1 


100.0 


98.6 


97.2 


94.7 


901-1,000 




i 


1 


4 




99.3 


97.9 


97.4 


1,001-1,100 






1 


1 




99.3 


98.6 


98.1 


1,101-1,200 






1 


2 




99.3 


99.3 


99.4 


1,201-1,300 




i 


1 






100.0 


100.0 


99.4 


1,301-1,400 








i 








100.0 




63.8 


92.3 


119.8 


141.4 











However, it must be remembered that the 50 county high 
sdhools in which the average enrollment was over 200 pupils 
take care of over 70 per cent of all county white high school 
pupils in the last four years. 

In 1938-39 the median county white four-year high school had 
an average enrollment of from 126 to 150 pupils. There were 5 
small schools in which the average high school enrollment was 
under 40, while in the three largest high schools it was 1,184, 
1,188, and 1,385. (See Table 93, page 139.) 



138 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 92 

Size of Teaching Staff in Last Four Years of Maryland County White High 
Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1939 



Total, 



Number 

OP 

Teachers 



150 



12 



First Group High Schools 



2 


7 
7 
16 
11 
15 
9 

16 
8 








1 






1 
1 
1 


"i 

2 


1 
2 
1 




1 






1 










1 


1 








3 










2 
1 








1 

3 
1 
1 






2 
1 
1 








1 












1 
1 










1 




5 


1 






2 
1 


3 


3 

1 
1 


i 
1 


6 






1 


i 

1 
1 


2 














1 


1 


2 

9 




1 










1 

2 
1 


o 








2 


1 


"i 


2 












9 






1 


1 


1 
1 


i 


2 














10 




1 








11 


5 


2 








1 
























1 




i 






12 


2 
























1 














1 










13 


4 




























1 


1 


1 














14 










































i 








15 








1 










































16 
















"i 


































17 






















i 




























18 
































i 


1 
















19 
























i 


























20 




'i 










"i 












1 








1 
















21 




















1 






























24 








1 










































26 








1 










































28 
































1 


















30 








1 










































31 














































"i 




32 




1 














































33 




1 






























i 
















34 






i 


























i 


















35 






1 












































39 






















1 




























40 












































1 






42 


1 






1 





























































































Second Group and Junior High Schools 



1 


1 

3 
2 
3 
2 

1 

2 
1 


1 
1 














































2 


i 
1 


2 










































3 
























1 


















4. 


1 
1 






1 


































5 




































8 


































1 
1 






10 






























1 
1 












13 























































































In 1925 the median number of white pupils enrolled in 152 
county high schools was 63.8 with a median staff of 4.3 teachers. 



Size of Teaching Staff and Enrollment in County White 139 
High Schools 



TABLE 93 

Size of Enrollment in Last Four Years of Maryland County White High 
Schools, for Year Ending June 30, 1939 



Average Number 
Belonging 


Total No. j 
Schools 


1 Allegany 


1 Anne Arundel \ 


1 Baltimore 


1 Calvert 


1 Caroline 


1 Carroll 


1 Cecil 


1 Charles 1 


1 Dorchester 


1 Frederick 


1 Garrett 


1 Harford t 


1 Howard 


1 Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


1 St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester | 


Total 


150 


11 


6 


10 


2 


5 


9 


8 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


4 


4 


11 


12 


5 


2 


4 


5 


8 


7 


5 




First Group High Schools 




5 
3 
22 
16 
11 
12 
10 
9 
10 
3 
2 
3 
3 

2 
2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 

2 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
2 

1 

2 

1 








1 






1 


















1 








1 




1 




41- 50 














1 

i 

1 
1 


2 
2 
1 


1 
1 


1 
1 
1 








1 

i 




1 
1 
2 












1 
2 


3 


4 


i 

2 


i 

1 


2 


2 
2 




2 




3 
1 
1 


1 
1 


76- 100 


1 






1 
1 


1 
3 
2 

i 












1 

1 
1 






2 




1 




i 


4 


151- 175 




1 




1 


1 
1 
1 


1 

i 


1 






1 
1 


1 


i 


2 






1 










2 

"i 


201- 225 












1 


2 
1 








1 




226- 250 












1 






251- 275 


i 




1 


























1 


























1 




1 


















301- 325 






















1 








1 


1 








351- 375 


1 




























1 












376- 400 












1 






1 


























426- 450 
























1 
















451- 475 






1 








































476- 500 


























1 
















501- 525 


















1 




























526- 550 




















1 


1 
























551- 575 












1 
































601- 625 


1 


























1 
1 


















651- 675 












































726- 750 






1 








































751- 775 


























1 
















776- 800 










































1 




801- 825 


1 
1 


1 


1 






































901- 925 










































951- 975 












































976-1,000 


1 


1 










































1,026-1,050 










































1,176-1,200 


















1 






















1 






1,376-1,400 






1 













































































Second Group and Junior High Schools 



26- 40 


5 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 


2 


i 
1 


2 
























1 


















41- 50 








































51- 75 












































76- 100 
























1 


















101- 125 






1 
1 








































126- 150 










































176- 200 
























1 


















226- 250 








































1 

1 






276- 300 










































301- 325 




























1 














1 









































140 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The number of pupils has increased steadily eaoh year until 1939, 
when the median enrollment in high schools, 141.4, was over 2.2 
times the number in 1925. The corresponding increase from 1925 
to 1939 in the size of staff in the median high school was 3.6, 
making the median staff just under 8 in 1939. (See Table 94.) 

TABLE 94 



Median Number of Pupils Belonging and Median Number of Teachers in 
Service in Maryland County White Public Secondary Schools, 1925-1939 



School Year 
Ending in June 


Number 
of 

Secondary 
Schools 


Median 


Number 
of Pupils 
Belonging 


Number 
of Teachers 
Employed 


1925 




152 


63.8 


4.3 


1926 




154 


69.0 


4.6 


1927 




154 


75.3 


4.9 


1928 




153 


83.7 


4.9 


1929 




152 


86.9 


5.0 


1930 




152 


92.3 


5.4 


1931 




153 


101.7 


5.6 


1932 




152 


110.2 


6.0 


1933 




149 


118.6 


6.1 


1934 




151 


118.9 


6.1 


1935 




149 


119.8 


6.1 


1936 




151 


126.8 


6.4 


1937 




148 


130.2 


6.7 


1938 




150 


134.3 


6.9 


1939 




150 


141.4 


7.9 



Although the median white enrollment in county high schools 
was 121 per cent greater in 1939 than in 1925, the size of the 
median teaching staff was only 84 per cent greater. It was pos- 
sible in a number of schools to absorb small increases in enroll- 
ment without increasing the teaching staff. (See Table 94.) 

RATIO OF PUPILS TO HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS AND PRINCIPALS 

TABLE 95 

Ratio of White High School Pupils to County Principals and Teachers 



Average No. 



Year Belonging 

1923 20.0 

1924 19.8 

1925 20.1 

1926 20.3 

1927 20.4 

1928 21.0 

1929 21.5 

1930 21.6 

1931 21.9 



Average No. 



Year Belonging 

1932 22.3 

1933 24.4 

1934 24.8 

1935 24.7 

1936 25.1 

1937 24.9 

1938 24.0 

1939 24.2 



The average number of pupils per teacher and principal in the 
last four years of county white high schools was 24.2 in 1939, an 
increase of .2 over the number in 1938. In the sixteen-year-period 



Relation of No. of Pupils to No. of Teachers in White High 

Schools 



141 



from 1923 to 1939 the ratio of high school pupils per teacher has 
increased 21 per cent. The ratio of pupils to teachers was only 
higher than it was in 1939 in the years following the depression, 
1933 to 1937, when the normal expansion of the staff to take care 
of additional pupils and to provide a new type of program for the 
non-academic pupil had to be curtailed. (See Table 95.) 

CHART 17 



AVEpAGE mmm of pupils belonging per teacher 

AND PRINCIPAL IN \VHITE liIGH SCHOOLS 

County 1937 1938 1939 

Average 24.0 QB^H^HHHBBHIHi 



Baltimore 

AJ.lcg8ny 

Washington 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel 

St. Wary*s 

Garrett 

Somerset 

Pr. George* s 

Dorchester 

Cecil 

Howard 

Harford 

V/icomico 

Carroll 

Charles 

Kent 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Montgomery 

Worcester 

Calvert 

Queen Anne' s 



Balto. City* 27.8 27.0 



State 




25.6 24.8 



* Data for senior high schools in Baltimore City. 



142 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In 1938-39 the county with the smallest ratio had 18.2 pupils 
per white high school teacher and principal, While the county 
with the highest ratio had 32.3 pupils per teacher and principal. 
Eleven counties had a higher ratio of pupils per teacher in 1939 
than in 1938. (See Chart 17.) 

In Baltimore City senior high schools there were 27.1 pupils 
belonging per teacher and principal in 1939, an increase of .1 
over 1938. Two counties had a higher pupil-teacher ratio than 
Baltimore City. (See Chart 17.) 

SALARIES OF WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 
CHART 18 

Average Annual Salary Per White High School Teacher and Principal, 

1923 to 1939 

^1.000 1 1 1 1 17 I "I 



t.bOO 



I. LOO 



400 



1925 1927 1929 1951 1933 1935 1937 1939 



Average Salary per White High School Teacher and Principal 143 



TABLE 96 

Average Salary Per County White High School Principal and Teacher, 

1923-1939 





Average 




Average 




Salary 




Salary 


Year Ending June 30 


White 


Year Ending June 30 


White 




High School 




High School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1923 


$1,436 
1,477 
1,485 
1,517 
1,534 
1,544 
1,557 
1,550 
1,559 


1932 


$1,571 
1,532 
1,394 
1,398 
1,469 
1,488 
1,587 
1,595 


1924 


1933 


1925 


1934 


1926 


1935 


1927 


1936 


1928 


1937 


1929 


1938 


1930 


1939 


1931 





The average salary per county white high school principal and 
teacher which, with the exception of a slight reduction in 1930, 
had increased steadily from 1917 to 1932, after a small decrease 
in 1933 showed a marked drop in 1934 to $1,394 and rose steadily 
again to $1,595 in 1939, the maximum average salary paid in the 
seventeen-year period. The increase from, 1938 to 1939 was $8. 
The basic State minimum salary schedule establis'hed by the 

1922 legislature was in effect during the entire period from 

1923 to 1939, except for the temporary percentage reductions in 
salary enacted by the legislatures in 1933 and 1935 which affected 
salaries paid in 1934, 1935, 1936, and 1937. (See Table 96 and 
Chart 18.) 

In the individual counties in 1938-39 the average salary per 
member of the high school teaching staff varied from $1,403 to 
$1,897, being less than $1,450 in five counties and more than 
$1,600 in five counties. The 1939 average salary was higher than 
the average salary prior to the depression years in nine counties. 
(See Chart 19.) 

In Baltimore City the average annual salary paid to a white 
senior high school teacher and principal in 1939 was $2,539, an 
increase of $22 over the annual salary of 1938. It was $944 more 
than the average salary paid in the counties and $642 more than 
the average paid in the county having the highest average salary. 
(See Chart 19.) 

For the provisions of the new State minimum salary schedules 
passed by the 1939 legislature, see page 8. 



144 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 19 



CouDty 1933 
Co.Av. $1532 



AVERAGE SPLARY PER PRINCIPAL AND TI'ACKER IN WHITE HIGH SQIOOLS 

1937 1938 1939 
$1488 $1587 




Balto, 
City* 



State 



2196 
1715 



2413 2517 1 
1737 18331 



* Data for senior high schools in Baltimore City. 



CHANGES IN HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, TEACHING STAFF, 
AND SALARY BUDGET 

All counties except one showed increases in enrollment in 
the last four years of high school from 1938 to 1939. Com- 
parisons of high school enrollment in each county for 1920, 1925, 
1930, 1935, 1938, and 1939 are included in the left section of 
Table 97. 

In comparing the white teaching staff employed in the last four 
years of high school in 1939 with 1938, eighteen counties had 



Average Salary; Changes in County White High Schools 145 



03 

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Tj<t>ooinc-oooocoa>rHooi-HoocoinTj'coTj<ocDa5ina; 
iooinc<jt-ini-Hinoooo5-^inmoocoincot>t-co<Nt:- 

eOCJ-^ rH^ W rH rH C^l (N r-l 



05cgt-inooinTj<(M<Mt>coOT}<rHot>N<M'-HOcoo 
T)<Tt<irtt>rHTj<c^ocococoot>0(Noot-.-irHaiCDo>oo 

COrHa:rHt>(Ma>'^000>t>rHTtlf5"5}<CD-^C<lt>CDOOt- 



ojocjinrHC~Tj<ioo5inc^t>inc<iooinoocorHrHt~! 

05COTft>0-<trHt-inCDC<ICOCO-^-^CgrHrHOOt-l<J5- 

oocDooi-HCOOcOrHCDTj<iooosocoooaiTi<,-Hioioeo< 



COCC* -rHt-HOi • OJ 05 00 t- in CO in rH T}< 

05 w in • t- (M • Ti< 03 05 rH lo o o N CO 
000 05 -coinco • CO 00 »-H N CO c^a 



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• 05 00 in t~ 05 

• c<J (M t> in Tt 



§2 



8< 



0) O c 

50< 



0) S"n +j 

- — T-^i 0) 0) o 

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< < CQ O U O U U Q O ffi ffi t< S II, w w ^ 



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15 



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146 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

more teachers and five counties showed no change. A com- 
parison of 1939 with 1932 indicates that seventeen counties em- 
ployed more teachers and paid more for salaries and five counties 
employed fewer teachers in 1939 and paid less for salaries than 
in 1932. Similar comparisons may be made with 1920, 1925, and 
1930. (See middle and right part of Table 97.) 

Although the total county white high school enrollment in the 
last four years of high school was 8,090 or 28 per cent greater 
in 1939 than it was in 1932, the number of high school teachers 
employed increased by 236 or 20 per cent, while the expenditures 
for high school teachers' salaries increased by $420,000 or 22 
per cent. (See Table 98.) 



TABLE 98 



Change from 1932 to 1939 in Last Four Years of County White High School 
Enrollment, Teaching Staff, and Salaries 



Year 


Enrollment 


Number of 
Teachers 


Salaries of 
Teachers 


1932 






28,547 


1,204 


$1,891,000 


1933 






30,778 


1,183 


1,807,000 


1934 






31,036 


1 ,169 


1.635,000 








31,786 


1,203 


1,677,000 


1936 






33,111 


1,244 


1,829,000 








33,959 


1,285 


1,915,000 


1938 






34.415 


1,362 


2,173,000 


1939 






36,637 


1,440 


2,311,000 






Change 1932— 


1939 






Per Cent 


+8,090 
+ 28.3 


+236 
+ 19.6 


+ $420,000 

+22.2 



COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL 
TABLE 99 

Current Expense Cost* Per County White High School Pupil Belonging 



Cost per County 



' Year Pupil Belonging 

1923 $91.12 

1924 96.44 

1925 95.16 

1926 97.20 

1927 98.43 

1928 95.82 

1929 96.00 

1930 97.60 

1931 98.54 



Cost per County 
White High School 



Year Pupil Belonging 

1932 $94.78 

1933 82.62 

1934 76.21 

1935 77.58 

1936 80.48 

1937 82.47 

1938 90.87 

1939 89.94 



* Excluding general control and fixed charges. 



Changes in County White High Schools; 

High School Pupil 



Cost per White 147 



The current expense cost per county white high school pupil 
belonging for the last four years of high school work was $89.94 
in 1939, higher than the expenditure per pupil from 1933 to 1937 
following the depression, but below expenditures per county high 
school pupil belonging in 1938 and from 1923 to 1932, inclusive. 
(See Table 99.) 

CHART 20 



COST PER V.lilTE HIGil SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GMERAL CONTROL 



County 1933 1937 1933 1939 
Co. Av. $ 83 $ 82 $ 91 



Calvert 104 
Montgomery 97 
Q. Anne's 102 
Charles 103 
Worcester 102 
St. Mary's 91 



86 
97 
97 
90 
84 
100 
96 



Talbot 
Kent 
Garrett 
Caroline 
Cecil 
Carroll 
Howard 
Dorchester 104 
Somerset 95 
Wicomico 76 
Washington 72 
Harford 73 
Pr. George's 86 
A. Arundel 81 
Frederick 71 
Allegany 76 
Baltimore 67 



116 
107 

98 
101 
92 
90 
93 
91 
86 
92 
83 
92 
82 
86 
84 
85 
75 
76 
76 
75 
75 
77 
74 



125 
126 
114 
114 
102 

109 

103 IB3 

100 
103 
104 

90 
100 

92 

97 

89 

89 





Balto.Cityt 95 106 116 



State 



86 89 




t Cost per pupil belonging in senior high schools in Baltimore City. 



In the individual counties the average current expense cost in 
1938-39 ranged from $75 to $141 per white high school pupil 
belonging, three counties spending under $80 and five counties 
spending $110 or more per pupil. The cost per pupil in Baltimore 
City, $118, was exceeded in three of the counties. (See Chart 20.) 



148 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



All counties except nine showed an increased expenditure per 
pupil from 1938 to 1939. All except five counties which spent 
less and one county in which the average expenditure per pupil 
was the same had a higher per pupil cost for current expenses in 
1939 than in 1933. (See Chart 20.) 



ANALYSIS OF CURRENT EXPENSE COST PER WHITE HIGH 

SCHOOL PUPIL 

The average current expense cost of $89.94 per county white 
high school pupil included $66.21 for teachers' salaries, $4.87 for 
textbooks, materials, and "other costs of instruction," $6.27 for 
operation of buildings, $3.32 for maintenance of buildings, and 
$9.29 for auxiliary agencies, which include transportation, librar- 
ies, and health. Except for maintenance which had a three- 
cent increase per pupil, each of these items showed decreases 
under expenditure per pupil for the preceding year, costs of in- 
struction other than salaries showing the largest per cent of 
decrease. (See Table 100.) 



TABLE 100 



Cost, Excluding General Control, Per Pupil Belonging, in Last Four Years 
of White High Schools, for Year Ending July 31, 1939$ 









other 












Total 




County 


Salaries 


Costs of 


Operation 


Mainte- 


Auxiliary 


Current 


Capital 








Instruction 




nance 


Agencies 


Expenses 


Outlay 


County Average 


$66 


21 


$4 


87 


$6.27 


$3 


32 


$9 


29 


$89 


96 


$34.45 


Allegany 


55 


86 


5 


87 


6.13 


2 


84 


5 


42 


76 


12 


43.20 


Anne Arundel . . . 


61 


66 


4 


43 


5.77 


1 


27 


11 


04 


84 


17 


.86 


Baltimore 


58 


90 


3 


78 


4.44 


2 


38 


5 


64 


75 


14 


6.56 


Calvert 


83 


68 


3 


34 


6.68 


4 


98 


42 


46 


141 


14 


1.08 


Caroline 


75 


01 


3 


53 


5.20 


1 


43 


11 


67 


96 


84 


106.12 


Carroll 


69 


05 


4 


93 


5.42 


2 


50 


14 


01 


95 


91 


19.01 


Cecil 


69 


31 


8 


62 


7.14 


1 


69 


9 


45 


96 


21 


135.38 


Charles 


71 


56 


3 


71 


tl0.40 


t7 


59 


22 


29 


tll5 


55 


1.02 


Dorchester 


61 


79 


2 


75 


7.74 


4 


96 


14 


89 


92 


13 




Frederick 


58 


43 


4 


05 


3.97 


1 


33 


*11 


07 


*78 


85 


66! 00 


Garrett 


61 


44 


3 


44 


4.37 


6 


12 


22 


29 


97 


66 


2.83 


Harford 


70 


89 


4 


36 


6.53 


3 


25 




40 


85 


43 


1.91 


Howard 


64 


33 


5 


32 


6.79 


3 


19 


15 


41 


95 


04 


301.37 


Kent 


73 


83 


2 


61 


8.89 


4 


85 


13 


54 


103 


72 


1.33 


Montgomery .... 


92 


45 


9 


84 


10.57 


3 


53 


2 


40 


118 


79 


41.09 


Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's. . . 


63 


06 


4 


91 


6.21 


6 


54 


4 


27 


84 


99 


33.04 


84 


43 


3 


96 


8.99 


2 


64 


18 


75 


118 


77 


19.50 


St. Mary's 


54 


69 


5 


67 


6.48 


2 


78 


38 


80 


108 


42 


3.87 


Somerset 


61 


88 


2 


84 


5.99 


4 


74 


15 


32 


90 


77 


.21 


Talbot 


77 


84 


5 


17 


7.08 


3 


25 


14 


19 


107 


53 


4.88 


Washington 


68 


39 


3 


52 


5.78 


2 


33 


6 


69 


86 


71 


57.34 


Wicomico 


64 


47 


3 


90 


7.05 


4 


82 


9 


77 


90 


01 


1.18 


Worcester 


76 


97 


3 


69 


7.30 


5 


64 


16 


44 


110 


04 


7.54 


Baltimore City . . 


94 


16 


4 


69 


11.97 


4 


62 


2 


50 


117 


94 


.31 


Total State , , , 


$74 


.09 


$4 


82 


$7.88 


$3 


68 


$7 


38 


$97 


84 


$24.83 



* Includes 29 cents for payment by Washington County for transporting 37 pupils to a 
high school in Frederick County. 

t Includes expenditures by Federal Government at Indian Head. 
+ For actual expenditures see Table XXIV, page 337. 



Analysis of Cost per White High School Pupil 



149 



Salary Cost Per Pupil 

The salary cost per white high school pupil ranged between $55 
in an Equalization Fund county where the pupil-teacher ratio 
was sixth from the highest, salaries were next to the lowest, and 
the program of studies was limited, and $92 in a non-Equalization 
Fund county, where the pupil-teacher ratio was fourth from 
lowest, the curriculum was varied including many electives and 
special subjects, and a high salary schedule was in effect. These 
amounts included the aid from Federal vocational funds. (See 
Table 100.) 

reimbursement from federal goverment towards salaries of 
vocational teachers 

TABLE 101 



Federal Aid for Vocational Education in Maryland County White Day 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1939 



County 


Enrollment and Expenditures from Federal Funds for 


Total 
Federal 
Aid 


Agriculture 


Vocational 
Home Economics 


Industrial 
Education 




Enroll- 




Enroll- 




Enroll- 








ment 


Aid 


ment 


Aid 


ment 


Aid 




Total Counties: 


















1937-38 


1,833 


$42,411 


1,793 


$33,304 


578 


$22 


547 


$98,262 


1938-39 


2,049 


46,833 


2,613 


40,143 


842 


25 


489 


112,465 


Allegany 


64 


1,332 


156 


2,678 


166 


*t5 


391 


9,401 


Anne Arundel 


34 


540 


129 


1,500 


57 




567 


2,607 




134 


2,517 






122 


14 


008 


6,525 


Calvert 


37 


950 


' 62 


'575 






1,525 




178 


*3,802 


96 


*1,103 








4,905 


Carroll 


98 


3,260 


44 


1,119 








4,379 


Cecil 






139 


2,360 








2,360 


Charles 


' 42 


'744 


48 


912 








1,656 




70 


1,293 












1,293 


Frederick 


214 


*4,169 




°t2o6 








4,369 


Garrett 


219 


4,392 


'349 


3,781 


' 28 




337 


8,510 


Harford 


175 


4,490 


276 


5,272 








9,762 


Howard 


93 


*1 , 904 


149 


1,950 








3,854 


Montgomery 


147 


*4,256 


206 


*t5,017 


161 


t3 


083 


12,356 


Prince George's 


20 


780 


473 


t7,285 


151 


*4 


996 


13,061 




99 


2,730 


73 


1,339 








4,069 




54 


*667 


138 


1,200 








1,867 




102 


1,020 












1,020 


Talbot 


22 


1,110 


' 30 


460 








1,570 


Washington 


134 


4,131 


206 


2,792 


217 


n7 


i67 


14,030 




28 


525 










525 




85 


2,221 


' 39 


600 








2,821 



Includes following Federal aid for fsupervision, *travel, and §summer work : 
Allegany .... §$55 *$202 t$2, 145 §t*$2,402 



Baltimore .... 

Caroline *$267 

Frederick *63 

Howard *54 

Montgomery *61 

Prince George's .... .... 

St. Mary's *67 

Washington .... 

t Includes $3,000 for part-time industrial education 



*13 
't200 



^$75 t380 
t200 



t300 



t300 
*280 
*°t263 
*54 
*tl,646 
*t271 
*67 

*32 *32 

Supervision of general home economics. 



tl 



130 
*71 



150 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Reimbursement from the Federal Government towards salary- 
costs and supervision of vocational education in the county white 
high schools amounting to $112,465 was received by 22 counties 
during 1938-39. This was an increase of $14,203 in Federal aid 
over corresponding figures for white day high schools for the 
preceding year. The increase was possible because of the addi- 
tional Federal funds made available for expansion of the voca- 
tional education program by the George-Deen Act. In previous 
years it was necessary to match Federal funds with local funds 
(State or county). The provisions of the George-Deen Act make 
it possible to pay from 50 to 100 per cent of the salary cost from 
Federal funds and to provide for salaries and travel expense of 
county supervisors where the program of vocational education in 
the various fields was sufficiently extensive. 

Among the 22 counties which received Federal reimbursement 
for white day high schools, one county received as little as $525, 
while at the opposite extreme two counties received $13,000 and 
$14,000 respectively. (See Table 101.) 

agriculture 

Federal aid towards the salaries of 49 white teachers of agri- 
culture in day high schools amounting to $46,833, more by $4,422 
than for 1938. In 1939 agriculture was taught in 56 White day 
high schools of 21 counties, Talbot being the additional county 
offering the work in 1939. The number of white pupils enrolled 
for agriculture increased from 1,833 in 1938 to 2,049 in 1939. 
Kent and Cecil were the only counties in which agriculture was 
not taught. (See Table 101.) 

HOME economics 

Reimbursement from the Federal Government towards salary 
costs and supervision of vocational home economics in county day 
white high schools totaled $40,143 in 1939, an increase of $6,839 
over 1938. With the addition of Cecil, Talbot, and Worcester 
Counties, vocational home economics was taught in 57 white day 
high schools in 17 counties in 1939. Instruction in vocational 
home economics was given to 2,613 white pupils, 820 more than 
in the preceding year. In 1939, Federal aid amounting to $780 
was received by three counties which paid an additional amount 
to an outstanding teacher who spent part of her time in supervis- 
ing the home projects and the general as well as the vocational 
home economics program throughout the county. The teacher in 
each of these three counties who was selected by the county super- 
intendent and State Supervisor of Home Economics worked in co- 
operation with the State Supervisor of Home Economics. (See 
Table 101 and note under Table 101.) 



County White High School Vocational Program, Federal 151 

Funds 

industrial education 

The Federal aid towards salary costs and supervision for all- 
day and part-time classes in trades and industries in county day 
white high schools amounted to $25,489 in 1939, an increase of 
$2,942 over 1938. Most of the expansion in the program was 
found in Allegany, Baltimore, and Prince George's Counties. 

The maximum amount of Federal aid ($7,107) went as reim- 
bursement for the part-time and all-day program for 217 boys at 
the Hagerstown High School. Allegany, Baltimore, and Mont- 
gomery Counties each employed a supervisor for the work in 
industrial education and industrial arts towards whose salary the 
Federal Government gave reimbursement. 

THE STATE PROGRAM FOR VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE 

A program of educational and vocational guidance, inaugurated 
for the county high schools early in 1938 through the appoint- 
ment of a State supervisor, was financed in 1938-39 jpintly from 
State and Federal Vocational Funds. 

The supervisor assists counties in developing sound programs 
of occupational information and guidance within their schools. 
These programs are planned to render guidance services to the 
pupils in the following areas : 

1. Articulation and orientation 

2. Occupational information 

3. Personal and social guidance through the homeroom 

4. Educational information and training opportunities 

5. Individual inventory 

6. Testing 

7. Counselling 

8. Placement 

9. Follow-up 

STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOLS AND EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 

Frederick and Carroll Counties in co-operation with the Ameri- 
can Youth Commission under the direction of the Division of 
Standards and Research of the United States Employment Ser- 
vice has become a laboratory for an occupational research study 
with two main objectives in view: (1) To define the need for 
guidance, employment, and occupational adjustment service for 
youth in the areas studied; (2) to articulate the services of the 
local public schools, the local State employment offices, and the 
occupational research material which have been developed by the 
Division of Standards and Research since 1933 in order to render 
service to youth in the most economical and effective manner. 

A general description of all types of work performed in each 
of these counties with a listing of every position held in each 
field followed by a definition or job analysis of the duties of each 



152 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



position, working conditions, worker qualifications in age, train- 
ing, experience, and other requirements, and any special informa- 
tion about the job has been undertaken with the idea that this 
information will be valuable in planning the guidance program of 
the schools. 

Expenditure Per Pupil for Costs of Instruction Other Tlian Salaries 

The amount spent per white high school pupil for books, 
materials, and ''other costs of instruction" in 1939 fell between 
$2.61 and $9.84 in the individual counties. The latter was a non- 
Equalization Fund county offering a program with many elec- 
tives, which made available a rather comprehensive testing ser- 
vice, and Which provided clerical service in the large high schools, 
while the former county was an Equalization Fund county which 
supplied for current expenses only the minimum amount required 
by law. State aid dedicated to textbooks and materials was 
88V2 cents per pupil, exclusive of funds for this purpose provided 
in the Equalization Fund. (See Table 100, page 148.) 

Cost Per Pupil for Operation and Maintenance of School Buildings 

The range in cost per white high school pupil for heating and 
cleaning buildings ran from $3.97 in the county which spent 
least to $10.57 in the county which spent the most. The variation 
in maintenance expenditures per white high school pupil ranged 
from $1.27 in one county to $7.59 in another county in which the 
Federal Government maintained the school building at Indian 
Head. In some counties repairs made through the Works Prog- 
ress Administration relieved the county of expenditures for 
maintenance. (See Table 100 and Table 174, page 260.) 

Cost Per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies 

The cost per white high school pupil for auxiliary agencies was 
as low as 40 cents in one county which provides little high school 
transportation at public expense, while in two other counties in 
which a large proportion of the white high school pupils were 
transported at public expense it averaged $38.80 and $42.46 
per high school pupil. Since the term ''auxiliary agencies" 
covers such diverse items as transportation, libraries, and health, 
further analysis has been made of the costs and services rendered 
under this classification. (See Table 100, page 148.) 

Increase in White High School Pupils Transported at Public Expense 

Public expenditures for transporting 16,147 county white high 
school pupils amounted to $304,302 in 1939, an increase of 1,591 
pupils and $15,344 in expenditures over corresponding figures 
for 1938. On the average, 44.7 per cent of county white high 
school pupils were transported at public expense in 1939 which 



Analysis of Cost per White High School Pupil; 153 
Transportation 

TABLE 102 



Public Expenditures for Auxiliary Agencies in County White High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1939 





Transportation 


Libraries 


Health and Phy- 
sical Education 


Pupils Trans- 
ported at Public 
Expense 


Amount 
Spent 
From 
Public 
Funds 


C^ost 
rer 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


1 otal 
Expen- 
ditures 


Amount per 


1 otal 
Expen- 
ditures 


A 

Amount 
Per 
Pupil 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


School 


Teacher 


1 U tdi anu. 








































1^38 


14,556 


42.9 


$288,958 


$19.85 


$17,077 


$113.84 


$12.54 


$2,316 


$.07 


1939 


16,147 


44.7 


304,302 


18.85 


14,031 


93.54 


9.75 


3,266 


.09 




201 


96.6 


8,107 


40.33 


411 


205.58 


37.38 








398 


99.3 


14,550 


36.56 


126 


63.09 


8.41 








428 


73.9 


11,645 


27.21 


699 


139.70 


26.06 


50 


.09 




791 


68.1 


24 , 234 


30 . 64 


289 


48.22 


6.36 


1 




QuG6n A.nn6 s. . 


337 


67.3 


8,521 


25.28 


607 


121.40 


22.48 








438 


55.8 


11,684 


26.67 


826 


165.12 


19.94 








516 


77.5 


9,508 


18.43 


273 


68.34 


9.59 








391 


52.4 


10,268 


26.26 


718 


179.40 


23.92 






Dorchester. . . . 


483 


49.6 


13,043 


27.00 


985 


164.09 


23.72 






Talbot 


332 


49.1 


8,714 


26.25 


335 


67.06 


10.07 






Carroll 


1,135 


64.8 


22,981 


20.25 


397 


44.05 


5.10 


350 


.21 


Kent 


310 


62.6 


6,404 


20.66 


41 


10.35 


1.73 






Caroline 


478 


62.3 


8,255 


17.27 


260 


52.02 


6.92 


5i 


.07 


Anne Arundel . . 


1,497 


65.3 


23,022 


15.38 


1,063 


177.14 


124.02 


427 


.19 




*1,129 


47.0 


*25,112 


22.24 


323 


46.21 


3.70 


178 


.08 


Wicomico 


522 


41.4 


10,822 


20.73 


632 


90.27 


11.79 






Cecil 


609 


48.7 


10,678 


17.53 


130 


16.26 


2.42 


89 


.07 


Washington .... 


770 


29.9 


15,511 


20.14 


1,148 


143.54 


12.19 


53 


.02 




2,546 


49.5 


26,270 


tlO.32 


1,514 


151.42 


9.85 








1,008 


26.1 


17,629 


17.49 


992 


90.13 


7.91 


1,057 


.28 


Prince George's 


915 


27.7 


12,151 


13.28 


1,084 


90.36 


7.91 


250 


.08 


Montgomery. . . 


848 


30.1 


5,077 


t5.99 


696 


63.26 


4.88 


760 


.28 


Harford 


65 


4.3 


116 


tl.79 


482 


60.29 


7.24 







* Includes $670 spent by Washington County to transport 37 pupils to a Frederick County 
high school which decreases the cost per Frederick County pupil transported by 14 cents, 
t Parents of pupils contributed in addition toward the cost of transportation. 



was 1.8 higher than the corresponding percentage for the pre- 
ceding year. The cost to the public per county white 'high school 
pupil transported was $18.85, a decrease of $1.00 under the 
amount for 1938. In addition the cost of high school transporta- 
tion was supplemented by payments by the parents in three 
counties, Baltimore, Harford, and Montgomery. (See Table 102.) 

The high school pupils transported at public expense numbered 
as few as 65 in one county and as many as 2,546 in another. All 
counties, except two, Calvert and Worcester, transported more 
white high school pupils in 1939 than in 1938. As few as 4 per 
cent of the white high school pupils were transported at public 
expense in one county in which parents of pupils transported 
had to pay almost the entire cost of transportation, whereas at 
the opposite extreme over 99 per cent of the white high school 
pupils were transported entirely at public expense in another 



154 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

sparsely populated county. Sixteen counties showed increases 
in the per cent of white high school pupils transported, the in- 
crease in three counties being as mudh as 6 in per cent. (See 
Table 102.) 

Public expenditures for transporting white high school pupils 
were as low as $116 in one county and as high as $26,270 in 
another. All except four counties spent more in 1939 than they 
spent in 1938 for transporting white hig'h school pupils. The in- 
creases were due to the additional high school pupils transported 
and improvement of bus equipment in a number of the counties. 

In the three counties in which the parents contributed at least 
$15.00 annually toward the cost of transporting each White high 
school pupil, the public expenditure per pupil transported was 
$1.79, $5.99, and $10.32. In the remaining 20 counties the cost 
to the public per white high school pupil transported covered a 
range from $13.28 to $40.33. In all but four counties the cost per 
white high school pupil transported was lower in 1939 than in 
1938. Road conditions, the distance pupils are carried, the size 
and type of vehicle are factors which must be considered in com- 
paring the cost per pupil transported in individual counties. (See 
Table 102.) 

Expenditures for High School Libraries 

The counties expended $14,031 from public funds toward the 
maintenance of libraries used by white high sdhool pupils in 1939, 
a decrease of $3,046 under the amount spent in 1938. The public 
funds spent for libraries varied among the counties from $41 in 
one county to $1,514 in the county which devoted the most money 
to this purpose in 1939. Twelve counties spent more for libraries 
used by white hig^h school pupils in 1939 than they spent in 1938. 
(See Table 102.) 

Forty-six high schools reported that they had librarians or 
teacher-librarians giving library service during 1938-39. There 
was the equivalent of 27.3 persons giving full-time library ser- 
vice in the county higih schools for white pupils, an increase of 
3 over the number the preceding year. (See Table 79, page 125.) 

SERVICES OF MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSION* 

The most vital work of the Maryland Public Library Commission is to 
teach communities how to provide themselves with books and foster the 
development of service throughout the counties. Originally the chief func- 
tion of the Commission was the distribution throughout the State of books 
and other printed material from a central reservoir. Limited facilities in 
the average library in the counties will always make it necessary for the 
Commission to be the clearing house for special requests, interlibrary loans, 
research, bibliographies, and similar service. For additional community 
libraries established in 1938-39, see page 62. 



* Report prepared by Adelene J. Pratt, State Director of Libraries. 



Transportation of High School Pupils; Libraries 



155 



A number of teachers who can not secure books from the public libraries in 
the counties, cities and towns, which are constantly increasing in number, 
still find it desirable to take advantage of the privilege of securing books 
from the Maryland Public Library Commission with offices in the Enoch 
Pratt Library Building, 400 Cathedral Street, Baltimore. 

TABLE 103 



Services of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to the County 
White High Schools, 1938-39 







Traveling Libraries 


Package Libraries 






(30 to 35 books in each) 


(1 to 12 books in each) 




Total 














Year 


No. of 




Number of 






Number of 




AND 
















County 
























Traveling 






Package 






Schools 




Libraries 


Schools 


Teachers 


Libraries 






Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 




3,236 


31 


47 


77 


27 


32 


125 




4, 562 


31 


48 


105 


49 


54 


189 




6,266 


35 


45 


148 


47 


57 


331 


1934 


4,148 


35 


39 


91 


37 


63 


324 


1935 


6,172 


42 


79 


148 


48 


67 


338 


1936 


3,723 


31 


46 


95 


24 


29 


134 


1937 


3,082 


18 


21 


61 


37 


48 


281 


1938 


3,937 


16 


17 


54 


35 


37 


405 


1939 


3 208 


11 


11 


51 


26 


28 


284 


Allegany 


afll7 


afl 


afl 


afl 


af3 


af3 


afl7 


Anne Arundel . . . 


bcf413 


bcf. . . . 


bcf. . . . 


bcf. . . . 


bcf2 


bcf2 


bcf53 


Baltimore 


bf523 


bf2 


bf2 


bf4 


bf3 


bf3 


bf60 


Calvert 


c7 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


cl 


cl 


cl 


Caroline 


flO 


f. . . . 


f. . . . 


f. . . . 


fl 


fl 


f5 


Carroll 


cf . . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


Cecil 


f322 




2 


9 


2 


2 


4 


Charles 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


be. . . . 


Dorchester 


cf9 


cf . . . . 


cf. . . . 


cf . . . . 


cfl 


cfl 


cf3 


Frederick 


cfl40 


cfl 


cfl 


cf4 


cf.... 


cf.... 


cf . . . . 


Garrett 
















Harford 


bcf248 


bcf2 


bcf2 


bcf5 


bcfi 


iDCfi 


bcifis 


Howard 


f78 




1 


1 


2 


2 


10 


Kent 


f30 


fl 


fl 


fl 


f. . . . 


f. . . . 


f. . . . 


Montgomery 


cef921 


cef . . . . 


cef . . . . 


cef22 


cef2 


cef2 


cef40 


Prince George's. 


fl63 


fl 


fl 


f4 


f2 


f2 


f6 


Queen Anne's. . . 




c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


c. . . . 


St. Mary's 


fg63 


fg.... 


fg. . . . 


fg.... 




fg3 


fgl5 






Talbot 


bcf ! ; '. 


bcf! ; '. '. 


bcf ; ; ; '. 


bcf'. ; '. '. 


bcf ; ■ ; '. 


bcf ; '. '. '. 


bcf! '. '. '. 


Washington 


df. . . . 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 


d. . . . 




cf79 


cf . . . . 


cf . . . . 


cf . . . . 


cf2 


cf2 


cf29 




f85 


f. . . . 


f. . . . 


f. . . . 


f2 


f3 


f26 



a Cumberland Public Library supplied the schools in Cumberland from its own collection. 
In addition, The Librai-y Commission took care of some of the needs of Cumberland schools 
and supplied other schools of the county as shown above. Circulation of public library not 
shown here. 

b Limited library service given to schools by county library. Circulation not shown here. 

c Library privileges extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the 
days when the library is open. Circulation not shown here. 

d County-wide library takes care of book service to schools. Circulation not shown here. 

e All traveling libraries borrowed by School Board and recirculated to schools of the county 
from that office, therefore, number of schools and teachers served is not available. Circulation 
not shown here. 

f Improved library facilities and the appointment of teacher-librarians or full-time librar- 
ians account for better library service within the schools. There is less dependence upon out- 
side sources for supplementary reading, except for very special material and reference ques- 
tions, but a greater demand for direction and supervision of library activities. 

g Books for recreational reading may be borrowed through a county library operating 
under the WPA. 



156 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Because of the small State appropriations for books, the Library Com- 
mission was not in a position to supply all of the books requested by the 
schools. Also the requirement that the cost of transporting cases and 
packages of books be met entirely by the school requesting them deterred 
some teachers who had requested a supply. The number of books sent to 
county white high school teachers in 1938-39, which totaled 3,208, was 729 
fewer than for the preceding year, accounted for in part by the increased 
facilities in the school and community libraries in the counties. Ten counties 
showed an increase in the number of volumes borrowed from the Commission 
for white high school pupils. (See Table 103.) 

Traveling libraries are collections of books loaned for a period of four 
months, at the end of which time they may be returned and exchanged for 
another collection or renewed for four months. Thirty books are included in 
cases sent by parcel post; thirty-five in those sent by express. They are not 
fixed collections, but are selected to suit individual needs. The cost of trans- 
portation must be met by the schools and guarantee of reimbursement for 
lost or damaged books is required. Eleven white high schools in eight coun- 
ties borrowed 51 traveling libraries in 1938-39. (See Table 103.) 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made up to meet 
special requirements for school essays, debates, individual needs, or profes- 
sional needs of the teachers. These are loaned for one month to anyone 
living in Maryland who is without access to a public library. Twenty-six 
white high schools in fourteen counties borrowed 284 package libraries in 
1938-39. (See Table 103.) 

Under the supervision of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Com- 
mission, Works Progress Administration library projects were carried on 
in the office of the Commission and in eight counties. At the Library Com- 
mission office, school and library books to the total of 26,251 were recon- 
ditioned so that they could be put back into use, 34,116 books in elementary 
and high schools and public libraries were organized and catalogued and 
other service was rendered the Commission at a cost to the Federal Govern- 
ment of $53,174. A total of 8,776 books from fourteen white high schools 
in eight counties were brought to the Commission office for organization 
and cataloguing. From 8 of these high schools and from 15 others 13,782 
high school books were brought to the Baltimore office of the Commission 
for mending. For county W.P.A. library projects carried on, see pages 62-3. 

A course in library science for school librarians and teacher-libi^arians has 
been given each summer since 1936 at Western Maryland College. The 
1939 enrollment of 19 included fourteen county high school teachers. 

Several teachers in charge of libraries in high schools joined the State 
Association of School Librarians which was organized to stimulate school 
library service and further- professional interest. It holds its annual meet- 
ing at the time the State Teachers' Association is in session and also met at 
the Catonsville High School in April, 1939. 

Expenditures for Health 

Expenditures for physical education activities and health ser- 
vice for white hig^h school pupils by the county boards of educa- 
tion in ten counties totaled $3,266 in 1939, $950 more than in 
1938. The expenditure per pupil in these ten counties ranged 
between 2 cents and 28 cents. (See Table 102.) 



Libraries; Health; Capital Outlay; Supervision of White 157 
High Schools 

Since the work of the county health offices affecting schools 
has been described in detail on pages 64 to 71, it is suggested that 
the high school principals and teachers will find much of interest 
to them in reading this material. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS 

The capital outlay for county white high schools in 1939 
totaled $1,202,429, an increase of $585,706 over the outlay in 
1938. One county had no capital outlay for White high schools 
and four counties spent less than $1,000 for this purpose. On 
the other hand, in seven counties the capital outlay for white 
high schools in 1939 totaled from $105,000 to $192,000. (See 
Table 180, page 269, and Table XXIV, page 337.) 

The average capital outlay per county white high school pupil 
belonging was $34.45 in 1939, an increase of $15.61 over 1938. 
The capital outlay per pupil ranged from less than $1.00 in three 
counties to over $100 in three counties. (See Table 100, page 148.) 

SUPERVISION OF COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

In 1938-39 the high schools for white pupils in 5 western, 7 
central, and 10 eastern counties of Maryland were under the 
supervision of the three State high school supervisors, one of 
whom is assigned to each of these sections, and the Assistant 
Superintendent in Administration who also acted as supervisor 
of high schools for one county in the central section. Two of 
the counties in the central section, Baltimore and Montgomery, 
and two in the western section, Allegany and Carroll, each has a 
full-time county supervisor of high schools. One in the eastern 
section, Anne Arundel, employed a part-time supervisor who 
devoted over three-fourths of his time to supervision of high 
schools. In addition to the State supervisors of high schools, 
the State supervisors of home economics, of trades and industries, 
and of agriculture work with the teachers of these special sub- 
jects. The part-time supervisor of agriculture is also in charge 
of training teachers of agriculture at the University of Maryland. 

At the October regional principals' conferences the general 
topic was the ''Co-operative Study of Secondary School Stand- 
ards" as outlined in the pamphlet ''Evaluative Criteria." Five or 
more principals discussed the "Philosophy, Purposes and Objec- 
tives" of the high school at each conference. 

The tentative new pupil record card was presented and princi- 
pals were asked to study it with their faculty and send in criti- 
cisms and suggestions. It was possible to benefit by these sug- 
gestions before the card was finally printed in the summer of 1939 
to be used for freshmen who entered in September. 



158 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



At the April regional conferences of principals the topic was 
"The Principal as a Professional Leader." After four principals 
in each of the three regions introduced phases of the topic, Dr. 
Briggs followed with a critique. At the afternoon session Dr. 
Briggs' stimulating talk on ''How the Principal May Grow Profes- 
sionally" was followed by general discussion. 

At this meeting each principal was given a mimeographed copy 
of a plan for ''Evaluating the school library for purposes of 
diagnosis and improvement," together with a printed copy of 
the pamphlet entitled "Evaluation of a Secondary School Li- 
brary" issued by the Co-operative Study of Secondary School 
Standards and the American Library Association. Each high 
school not previously evaluated was requested to fill out the 
items in the library pamphlet in order to reflect in as accurate 
a way as possible the actual status of the school library as it 
exists at present, and to furnish school librarians and adminis- 
trators with a valid basis on which to establish and/or improve 
the school's library facilities and service. 

An analysis of the information furnished showing conditions 
in the schools is to be included in a State bulletin on library de- 
velopment and administration, which will recommend procedures 
along various lines of school library development. 

The use of the Evaluative Criteria of the Co-operative Study 
of Secondary School Standards, a project of the American Coun- 
cil on Education, begun in 1937-38 with an evaluation of five 
high schools located in the eastern, central, and western sections 
of the State, was extended in 1938-39 so that from one to three 
schools in each county in the State was evaluated. In 1938-39 
29 high schools were studied by the faculty of each school and a 
committee of educators from within and without the State 
was invited to participate in each school's evaluation. 

For the individual school the evaluation meant: (1) determina- 
tion of a philosophy of education for the school and the purposes 
and objectives of the school; (2) determination on the basis of 
study, of the nature and needs of its community and the second- 
ary population thereof ; and (3) application of the criteria to the 
school by the staff as a means of evaluating the school in its 
various phases. 

The State committee of teachers and supervisors continued 
their deliberations regarding revision of tentative courses in the 
various commercial subjects which were sent to each commercial 
teacher for suggestions for additions, eliminations or changes 
before final revision. They also did further work in obtaining 
information regarding graduates of the commercial course for 
the purpose of aiding in revising the courses to better meet the 
needs of those who find employment in the commercial field. 



Supervision of County White High Schools 159 

The State Department published the following bulletins deal- 
ing with secondary school problems : 

Policies and Standards for Supervision and Administration of Voca- 
tional Education, November, 1938, Vol. 20, No. 3 

The Teaching of Oral and Written Expression in Maryland High 
Schools, January, 1939, Vol. 20, No. 4 

Problems of Democracy, January, 1939, Vol. XX, No. 5 

Equipment and Materials for High School Science Courses, April, 1939, 
Vol. 20, No. 7 



SCHOOLS FOR COLORED CHILDREN 



1938 SCHOOL CENSUS OF COUNTY COLORED CHILDREN 

The reg^ular biennial school census was taken in the Maryland 
counties in the fall of 1938. There were enumerated 57,323 
colored children under 21 years of age, of whom 29,008 were 
boys and 28,315 were girls. There were 41,642 colored children 
five to eighteen years old, inclusive, included in the 1938 census, 
as compared with 41,998 in the 1936 colored census, a loss of 
356. (See Table 104.) 

TABLE 104 

Census of Colored Children Under 21 Years of Age in 23 Maryland Counties, 
By Age and Sex, November, 1938 



Age 



Total (5-18) 1934 

(5-18) 1936 

(5-18) 1938 

Total Ages 20 or Under, 1938 

20 

19 

18 

17 

16 

15 

14 

13 

12 

11 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 

Under 5 



Total 


Boys 


Girls 


42,288 


21,319 


20,969 


41,998 


21,264 


20,734 


41 , 642 


21,041 


20,601 


57,323 


29,008 


28,315 


1,753 


966 


787 


2,013 


1,073 


940 


2,628 


1,379 


1,249 


2,770 


1,411 


1,359 


2,911 


1,492 


1,419 


3,066 


1,546 


1,520 


3,147 


1,533 


1,614 


3,023 


1,508 


1,515 


3,193 


1,649 


1,544 


3,114 


1,593 


1,521 


3,141 


1,570 


1,571 


3,002 


1,517 


1,485 


3,099 


1,534 


1,565 


2,915 


1,473 


1,442 


3,043 


1,513 


1,530 


2,590 


1,323 


1,267 


11,915 


5,928 


5,987 



The largest number of colored children, 3,193, was enumerated 
in the twelve-year old age group, which group also included the 
largest number of colored boys, 1,649. The fourteen-year old 
age group included the largest number of colored girls, 1,614. 
The number of colored boys exceeded the number of girls except 
for ages under 5, 6, 8, 10, 13, and 14. (See Table 104.) 

The slightly smaller numbers in ages below 10 than in ages 
from 10 to 15 may indicate a decline in the birth rate. (See Table 
110, page 166.) 

Colored Children of Compulsory School Attendance Age 

In 1938 there were 24,505 county colored children of ages 7 to 
15 years, or 88.5 per cent, in public schools ; 658, or 2.4 per cent 
in non-public schools ; and 2,537, or 9.1 per cent not in any school. 

160 



1938 School Census of County Colored Children 



161 



There was a decrease in the number, but an increase in the per 
cent in public schools, an increase in the number and per cent in 
non-public schools, and a decrease in the number and per cent 
not in school. In individual counties colored children of ages 7 to 
15 years not in any school ranged from 4 to 12.5 per cent. (See 
Table 105 and Chart 21.) 

CHART 21 



County 



PER CENT OF COLORED CHILDREN OF AGES 7-15 YEARS, INCLUSIVE, 

ENUMERATED NOVEMBER, 1938, 
IN PUBLIC. PRIVATE. AND PAROCHIaL SCHOOLS. AND IN gO^SgHOJL 

n 4- Private 
Per Cent 

In No 

School 



Total ^'er Cent 
No. of In 
Colored Public 
Children Schools 



Total and 

Co. Av. 27,700* 88.5 



Allegany 
Wicomico 
Q.Anne* s 

V/ashington 

Caroline 

Kent 

Carroll 

Talbot 

Prince Geo. 

Baltimore 

Anne Arm. 

Cecil 

Harford 

Somerset 

Frederick 

St. Mary*s 

Worcester 

Montgomery 

Calvert 

Hov/ard 

Dorchester 

Charles 



272 
1,454 
865 
252 
728 
815 
363 
910 
3,436 
1,941 
3,123 
440 
828 
1,535 
918 
1,367 
1,492 
1,944 
1,130 
685 
1,464 
1,736 



95.2 
95.0 
94.9 
92.5 
93.5 
93.1 
92.3 
92.2 
88.4 
91.8 
87.1 
90.9 
90.5 
89.5 
88.7 
73.4 
88.8 
88.6 
87.7 
85.4 
87.6 
81.2 




and 
Parochial 

Schools 



CZZ] 









no 




1 


\\\ 




















* Includes 2 pupils from Garrett County. 



162 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



A comparison of the census enumeration for 1936 and 1938, 
showing the number of colored children of ages 7 to 15 years in 
public schools, showed an increase in number in 11 counties, a 
decrease in 10 counties, and no change in one county. Three 
counties showed increases in the number of colored children of 
ages 7 to 15, inclusive, not in any school. (See Table 105 and 
Chart 21.) 

TABLE 105 



Number and Per Cent of Colored Children Enumerated of Ages 7-15 Years 
Inclusive, in Public, Private and Parochial, and No School, November, 1938 





Number 


Per Cent 


County 




In Private 








In Private 






In 


and 






In 


and 






Public 


Parochial 


In No 


Total 


Public 


Parochial 


In No 




School 


Schools 


School 




School 


Schools 


School 


Total and Average: 
















1934 


25,178 


671 


3,191 


29,040 


86.7 


2.3 


11.0 


1936 


24,537 


635 


3,128 


28,300 


86.7 


2.2 


11.1 


1938 


*24,505 


658 


*2,537 


**27,700 


88.5 


2.4 


9.1 


Allegany 


259 


2 


11 


272 


95.2 


.7 


4.1 




1,381 


2 


71 


1,454 


95.0 


.1 


4.9 


Queen Anne's 


821 




44 


865 


94.9 




5.1 


Washington 


233 


■ ■ '4 


15 


252 


92.5 


i'.G 


5.9 


Caroline 


681 


2 


45 


728 


93.5 


.3 


6.2 


Kent 


759 


2 


54 


815 


93.1 


.3 


6.6 


Carroll 


335 


1 


27 


363 


92.3 


.3 


7.4 


Talbot 


839 


3 


68 


910 


92.2 


.3 


7.5 




3,038 


140 


258 


3,436 


88.4 


4.1 


7.5 


Baltimore 


1,781 


12 


148 


1,941 


91.8 


.6 


7.6 


Anne Arundel 


2,721 


127 


275 


3,123 


87.1 


4.1 


8.8 


Cecil 


400 




40 


440 


90.9 




9.1 


Harford 


749 


" ' 2 


77 


828 


90.5 


' ' .2 


9.3 




1,374 


10 


151 


1,535 


89.5 


.7 


9.8 


Frederick 


814 


9 


95 


918 


88.7 


1.0 


10.3 


St. Mary's 


1,003 


214 


150 


1,367 


73.4 


15.6 


11.0 




1,325 


1 


166 


1,492 


88.8 


.1 


11.1 




1,723 


1 


220 


1,944 


88.6 


.1 


11.3 


Calvert 


991 


2 


137 


1.130 


87.7 


.2 


12.1 


Howard 


585 


15 


85 


685 


85.4 


2.2 


12.4 


Dorchester 


1,282 




182 


1,464 


87.6 




12.4 




1,410 


'io9 


217 


1,736 


81.2 


'6.3 


12.5 



* Each* represents one pupil in Garrett Countj' excluded in the totals. 



Colored Children Out of School 

Of the 2,537 county colored children of ages 7 to 15 years not 
in any school, 144 were reported as physically and 74 as mentally 
handicapped and therefore excused from school attendance. Also 
there were 1,153 children of ages 14 and 15 years who were em- 
ployed who were eligible to be excused from school attendance. 
This means that 54 per cent of the colored county children not 
attending school could legally be excused, but that 385, or 15 
per cent, who were between the ages of 7 and 13 years inclusive, 



1938 School Census of County Colored Children 163 
TABLE 106 

Colored Non-School Attendants of Ages 7-15 Years Enumerated in 23 Mary- 
land Counties Distributed According to Employment, Handicap, and 
Age Groups, November, 1938 



Colored Children Not in School 













Physically 


Mentally 


County 


Employed 


Not Employed 


Handicapped 


Handicapped 




7-13 


14-15 


7-13 


14-15 


7-13 


14-15 


7-13 


14-15 




Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Total, 1934 


137 


1,182 


641 


1,011 


104 


28 


66 


22 


1936 


127 


1,524 


505 


739 


113 


44 


54 


22 


1938 


90 


1,153 


295 


781 


105 


39 


52 


22 


Allegany 


1 


7 




1 


1 


1 








2 


65 


' 65 


138 


3 


2 






Baltimore 


3 


60 


9 


61 


7 


4 


'3 


. . 


C.ck^\ror•^■ 


10 


70 


7 


35 


9 


1 


5 




Caroline 


.... 


29 


1 


9 


2 


2 


1 


. . 


Carroll 




17 


1 


5 


2 


.... 


1 




Cecil 


3 


16 


9 


7 


4 








Charles 


10 


90 


42 


53 


7 


5 


' "6 




Dorchester 


9 


66 


24 


66 


7 


2 


4 


4 


Frederick 


4 


39 


8 


34 


4 


3 


2 


1 


Garrett 






1 












Harford 


' ' 2 


"lO 


20 


' 42 


"i 


. . 






Howard 


7 


57 


5 


12 


2 


2 






Kent 




47 




2 


1 


1 


" i 


" ' '2 


Montgomery 


"i9 


78 


' '50 


61 


5 


1 


5 


1 


Queen Anne's 


3 


152 


16 


43 


21 


9 


9 


5 




43 






1 


.... 






St. Mary's 


' ii 


77 


' "9 


' '46 


10 




' ' '2 


. ... 


Somerset 


4 


67 


8 


52 


12 


3 


4 




Talbot 




24 


11 


31 






2 




Washington 




6 




7 






2 


. ... 


Wicomico 




63 




3 


" " '3 




1 




Worcester 


i 


70 


' "9 


79 


3 




3 


1 



and 781, or 31 per cent, who were 14 and 15 years old and who 
were not employed were unlawfully out of school. (See Table 
106.) 

The enumeration in November, 1938, indicated that 140 county 
colored children reported as physically handicapped and 34 re- 
ported as mentally handicapped of ages 7 to 15 years were attend- 
ing school. (See Table 107.) 



SLIGHT DECREASE IN COLORED ELEMENTARY PUBLIC SCHOOL 

ENROLLMENT 

The Maryland county public schools enrolled 24,052 colored 
elementary pupils in 1939. This was a decrease of 81 pupils under 
the enrollment in 1938, compared with a decrease of 565 pupils in 
the preceding year. Nine counties had slightly higher enroll- 
ments in 1939 than in the preceding year, while only Anne Arun- 
del and Prince George's enrolled more colored elementary pupils 
in 1939 than in 1923. (See Table 108.) 



164 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 107 



Handicapped Colored School Attendants of Ages 7-15 Years Enumerated in 
23 Maryland Counties, Distributed According to Type of Handicap and 
Age Group, November, 1938 





Colored Handicapped Children in School 


County 


Physically Handicapped 


Mentally Handicapped 




(7-13) 


(14-15) 


(7-13) 


(14-1.5) 




Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Total, 1934 


110 


22 


39 


13 


1936 


123 


26 


46 


15 


1938 


111 


29 


31 


3 




5 


3 








2 




.... 




Baltimore 


17 


■ ■ '4 






Calvert 


1 




2 






2 


. ... 


1 




Carroll 


5 




2 




Cecil 












"16 


■ ■ 2 


■ ■ "4 


. . 




6 


1 


9 






7 


4 


2 




















* "i 














Kent 




. ... 






Montgomery 






"■3 


' "i 




1 


1 


1 














"ii 


■ " '8 


■ "2 






7 


2 






Talbot 












" i 










5 


■ ■ 2 


' ' '2 


■ "i 


Worcester 


8 




1 





TABLE 108 

Total Enrollment in Maryland Colored Elementary Schools, for Years 
Ending June 30, 1923, 1938 and 1939 



County 



Number Enrolled in 
Colored Elementary 
Schools 



1923 



1938 



1939 



County 



Number Enrolled in 
Colored Elementary 
Schools 



1923 



1938 



1939 



Total Counties . 

Anne Arundel . . 
Prince George's 

Baltimore 

Montgomery . . . 

Charles 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Dorchester. . . . 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Talbot 



*31,070 

2,853 
2,781 
1,942 
1,898 
1,803 
2,255 
1,675 
2,088 
1,947 
1,343 
1,405 
1,373 



*24,133 

2,872 
2,872 
1,928 



,701 
,456 
,413 
,307 
,286 
,268 
,075 



1,002 
827 



*24,052 

2,919 
2,897 
1,902 
1,736 
1,422 
1,365 
1,309 
1,268 
1,259 
1,086 
941 
862 



Frederick 

Harford 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's. . . . 

Kent 

Howard 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Washington 

Allegany 

Baltimore City . . . 

Total State 



1,150 
916 
1,188 
1,093 
1,188 
848 
548 
440 
377 
267 



*15,675 
*46,745 



813 
808 
681 
631 
719 
599 
344 
329 
254 
234 

t*27,185 

*51,318 



790 
789 
684 
680 
670 
582 
342 
331 
247 
223 

t*28,733 

52,785 



* Totals exclude duplicates. 

t Includes estimate of enrollment in grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools and enrollment 
in vocational schools. 

For enrollment in counties arranged alphabetically, see Tabic IT, page 313, 



Handicapped Colored Children in School; Colored School 165 
Enrollment 

The Baltimore City public school enrollment of 28,733 colored 
pupils in elementary schools, the first two years of junior high 
schools and vocational schools included 1,548 more pupils than 
were enrolled in 1938. The City enrollment exceeded that in the 
counties by 4,681 colored elementary pupils. Since 1923 the 
colored elementary school enrollment in Baltimore City has in- 
creased by 13,058 pupils as compared with a decrease of 7,018 
pupils in the counties over the same period. The migration of 
the colored population from surrounding states as well as from 
the counties has undoubtedly had its influence on the colored en- 
rollment in Baltimore City. (See Table 108.) 

|/^ COLORED ENROLLMENT IN PUBLIC AND NON-PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

A comparison of the colored enrollment in the counties and in 
Baltimore City in elementary and secondary public and non-public 
schools from 1930 to 1939 indicates the change which has come 
about. In 1930 the colored enrollment in the counties, 29,466, 
exceeded the City enrollment of 24,419 by 5,047. Because the 
county enrollment has decreased gradually to 29,171 in 1939 and 
the City enrollment has increased rapidly to 33,430, since 1935 
the City enrollment has exceeded the county enrollment, the City 
excess in 1939 being 4,259. For the public schools the excess for 
the City did not appear until 1936. The year 1939 is the first 
one since 1933 that county colored enrollment in public and non- 
public schools has shown an increase, while the City enrollment 
'has shown steady annual gains for the period from 1930 to 1939, 
except in 1938. In Catholic schools for colored children, the City 
enrollment has greatly exceeded that in the counties, and since 
1932 this has also been the case for non-Catholic private schools. 
In 1939 the county enrollment in non-public colored schools was 
552, compared with 1,580 for the City schools. (See Table 109.) 

TABLE 109 



Comparison of Colored Enrollment in Counties and Baltimore City in Public 
and Non-Public Schools, 1930 to 1939 

















Non-Catholic 


Year 


Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic Schools 


Non-Public Schools 






















Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


1930 


29,466 


24,419 


28,712 


22,978 


633 


1,362 


121 


79 


1931 


29,667 


24,776 


28,910 


23,452 


653 


1,254 


104 


70 


1932 


29,758 


26,372 


29,047 


25,083 


658 


1,229 


53 


60 


1933 


30,120 


27,546 


29,458 


26,028 


651 


1,439 


11 


79 


1934 


29,781 


28,788 


29,166 


27,202 


607 


1,448 


8 


138 


1935 


29,504 


29,901 


28,927 


28,353 


543 


1,403 


34 


145 


1936 


29,372 


31,071 


28,872 


29,504 


497 


1,438 


3 


129 


1937 


29,251 


31,841 


28,728 


30,284 


523 


1,440 




117 


1938 


29,031 


31,611 


28,467 


30,064 


541 


1,444 


' *23 


103 


1939 


29,171 


33,430 


28,619 


31,850 


529 


1,473 


23 


107 



166 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



BIRTH RATES OF MARYLAND COLORED POPULATION 

Data regarding birth rates according to place of birth have 
been furnished by the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the State De- 
partment of Health for 1920, 1930, 1935, 1937, and 1938, and 
according to residence of mother for 1935, 1936, 1937, and 1938. 
With the exception of increases in Allegany, Calvert, Cecil, St. 
Mary's, Talbot and Washington, every county shows a lower re- 
corded birth rate in 1938 than in 1930. The birth rates according 
to residence of mother show increases for sixteen counties from 
1935 to 1938. (See Table 110.) 

TABLE 110 



Recorded and Resident Birth Rates Per 1,000 Colored Population 

(Reported by Bureau of Vital Statistics, Maryland State Department of Health) 



County 


Recorded Birth Rates 


Resident Birth Rates* 


1920 


1930 


1935 


1938 


1935 


1936 


1937 


1938 


County Average 


28.6 


23.5 


20.7 


20.9 


22.9 


21.8 


23.0 


24.5 


Allegany 


29.3 


18.7 


15.0 


20.7 


15.0 


20.3 


18.4 


19.9 


Anne Arundel 


29.1 


25.6 


20.2 


20.6 


25.3 


26.4 


27.3 


29.1 




25.2 


15.1 


9.3 


8.1 


16.8 


15.4 


16.3 


13.8 




31.8 


32.7 


29.0 


34.1 


29.0 


36.5 


30.1 


34.7 


Caroline 


26.1 


24.5 


20.7 


23.4 


21.7 


19.0 


21.7 


23.4 


Carroll 


30.5 


22.1 


17.4 


21.3 


19.7 


22.5 


19.6 


22.4 


Cecil 


26.3 


20.4 


25.7 


20.8 


25.3 


21.5 


19.7 


21.2 


Charles 


35.5 


30.8 


29.4 


29.5 


31.0 


31.4 


30.8 


32.6 




31.0 


22.2 


19.7 


21.6 


19.5 


19.3 


21.2 


21.5 


Frederick 


29.6 


26.1 


19.8 


24.8 


20.2 


20.5 


16.4 


24.4 


Harford 


19.2 


29.1 


20.1 


20.8 


22.0 


18.8 


26.5 


24.1 




30.3 


20.2 


21.3 


19.5 


24.4 


28.1 


24.8 


25.3 


Kent 


29.0 


23.4 


19.4 


17.1 


20.1 


19.6 


17.3 


17.8 




28.3 


22.7 


19.2 


19.4 


21.5 


20.0 


21.5 


23.3 




27.0 


21.7 


17.9 


14.3 


26.2 


21.4 


22.1 


24.7 




22.3 


19.4 


18.7 


18.5 


18.9 


15.1 


21.5 


19.9 


St. Mary's 


33.3 


27.4 


24.5 


28.1 


25.0 


24.3 


22.3 


28.8 


Somerset 


31.2 


22.2 


22.2 


20.9 


23.4 


20.9 


20.6 


21.9 


Talbot 


28.1 


19.8 


22.1 


23.0 


21.4 


16.8 


20.8 


22.3 




19.7 


13.4 


12.6 


13.7 


13.0 


13.7 


12.6 


15.4 




30.9 


25.9 


23.9 


22.2 


21.5 


17.9 


20.4 


20.7 


Worcester 


26.8 


28.3 


23.4 


24.9 


24.0 


23.4 


26.1 


25.5 


Baltimore City 


26.1 


22.6 


19.5 


20.6 


18.5 


17.4 


18.9 


19.5 




27.5 


23.1 


20.0 


20.8 


20.5 


19.4 


20.5 


21.4 



* Prior to 1935 birth rates were calculated on births occurring in the indicated areas and 
are shown under the heading "Recorded Birth Rates." For 1935, 1936, 1937 and 1938 birth 
rates are shown by residence of mother as well as according to location of birth. 



COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OPEN OVER 170 DAYS 

The dates for the opening of colored elementary schools ranged 
from September 6 to October 3, 1938, while closing dates covered 
the period from May 12 to June 23, 1939. (See Table 111.) 

In 1939 the county colored elementary schools were open on an 
average of 172.0 days, 2.4 more days than in 1937-38. The aver- 
age length of session varied among the counties from 159.9 days 



Colored Birth Rates; Length of Session in Colored 167 
Elementary Schools 

TABLE 111 

Length of Session in Colored Elementary Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1939 



County 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Washington 

Allegany 

Montgomery 

Frederick 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Talbot 

Howard 

Prince George's .... 



Average 
Days 

in 
Session 



172.0 

191.0 
189.6 
186.3 
186.2 
183.9 
182.9 
182.7 
182.4 
181.1 
181.0 
176.4 
173.6 



School Year 
1938-39 



Caroline 

Queen Anne's. . 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Worcester 

St. Mary's 

Charles 

Anne Arundel . 

Kent 

Calvert 

Baltimore City 

Total State 



173.0 
168.1 
163.0 
162.3 
162.0 
161.4 
161.2 
160.8 
160.3 
159.9 

190.0 

181.7 



School Year 
1938-39 



First 


Last 


Day 


Day 


of 


of 


School 


School 


9/14 


5/26 


9/21 


5/31 


9/12 


5/12 


9/12 


5/12 


9/19 


5/19 


10/3 


6/1 


10/3 


6/9 


9/7 


5/12 


10/3 


6/2 


9/7 


5/5 


9/13 


6/22 




9/13 

9/7 

9/6 

9/8 

9/13 

9/7 

9/8 

9/12 

9/12 

9/12 

9/19 

9/7 



6/23 

6/16 

6/9 

6/16 

6/20 

6/9 

6/9 

6/9 

6/8 

6/9 

6/9 

5/31 



County 



Average 
Days 



Session 



in Calvert to 191 days in Baltimore County. The colored elemen- 
tary schools were open 180 days or more in 10 counties in 1938-39. 
In Baltimore City the colored schools were open 190 days. (See 
Table 111.) 

As a result of the enactment of Chapter 552 of the Laws of 
1937, after September 1, 1939, the minimum session required in 
colored schools will be 180 days. 

There were 6 schools for colored pupils in 1938-39 that were 
open fewer than the required 160 days, whereas this was true of 
only 2 schools the preceding year. Anne Arundel had four of 
the schools with short sessions : 3 schools short one day and one 
open 156.4 days; Calvert County had 1 school open 158.1 days and 
1 colored school in Charles County which opened late was in 
session only 147 days. (See Table 112.) 

TABLE 112 

Number of Maryland County Colored Schools in Session Fewer Than 160 
Days, the Number of Days Required by Law, by Year and by County 

for 1939 



Year Number County Number 

1929 53 Anne Arundel *4 

1930 41 Calvert fl 

1931 34 Charles "1 

1932 12 

1933 32 

1934 10 

1935 17 

1936 20 

1937 15 

1938 2 

1939 6 



* One school open 159.8 days ; two open 159.0 days ; one open 156.4 days, 
t School open 158.1 days. 
° School open 147.0 days. 



168 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ATTENDANCE IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

In 1939 the average attendance in the county colored elemen- 
tary schools was 88.2 per cent of the average number belonging, 
the highest ever reported. This was an increase of .1 of one 
per cent over the corresponding figure for 1938. Eight counties 
showed slight decreases in percentage of attendance in 1939. 
Among the individual counties the per cent of attendance ranged 
from 81 to over 94. There were nine counties in which over 91 
per cent of the colored elementary pupils belonging attended 
school during 1938-39. (See Table 113.) 



TABLE 113 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored Elementary Schools for School Years 
Ending in June, 1923, 1937, 1938 and 1939 



County 



1923 


1937 


1938 


1939 


County 


1923 


1937 


1938 


1939 


76.2 


85.0 


88.1 


88.2 


Harford 


79.9 


87.7 


87.7 


88.6 










Anne Arundel 


71.2 


85.6 


88.5 


88.0 


87.4 


92.0 


93.5 


94.4 




80.8 


84.4 


88.1 


87.8 


81.7 


89.0 


91.7 


93.0 


Carroll 


72.0 


83.6 


87.4 


86.5 


73.1 


91.3 


92.3 


92.5 


St. Mary's 


62.9 


85.4 


87.6 


86.2 


84.3 


89.8 


91.2 


92.0 




74.2 


82.5 


86.6 


84.6 


84.8 


89.9 


91.5 


91.8 




71.0 


78.0 


83.6 


84.4 


84.6 


86.0 


89.7 


91.7 




80.1 


79.1 


82.5 


84.3 


80.5 


87.7 


90.5 


91.4 


Charles 


66.8 


80.4 


84.2 


83.6 


74.4 


88.5 


90.8 


91.4 


Calvert 


65.3 


73.6 


81.2 


81.3 


76.4 


83.8 


88.2 


91.1 












76.4 


85.4 


89.8 


89.6 


Baltimore City .... 


*87.0 


*86.9 


*89.0 


*88.9 


75.4 


87.2 


87.9 


89.2 










73.4 


87.9 


90.0 


88.8 


Total State 


79.9 


86.0 


88.5 


88.6 



County Average 

Allegany 

Washington 

Queen Anne's. . . 

Talbot. 

Wicomico 

Frederick 

Somerset 

Cecil 

Caroline 

Prince George's. 

Baltimore 

Kent 



* Includes grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools. 
For attendance in 1939 by counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VIII, page 321. 

TABLE 114 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County Colored 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1939 



Month 


Average No. Belonging 


Per Cent of Attendance 


Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


September 


*18,733 


t3,961 


93.4 


95 


.1 




23,134 


4,424 


92.3 


94 


.3 




23,506 


4,412 


89.3 


93 


2 




23,464 


4,350 


87.2 


92 


.0 




23,378 


4,257 


82.9 


92 


.0 




23,331 


4,193 


85.9 


92 


.5 




23,193 


4,121 


87.8 


92 


.9 




23,074 


4,063 


87.6 


92 


.4 




22,915 


3,994 


88.7 


93 


2 




t9,963 


°2,377 


90.5 


94 


.5 




23,074 


4,211 


88.2 


93 


.1 



* For elementary schools attendance was not reported in September by Charles, Kent or 
St. Mary's Counties. 

t For high schools attendance was not reported in September by St. Mary's County, 
t For elementary schools attendance was not reported in June by Calvert, Caroline, Kent, 
Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset, Wicomico and Worcester Counties. 

° For high schools attendance was not reported in June by Caroline County. 



% OF Attendance; Colored Elementary Pupils Present 169 
Under 100 and 120 Days 

In Baltimore City the average per cent of attendance in the 
colored elementary schools in 1939 was 88.9, .1 of one per cent 
lower than the corresponding figure in 1938. The average per 
cent of attendance for the State as a whole was 88.6 in 1939. (See 
Table lis.) 

The average county colored enrollment reached its maximum 
for the elementary schools in November, with 23,506 pupils 
belonging, and for the high schools in October, with 4,424 pupils 
belonging. The highest percentages of attendance were found 
in September and June, while the lowest percentages were re- 
ported in January. (See Table 114.) 



TABLE 115 



Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary Pupils Present Under 
100 and 120 Days, by Year, 1929 to 1939, and by County, 1939 





Number Present 


Per Cent Present 


Year and County 












Under 


Under 


Under 


Under 




100 Days 


120 Days 


100 Days 


120 Days 



Present Under 100 and 120 Days, by Year 



1929 


5,987 


9,045 


22.9 


34.6 


1930 


4,937 


7,842 


19.3 


30.6 


1931 


4,342 


7,039 


16.7 


27.1 


1932 


3,807 


6,139 


14.8 


23.8 


1933 


3,609 


6,074 


13.9 


23.4 


1934 


4,070 


6,603 


15.9 


25.9 


1935 


3,968 


6,391 


15.8 


25.5 


1936 


3,907 


6,370 


16.0 


26.0 


1937 


3,358 


5,555 


14.1 


23.4 


1938 


2,521 


4,177 


10.7 


17.8 


1939 


2,108 


3,548 


9.0 


15.2 


Present Under 100 and 120 Days, 


BY County, 1938-39 








11 




1.9 




8 


11 


3.7 


5.1 




33 


53 


4.3 


6.9 




11 


17 


4.6 


7.2 


Cecil 


18 


25 


5.4 


7.5 


Harford 


37 


67 


4.8 


8.7 




34 


57 


5.3 


8.8 


Talbot 


41 


70 


5.2 


8.9 


Baltimore 


108 


172 


5.9 


9.3 




147 


282 


5.2 


10.1 




78 


137 


6.2 


10.8 




95 


156 


7.2 


11.8 


Carroll 


21 


39 


6.5 


12.1 




173 


241 


10.2 


14.3 


Kent 


52 


94 


8.2 


14.8 




130 


219 


10.7 


18.0 


Howard 


64 


107 


11.2 


18.7 


St. Mary's 


102 


178 


11.1 


19.3 


Anne Arundel 


326 


569 


11.5 


20.0 




184 


314 


15.4 


26.3 




227 


371 


16.5 


26.9 


Calvert 


219 


358 


20.6 


33.7 



170 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



There were 2,108 or 9.0 per cent of the enrollment in the county 
colored elementary schools who were present under 100 days, and 
3,548 pupils, 15.2 per cent, who attended school fewer than 120 
days in 1939. These numbers and percentages were lower than 
corresponding figures previously reported. (See Table 115.) 

The pupils present under 100 days in the individual counties 
varied from none to over 20 per cent. For pupils who attended 
fewer than 120 days, the percentages ranged from approximately 
2 to nearly 34 per cent. Decreases under 1938 in the per cent of 
colored elementary pupils present under 100 days appeared in all, 
except four counties, and under 120 days in all, but four of the 
counties, one of which showed the same percentage both years. 
(See Table 115.) 

FEWER LATE ENTRANTS 

The number and per cent of colored elementary pupils who 
entered school 15 days after the opening of schools in September 
or October, 1938, because of negligence, indifference, or employ- 
ment included 877 pupils, or 3.5 per cent of the total enrollment. 

TABLE 116 



Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School After the First 15 Days, Because of Employment, Indifference, 
or Neglect, for Year Ending June 30, 1939 



County 


Total 
Number 
Entering 

Late 


Per Cent Entering Late by Cause 


Rank 


Total 


Indiffer- 
ence or 
Neglect 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Under 
14 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


Indiffer- 
ence or 
Neglect 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Under 
14 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


Total, 1938 


930 


3.7 


2.5 


.7 


.5 








1939 


877 


3.5 


2.6 


.6 


.3 








Queen Anne's. . . . 


3 


.4 


.1 


.3 




2 


4 


1 


Washington 


3 


1.2 


.8 


.4 




3 


7 


1 


Harford 


13 


1.6 


1.0 


.5 


' ". i 


5 


12 


10 




22 


1.7 


1.1 


.6 




6 


13 


1 




12 


1.7 


.2 


1.1 


' A 


1 


19 


17 


Kent 


12 


1.8 


1.2 


.5 


.1 


7 


9.5 


12 


Carroll 


6 


1.8 


.9 


.3 


.6 


4 


5 


20 


St. Mary's 


18 


1.9 


1.6 


.1 


.2 


9 




13 


Baltimore 


39 


2.0 


1.6 


.4 




10 


8 


1 


Prince George's . . 


67 


2.2 


1.9 


.2 


A 


13 


2.5 


11 




31 


2.4 


1.7 


.2 


.5 


12 


2.5 


18 


Somerset 


35 


2.5 


1.3 


1.2 




8 


20 


1 


Allegany 


6 


2.7 


2.2 


.5 




15 


9.5 


1 




22 


2.7 


1.6 


1.1 




11 


18 


1 


Dorchester 


44 


3.3 


1.9 


.4 


1.6 


14 


11 


21 


Charles 


52 


3.5 


2.6 


.5 


.4 


16 


14 


16 


Montgomery 


68 


3.8 


3.1 


.4 


.3 


17 


6 


14 


Cecil 


13 


3.8 


3.2 


.6 




18 


15 


1 


Talbot 


41 


4.6 


3.6 


1.0 




19 


17 


1 


Howard 


37 


6.2 


4.4 


1.5 


■ ■ !3 


20 


21 


15 


Anne Arundel .... 


190 


6.4 


5.3 


.6 


.5 


21 


16 


19 


Calvert 


143 


12.7 


9.3 


2.2 


1.2 


22 


22 


22 



Colored Pupils Attending under 100 and 120 Days; Late 171 
Entrants; Withdrawals 

This was a decrease of 53 in the number and .2 in the per cent 
of late entrants. The chief cause of late entrance reported, negli- 
gence or indifference, affected 2.6 per cent of the county colored 
pupils, while employment caused the late entrance of .9 per 
cent of the colored elementary enrollment. (See Table 116.) 

Among the counties the percentage of late entrants in the 
colored elementary schools for indifference, neglect, and employ- 
ment ranged from .4 of one per cent to nearly 13 per cent. (See 
Table 116.) 

TABLE 117 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools 
by Year, 1929 to 1939, and by County for 1938-39 



Year 

AND 

County 



Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer, Commitment 
or Death 



Number 



Per Cent 



Withdrawals for Following Causes 



Total 
Num- 
ber 



Total 
Per 
Cent 



Per Cent Withdrawing for 



Employ- 
ment 



Mental 




and 




Physical 


Poverty 


Inca- 




pacity 





Over and 

Under 
Compul- 
sory At- 
tendance 
Age 



other 
Causes 



Withdrawals by Yeae 



1929 


2,109 


7.5 


2,171 


7 


6 


3 


7 


1 


1 


1 


5 


.9 


.4 


1930 


2,100 


7.6 


1,717 


6 


2 


2 


9 


1 





1 


2 


.8 


.3 


1931 


1,883 


6.8 


1,405 


5 





2 


2 




9 


1 





.6 


.3 


1932 


1,719 


6.3 


1,146 


4 


2 




2 


1 





1 





.6 


.4 


1933 


1,652 


6.0 


1,069 


3 


9 


1 


5 




7 


1 





. 5 


.2 


1934 


1,773 


6.5 


980 


3 


6 


1 


2 




7 




9 


.6 


.2 


1935 


1,746 


6.5 


996 


3 


7 


1 


4 




7 




9 


.6 




1936 


1,809 


6.9 


927 


3 


5 


1 


4 




6 




9 


. 5 




1937 


1,856 


7.3 


752 


2 


9 


1 


2 




5 




7 


.4 




1938 


1,709 


6.8 


706 


2 


8 


1 


1 




6 




5 


. 5 




1939 


1,589 


6.4 


531 


2 


1 




8 




5 




4 


.3 





Withdrawals By County. 1938-39 



Queen Anne's. . 


129 


18.3 


2 


.3 




.2 




.1 




Carroll 


12 


3.6 


2 


.6 


.3 


.3 








Harford 


38 


4.7 


6 


.7 


.1 


. 5 




" ' '.i 




Anne Arundel . . 


135 


4.5 


27 


.9 


.2 


.2 


" ' !3 


.2 




Prince George's 


195 


6.5 


43 


1.4 


.6 


.3 




.4 






64 


4.8 


24 


1.8 


.4 


1.1 


A 


.1 


.1 


Frederick 


35 


4.3 


15 


1.9 


.8 


.9 


.2 






St. Mary's 


42 


4.4 


19 


2.0 


.3 


.9 


.5 


' ' ^3 




Cecil 


12 


3.5 


7 


2.0 






1.7 


.3 




Kent 


43 


6.4 


14 


2.1 


' ' .8 


' ".7 




.6 




Somerset 


99 


7.0 


30 


2.1 


.8 


.6 


' ' !3 


.3 


".i 


Baltimore 


84 


4.4 


41 


2.1 


.8 


.8 


.1 


.3 


.1 




10 


4.4 


5 


2.2 


1.3 






.9 




Talbot 


98 


11.0 


21 


2.4 


.8 


' ' .3 


' ".5 


.6 


" ' .2 


Calvert 


66 


5.9 


27 


2.4 


1.5 


.5 


.4 






Dorchester. . . . 


113 


8.5 


35 


2.6 


1.0 


.4 


. 5 


" ^6 


" .i 


Howard 


24 


4.0 


16 


2.7 


.7 


.7 


.2 


.8 


.3 


Charles 


103 


7.0 


43 


2.9 


1.4 


.2 


.7 


.3 


.3 


Washington .... 


10 


4.0 


8 


3.2 


.8 


1.6 


.4 


.4 






65 


9.2 


26 


3.7 


2.0 


.9 


.1 


.6 


" ' !i 


Montgomery . . . 


121 


6.7 


69 


3.8 


1.2 


.6 


1.0 


1.0 




Worcester 


91 


7.1 


51 


4.0 


1.8 


.6 


1.2 


.2 


' " .2 



172 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

FEWER WITHDRAWALS FROM COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

In 1939 there were 1,589 colored elementary pupils, 6.4 per 
cent of the enrollment, who withdrew from school because of 
removal, transfer, death, or commitment to institutions. This 
was a decrease of 120 pupils, or .4 of one per cent, under cor- 
responding figures for 1938. Only in two of the last eleven years 
was there a lower percentage of withdrawals for these reasons. 
In the individual counties, these withdrawals included from 3.5 
to over 18 per cent of the colored elementary enrollment in Queen 
Anne's, from which a large migrant population departed. (See 
Table 117.) 

The total number of withdrawals for causes other than those 
mentioned in the preceding paragrap'h included 531 colored ele- 
mentary pupils or 2.1 per cent, a decrease of 175 in number and 
of .7 in per cent under similar figures for 1938, a smaller number 
and per cent than ever before reported. These withdrawals in- 
cluded .8 per cent for employment, .5 per cent due to mental or 
physical incapacity, .4 per cent because of poverty, .3 per cent 
Who were below or above compulsory attendance age, and .1 per 
cent for other causes. (See Table 117.) 

In the individual counties these withdrawals from the colored 
elementary schools ranged from .3 per cent to 4 per cent, as com- 
pared with the range of from 1 to 9 per cent for the same causes 
in the preceding year. (See Table 117.) 

EFFICIENCY IN GETTING AND KEEPING CHILDREN IN SCHOOL 

In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance 
which include per cent of attendance, late entrance, and with- 
drawals for preventable causes, the counties have been arranged 
in order according to their average rank in these three items for 
colored elementary schools. That county is considered highest 
which has a high percentage of attendance accompanying a low 
percentage of late entrance and withdrawal for preventable 
causes. A county in which a high proportion of the children 
who could do so do not enter at the beginning of the school 
term, and a large proportion who could remain withdraw be- 
fore the close of the year, may keep those in school in regular 
attendance while they are enrolled, but it is undoubtedly not 
helping all of its pupils to secure an education as well as a county 
which brings all of its children into school when the schools are 
opened, discourages withdrawals, and keeps up a high percentage 
of attendance. (See Table 118.) 



Colored Withdrawals; Index of Attendance; Grade 
Enrollment 



173 



TABLE 118 



An Index of School Attendance in County Colored Elementary Schools for 
School Year Ending June 30, 1939 



County 


Per Cent of 


Rank in Per Cent of 
















Attend- 


*Late 


tWith- 


Attend- 


*Late 


tWith- 




ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


ance 


Entrants 


drawals 




88.2 


3.5 


2.1 








A » 


92.5 


.4 


.3 


3 


1 


1 




91.8 


1.7 


1.8 


5 


4 


6 




88.6 


1.6 


.7 


13 


3 


3 




93.0 


1.2 


3.2 


2 


2 


19 




86.5 


1.8 


.6 


16 


7 


2 


Prince George's 


89.6 


2.2 


1.4 


10 


10 


5 


Allegany 


94.4 


2.7 


2.2 


1 


13 


13 




91.7 


2.7 


1.9 


6 


14 


7 


Kent 


88.8 


1.8 


2.1 


12 


6 


10 




91.4 


2.5 


2.1 


7 


12 


11 




89.2 


2.0 


2.1 


11 


9 


12 


St. Mary's 


86.2 


1.9 


2.0 


17 


8 


8 


Caroline 


91.1 


1.7 


3.7 


9 


5 


20 


Cecil 


91.4 


3.8 


2.0 


8 


18 


9 


Talbot 


92.0 


4.6 


2.4 


4 


19 


14 


Anne Arundel 


88.0 


6.4 


.9 


14 


21 


4 


Dorchester 


84.6 


3.3 


2.6 


18 


15 


16 


Montgomery 


87.8 


3.8 


3.8 


15 


17 


21 


Worcester 


84.3 


2.4 


4.0 


20 


11 


22 


Charles 


83.6 


3.5 


2.9 


21 


16 


18 


Howard 


84.4 


6.2 


2.7 


19 


20 


17 


Calvert 


81.3 


12.7 


2.4 


22 


22 


15 



* Late entrance for employment, negligence, and indifference. The county having the 
smallest percentage of late entrants is ranked first. 

t Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, or 
death. The county having the smallest percentage of withdrawals is ranked first. 



ENROLLMENT BY GRADES 

The county colored enrollment in the elementary schools in 
1939 was lower than in 1938 in every grade, except the third, 
seventh, and special classes. The total enrollment fell off by 79 
pupils. On the other hand, the high schools enrolled more pupils 
in 1939 than in 1938 in every year except the first, and showed an 
increase of 261 in the total enrollment. 

The boys exceeded the girls in grades 1 to 5, inclusive, but the 
opposite was the case, with the girls in the majority, from the 
sixth grade through the fourth year of high school. (See Chart 
22.) 

The enrollment by grade in 1939 is given in detail for the in- 
dividual counties in Table 119. The special class first reported 
by Wicomico in 1938 was continued, while Allegany reported 
such a group for the first time in 1939. Seven counties showed a 
larger enrollment in a grade above the first than was found in the 
first grade. Enrollment in grades 3 to 7 and in the last four years 
of high school was larger in the counties than it was in the City. 



174 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Distribution of Colored Enrollment by Grade 



175 



In the elementary grades this is partially explained by the City 
enrollment of 2,487 in special classes compared with 34 in special 
classes in the counties. Baltimore City had 1,365 in kinder- 
gartens, 1,395 in the eighth grade, 771 in occupational, and 579 in 
vocational schools, (See Table 119.) 



CHART 22 



NmBEB OF BOYS AND GIRLS ENROLLED BI GRADES 
IN MARYLAND COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS 
YEARS ENDING jruNE 30, 1938 and 1939 



Grade 
or Year 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 



7 
8 

Special 
Classes 

Total 
El em. 

I 
II 
III 
17 

Total 

High 

Grand 
Total 



Total 



1938 


1939 


4,404 


4,367 


3,608 


3,480 


3,364 


3,538 


3,392 


3,332 


3,178 


3,044 


2,898 


2,805 


2,579 


2,782 


♦ 88 


* 72 


22 


34 



Boys 



v///Ji Girls 



mmt/iiiiiimmiimmiiiiiiitiiiitMtiiiiiium 



^^iMiiiiimiiitimmtnmnmum 



I/////////////// ///////////////// ////n 



hi 



11.995 

23,533 23,454 ii.4fc» 



♦1,758 *l,727tt 



*1.205 *i,318^^|2ZZZZZZa 

♦ 823 * 93i^^^2ZZZZ2ZZ3 

* 573 * 645gl|2a 



4,359 4,621 i.ni 



27,892 28,075 



* Includes pupils from Baltimore County who received instruction in Baltimore City junior 
and senior high schools. 



17G 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
INCREASE IN GRADUATES OF COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

CHART 23 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES IN TOTAL COUNTY COLORED 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT - 1939 



Coimty 

Total and 
Co. Av. 

VJicomico 
Q. Anne*s 
St. Mary*s 
Dorchester 
Cecil 
V/orc ester 
Harford 
Carroll 
Kent 

Frederick 

Howard 

Charles 

Allegany 

Montgomery 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Washington 

Pr. George 

Somerset 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

A. Arundel 



Number 
Boys Girls 

909 1100 



Per Cent Boy£ 



VTTh 



Per Cent 
Girls 



fSSiiMttiitMimii/iUiiiMiiiii 



78 
31 
4B 
64 
18 
67 
43 
17 
31 
31 
32 
51 
11 

73 
17 

30 
12 
87 
41 
45 
28 
54 



86 



35 



fESMmiiit/iiiiiiiiiiMittitiiWimmiimmiiiii 



71 
19 
65 
41 
17 
35 



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46 
23 
79 

8 
72 
38 
34 

6 

116 
50 
79 
29 
95 



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\ 



Graduates of County Colored Elementary Schools 177 

There were 2,009 graduates from the county colored elemen- 
tary sc'hools in 1939 who comprised 8.6 per cent of the total 
colored elementary school enrollment. This was an increase of 
219 in number and 1 in per cent over corresponding figures for 
1938. In only two years, 1935 and 1936, was there a larger num- 
ber of pupils graduated. This is the first increase in the number 
of elementary graduates since 1936, and it occurred despite the 
fact that several counties have raised the requirements for grad- 
uation from their elementary schools. The graduates included 
909 or 7.6 per cent of the boys and 1,100 or 9.6 per cent of the 
girls enrolled in the county colored elementary schools. (See 
Table 120.) 

TABLE 120 



Colored County Elementary School Graduates 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent* 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


350 


637 


987 


2.3 


4.3 


3.3 


1924 


427 


706 


1,133 


2.9 


4.9 


3.9 


1925 


487 


705 


1,192 


3.4 


5.0 


4.2 


1926 


483 


820 


1,303 


3.5 


6.1 


4.8 


1927 


542 


909 


1,451 


4.0 


6.8 


5.4 


1928 


542 


984 


1,526 


4.0 


7.5 


5.7 


1929 


733 


1,077 


1,810 


5.5 


8.4 


6.9 


1930 


728 


993 


1,721 


5.6 


7.9 


6.7 


1931 


884 


1,101 


1,985 


6.7 


8.6 


7.6 


1932 


835 


1,134 


1,969 


6.4 


8.9 


7.6 


1933 


805 


1,105 


1,910 


6.1 


8.6 


7.4 


1934 


861 


1,136 


1,997 


6.7 


9.0 


7.8 


1935 


874 


1,190 


2,064 


6.9 


9.7 


8.2 


1936 


929 


1,244 


2,173 


7.4 


10.4 


8.9 


1937 


793 


1,130 


1,923 


6.5 


9.7 


8.1 


1938 


778 


1,012 


1,790 


6.5 


8.8 


7.6 


1939 


909 


1,100 


2,009 


7.6 


9.6 


8.6 



* Per cent of total elementary enrollment, exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, 
commitment, and death, who graduated. 



In the individual counties the colored boys graduated varied 
from less than 4 per cent of the elementary enrollment in Anne 
Arundel to almost 13 per cent in Wicomico. For the girls the 
percentage of graduates in, the elementary enrollment ran from 
5 in Washington and Calvert to 13 per cent in Wicomico. In 
every county, except Allegany, Calvert, and Washington, there 
was a higher percentage of girls than of boys graduated. From 
1938 to 1939 eight counties had an increase in both boys and 
girls graduated, six in boys graduated and four in girls graduated. 
(See Chart 23.) 

NON-PROMOTIONS IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 4,309 colored elementary pupils who were not 
promoted in 1939 or 18.4 per cent of the colored elementary 
school enrollment. This was a decrease of 186 or .8 per cent 



178 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



under corresponding figures for 1938 and a smaller number than 
has been reported in any year since 1923. The percentage, 18.4, 
is also lower than in any preceding year, except 1937, when it 
was 18.3. The non-promotions in 1939 included 2,604 or 21.7 



CHART 24 



NUI.I3ER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY PUPILS 
NOT PROMOTED - 1939 



County 



Number 
Boi^ Girls 



Per Coit Boys 



Total and 2604 
Co, Av. 



Carroll 
Q. Anne*s 
Cecil 
Harford 
Montgomery 

Wicomico 
Worcester 
Allegany 
Talbot 
Washington 
Dorchester 
Howard 
Charles 
St. Mary^s 
Kent 

Frederick 
Somerset 
Caroline 
Pr.Gooree' ? 
Calvort ^39 
BaltiiJiore 



6 

16 
9 
41 
121 
83 
89 
21 
53 
19 
103 
63 
135 
99 
69 
82 
149 
83 
377 



A. Arundel 



514 



1705 ^^^^Bl^fflf 

6 ^3 
13^^^ 

35 F^^w^^r 

72 FH^^M^ ^*** 
64^^^^fflF* 

6 1 5.a/ 



490Ii 

68^HBH8ffl^" 



P4 l>o..V//////////>l 

79E? 



45ho.°////////////1 



57 



Kraf/////////////////r 



92 Cm 



240 



. T & V////////// ////////////J 



107 h 9 fe/////////////////////777777l 



U771 Per Cent Girls 



379 1 '//////////////////////////////////////A 



Non-Promotions of Colored Elementary School Pupils 179 

per cent of the boys, and 1,705 or 14.9 per cent of the girls en- 
rolled in county colored elementary schools. (See Table 121.) 

TABLE 121 



Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County Colored Elementary 

Schools* 





Year Ending in June 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


5,722 


4,616 


10,338 


38.3 


31.1 


34.7 


1924 


5,173 


4,104 


9,277 


35.5 


28.5 


32.0 


1925 


4,800 


3,700 


8,500 


33.2 


26.3 


29.8 


1926 


4,359 


3,334 


7,693 


31.5 


24.6 


28.1 


1927 


4,015 


3,091 


7,106 


29.5 


23.3 


26.4 


1928 


3,647 


2,657 


6,304 


27.1 


20.2 


23.7 


1929 


3,230 


2,361 


5,591 


24.2 


18.5 


21.4 


1930 


3,311 


2,343 


5,654 


25.4 


18.6 


22.0 


1931 


2,929 


2,022 


4,951 


22.3 


15.8 


19.1 


1932 


2,977 


1,983 


4,960 


22.9 


15.5 


19.2 


1933 


3,041 


2,230 


5,271 


23.2 


17.4 


20.3 


1934 , 


3,133 


2,184 


5,317 


24.3 


17.3 


20.8 


1935 


2,848 


1,959 


4,807 


22.4 


15.9 


19.2 


1936 


2,768 


1,904 


4,672 


22.2 


15.9 


19.1 


1937 


2,601 


1,753 


4,354 


21.5 


15.0 


18.3 


1938 


t2,676 


tl,819 


t4,495 


22.3 


15.8 


19.2 


1939 


t2,604 


tl,705 


t4,309 


21.7 


14.9 


18.4 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or commitment to institutions, 
t Includes pupils in special class in Wicomico County. 



Among the counties the non-promotions for boys varied from 
under 4 per cent in one county to over 35 per cent in two coun- 
ties. For girls the failures ranged from under 4 per cent in one 
county to over 27 in another. Cecil and Carroll were the only coun- 
ties in which the percentage of failures was higher for girls than 
for boys. (See Chart 24.) 

Causes of Non-Promotions 

The chief causes of non-promotions reported by teachers for 
county colored elementary pupils were unfortunate home condi- 
tions and lack of interest. Over 8 per cent of the children were 
reported as failures for these reasons. Irregular attendance not 
due to sickness was given as the cause of non-promotion of 3.7 
per cent of the pupils. Unfortunate home conditions, lack of 
interest, and irregular attendance not due to sickness are all 
causes of non-promotion which should be reported less frequently 
as teachers do better work in holding the interest of children 
and in educating parents to the necessity for and value of regular 
school attendance. Personal illness caused the retardation of 
1.6 per cent of the colored pupils, mental incapacity was reported 
as the cause of failure of 1.4 per cent of county colored pupils, 
and .9 per cent were retarded because they were out of school 
for employment. (See Table 122.) 



180 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 122 



Causes for Non-Promotion of County Colored Elementary Pupils Not Pro- 
moted for Year Ending June 30, 1939 



County 


Total Not 
Promoted 


Per Cent of Pupils Not Promoted by Cause 


All Causes 


Unfortunate Home 
Conditions and 
Lack of Interest 


Irregular Attend- 
ance Not Due 
to Sickness 


Personal Illness 


Mental 
Incapacity 


14 Years or Over, 
Employed 


Late Entrance 


Transfer from 
Another School 


Other Causes 


TotEil Biid AvGrsgG" 






















1938 


4,489 


19.2 


7.9 


4.0 


1.8 


1.3 


1.2 


.7 


.6 


1.7 


1939 


4,309 


18.4 


8.4 


3.7 


1.6 


1.4 


.9 


.6 


.5 


1.3 


Carroll 


12 


3.7 


1.2 


1.6 


.3 










.6 


QuGcn A.nn6's 


29 


5.0 


2.6 




1.4 


'.S 








.7 


Cecil 


19 


5.7 


.3 


2;7 


.3 


1.2 




!6 




.6 


Harford 


76 


9.9 


5.1 


2.1 


1.7 


.1 




.5 


!3 


.1 


I^ontgoniGry 


193 


11.4 


3.5 


3.2 


.9 


.3 


l!4 


1.0 


.3 


.8 


W^icomico 


147 


11.6 


6.6 




1.9 


2.1 


.7 


.3 








148 


12.4 


4.8 


3!6 


.8 


1.2 


1.6 


.3 


!3 


A 




27 


12.4 


8.7 


1.4 


.5 




1.4 






.4 


Talbot 


102 


12.9 


3.3 


1.9 


1.1 


3^7 


1.8 




!6 


.5 


Washington 


33 


13.9 


6.3 


1.3 


3.0 


.4 


.8 


.8 


.4 


.9 




171 


14.1 


5.3 


3.0 


1.1 


2.0 


1.1 


.4 


.2 


1.0 


Howard 


87 


15.2 


6.7 


3.7 


1.7 


.2 


1.6 


.3 


.3 


.7 




214 


15.5 


4.9 


5.8 


.9 


1.4 


1.0 


.4 


.5 


.6 


St. Mary's 


144 


15.6 


5.6 


4.1 


2.0 


.8 


.4 


1.0 


.4 


1.3 


Kent 


105 


16.6 


10.6 


1.4 


1.8 


1.1 


.6 


.8 


.3 




Frederick 


139 


18.0 


11.7 


3.9 


1.2 




1.0 




.2 






241 


18.2 


8.5 


2.6 


1.0 


2.0 


1.0 


'.7 


.8 


1.6 




136 


21.1 


11.9 


.9 


1.6 


2.5 


2.0 


1.3 


.3 


.6 


Prince George's 


617 


22.0 


9.1 


4.7 


1.7 


2.1 


.7 


.9 


1.0 


1.8 


Calvert 


246 


23.2 


8.5 


8.6 


2.0 


1.6 


1.3 


.7 


.3 


.2 




530 


28.8 


15.3 


5.5 


3.1 


1.6 


1.1 


.2 


.7 


1.3 


Anne Arundel 


893 


31.4 


15.8 


5.4 


2.5 


1.3 


.6 


.7 


.6 


4.5 



Non-Promotion by Grades 

In 1939 the highest percentage of non-promotion in colored 
elementary schools was found in the seventh grade, 30.8 per 
cent for the boys and 22.5 per cent for girls. The next highest 
percentage of failure occurred in the first grade with 28.1 per 
cent of the boys and 23.2 per cent of the girls not considered by 
their teachers as ready to undertake the work of the succeeding 
grade. The second grade had the lowest percentage of boys 
who were retarded, 16.8, while the third grade showed the mini- 
mum percentage of retardation for colored girls, 9.2 per cent. 
Decreases in the number and per cent of failures under cor- 
responding figures for 1938 occurred in every grade but the 
fourth, fifth and sixth for the boys, and in all but the fourth and 
sixth grades for the girls. (See Chart 25.) 



Non-Promotions and Testing of Colored Elementary Pupils 181 



CHART 25 



Grade 

1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 
7 



1939 NON-PROMOTIONS BY GRADES* 
COUNTY COLORED ELE/IKJTARY SCHOOLS 



Number 
Boys Girls 


649 


477 


305 


176 


319 


156 


376 


218 


266 


168 


276 


180 


410 


326 1 



Per Ceat Boys 



^iimiimi/fifi/iwiiiiiuiii/imii 



V7T7X Per Cent Girls 



s 



ia^///////////////////j 



114 



maf///////////////m 



^Mf///m/////////////////////i//////m 



* Excludes non-promotions in special class in Wicomico County and in eighth grade in 
Washington County. 



STATE-WIDE TESTING PROGRAM 

In April, 1939, over 13,000 colored pupils in grades 3 to 7 of 
the Maryland county elementary schools were given the Metro- 
politan Achievement Test Battery, grade 3 being given Form C, 
and grades 4-7 Partial Battery Form E. The results in reading, 
arithmetic fundamentals, and problems were compared with the 
standards and with those obtained from other forms of the same 
test given in the school years 1933-34 and 1937-38. From 40 to 
90 per cent of the counties showed better results in reading and 
arithmetic between the testing in 1933-34 and in April, 1939. 
Mimeographed copies of results of the tests are on file in the 
State Department office. 



COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

Enrollment in Colored High Schools 

The steady increase in the county colored high school enroll- 
ment apparent since 1921 continued in 1939 with 4,567 pupils en- 
rolled, 233 more than were on roll in 1938. There was an in- 



182 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

crease of 257 in average number belonging and 234 in average 
attendance in 1939 over corresponding figures for the preceding 
year. The total number of county high school graduates, 560, 
was 74 more than were reported in 1938. (See Table 123.) 

TABLE 123 



Colored Enrollment, Attendance and Graduates in Last Four Years of High 
School in 22 Counties and Baltimore City, 1921 to 1939 



Year 
Ending June 30 


22 Counties 


Baltimore City 


Total 
Enroll- 
ment 


Average 
No. 

Belong- 
ing 


Average 
Atten- 
dance 


Four- 
Year 
High 
School 
Gradu- 
ates 


Total 
Enroll- 
ment 


Average 
No. 

Belong- 
ing 


Average 
Atten- 
dance 


Four- 
Year 
High 
School 
Gradu- 
ates 


1921 


251 


* 


189 




801 


795 


722 


135 


1922 


368 


* 


292 


" 5 


1,065 


1,029 


935 


123 


1923 


447 


400 


357 


30 


1,355 


1,336 


1,185 


147 


1924 


620 


541 


480 


30 


1,557 


1,503 


1,373 


139 


1925 


862 


741 


662 


32 


1,745 


1,681 


1,527 


246 


1926 


974 


850 


769 


58 


1,783 


1,783 


1,643 


378 


1927 


1,157 


1,000 


907 


97 


1,858 


1,849 


1,648 


315 


1928 


1,332 


1,137 


1,046 


117 


1,957 


1,923 


1,731 


230 


1929 


1,610 


1,451 


1,344 


121 


2,053 


2,028 


1,832 


283 


1930 


1,953 


1,725 


1,609 


169 


2,149 


2,114 


1,931 


283 


1931 


2,230 


2,001 


1,842 


192 


2,323 


2,247 


2,047 


285 


1932 


2,489 


2,253 


2,069 


288 


2,427 


2,362 


2,155 


312 


1933 


2,750 


2,494 


2,299 


297 


2,685 


2,562 


2,334 


364 


1934 


2,819 


2,478 


2,260 


318 


2,553 


2,483 


2,266 


329 


1935 


3,019 


2,703 


2.502 


322 


2,652 


2,600 


2,406 


391 


1936 


3,544 


3,206 


2,943 


369 


2,641 


2,629 


2,445 


375 


1937 


4,030 


3,616 


3,322 


373 


2,745 


2,724 


2,540 


368 


1938 


4,334 


3,953 


3,686 


486 


2,879 


2.843 


2,659 


442 


1939 


4,567 


4,210 


3,920 


560 


3,153 


3,104 


2,908 


473 



* Figures not reported before 1923. 



In Baltimore City there were 3,153 pupils enrolled in the last 
four years of high school in 1939, 274 more than were enrolled 
in 1938. The average number belonging was 3,104 and the aver- 
age attendance 2,908. It will be noted that the counties continue 
to have a larger colored enrollment in the last four years of high 
school than the City. There were 473 graduates from the Balti- 
more City high school for colored pupils in 1939, 87 fewer than 
in the counties. The Baltimore City figures include the Balti- 
more County pupils who attend the Baltimore City high schools 
at the expense of Baltimore County. (See Table 123.) 

There were 106 colored high school pupils enrolled in the 
Catholic schools in Baltimore City, but none in the county 
Catholic schools. In addition there were 18 colored high school 
pupils in a Seventh Day Adventist School in Baltimore City. (See 
Tables III-V, pages 314 to 318.) 



Colored High School Enrollment, Length of Session, 183 
Attendance 



Length of Session in Colored High Schools 

The colored high schools were open an average of 176.6 days 
in 1939, an increase of .6 days over the length of session for the 
year before. The length of the school year in the individual coun- 
ties varied from 161.3 days in St. Mary's to 189 days in Cecil. 
Baltimore City high schools which are attended by Baltimore 
County pupils were open 190 days. Fourteen counties kept the 
colored high schools open more than 180 days, the minimum 
session required for approved high schools. According to the 
provisions of Chapter 552 of the Laws of 1937, the county colored 
schools will be required to have a session of at least 180 days 
beginning September 1, 1939. (See Table 124.) 



TABLE 124 

Length of Session in Colored High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1939 



County 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Washington 

Allegany 

Montgomery 

Charles 

Kent 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Dorchester 

Calvert 



Average 
Days 

in 
Session 



176.6 

*190.0 
189.0 
188.0 
185.8 
184.9 
184.0 



183, 
183, 
183, 
183, 
181, 



181.1 



School Year 
1938-39 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/13 

9/7 

9/7 

9/6 

9/8 

9/13 

9/7 

9/7 

9/8 

9/7 

9/12 

9/7 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/22 

6/16 

6/23 

6/9 

6/16 

6/20 

6/9 

6/9 

6/9 

6/9 

6/9 

6/9 



County 



Harford 

Talbot 

Queen Anne's. . . 

Howard 

Prince George's . 

Caroline 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Worcester 

St. Mary's 

Baltimore City . , 

Total State 



Average 
Days 

in 
Session 



181.0 
181.0 
180.0 
176.9 
173.5 
173.0 
163.0 
162.9 
162.0 
161.3 

190.0 

182.3 



School Year 
1938-39 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/12 

9/12 

9/8 

9/19 

9/7 

9/14 

9/12 

9/12 

9/19 

10/3 

9/13 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/8 
6/9 
6/5 
6/9 
6/1,6/2,6/3 
5/26 
5/12 
5/12 
5/19 
6/1 

6/22 



Pupils attend high schools in Baltimore City. 



Twelve counties had shorter sessions in the colored high 
schools in 1939 than during the preceding year. (See Table 124.) 



Per Cent of Attendance in Colored High Schools 

In 1939 the average attendance in the county colored high 
schools was 93.1 per cent as compared with the 1938 average of 
93.2 per cent. The range among the counties was from 86 per 
cent in Howard to 96.3 in St. Mary's. All counties, except three, 
had over 90 per cent of attendance in the colored high schools. 
The attendance in the last four years of high school in Baltimore 
City, 93.7 per cent, was higher by .2 than for 1938. (See Table 
125.) 



184 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 125 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored High Schools, for School Years Ending 
in June, 1923, 1937, 1938 and 1939 



County 



1923 



1937 



1938 



1939 



County 



1923 



1937 


1938 


1939 


94.0 


93.9 


92.9 


87.4 


91.9 


92.9 


92.2 


91.6 


92.8 


92.8 


91.6 


92.6 


88.9 


92.1 


92.5 


92.1 


94.1 


92.1 


84.4 


88.1 


90.2 


92.4 


90.9 


89.8 


87.2 


89.6 


88.5 


80.9 


87.2 


86.0 


93.2 


93.5 


93.7 


92.5 


93.4 


93.4 



County Average. 



St. Mary's 

Wicomico 

Allegany 

Carroll 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel . . 
Washington .... 

Worcester 

Kent 

Prince George's . 



89.3 



90.5 
93.5 



87.4 
90.5 
88.9 



86.3 



91.9 

96.2 
92.8 
95.5 
93.2 
93.8 
92.1 
93.9 
92.1 
93.5 
91.8 
88.6 



93.2 

95.8 
94.6 
96.1 
94.1 
95.2 
95.3 
95.4 
92.4 
95.1 
91.6 



93.1 



95.4 
94.2 
94.1 
94.0 
93.8 
93.7 



Montgomery. . 

Calvert 

Charles 

Somerset 

Harford 

Queen Anne's. 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Cecil 

Howard 



Baltimore City. , 
Total State 



88.4 



85.6 
87.3 



88.8 



Ratio of High School Enrollment to Total Colored Enrollment 

The ratio between the number belonging in the county colored 
high schools and the number belonging in colored elementary 
and high schools combined was 15.9 in 1939 as compared with 
15.1 in 1938 and 13.9 in 1937. In Baltimore City this ratio in- 
creased by .5 to 9.9 in 1939. Pupils in Baltimore County who do 
their high school work in Baltimore City schools at the expense 
of Baltimore County have been included with the figures for the 
counties and excluded from Baltimore City. (See Table 126.) 

TABLE 126 

Ratio of "Number Belonging" in Colored High Schools to "Number Belong- 
ing" in Colored Elementary and High Schools Combined, for School 
Years Ending in June, 1924, 1937, 1938 and 1939 



1924 



1937 



1938 



1939 



County 



1924 


1937 


1938 


1939 


4.7 


17.8 


17.6 


17.3 


1.6 


16.3 


16.3 


17.0 


2.0 


14.5 


17.2 


15.5 




13.7 


13.4 


15.3 




13.0 


13.3 


13.7 


l!5 


11.4 


13.6 


13.6 


2.5 


10.0 


13.0 


12.9 




11.0 


11.3 


11.8 




3.1 


4.5 


7.8 




"t6.4 


°t6.5 


°t7.4 


9.2 


♦9.2 


*9.4 


♦9.9 


4.7 


11.5 


12.2 


22.4 



2.0 

11.9 
4.0 
6.0 

s'.o 

2.3 
6.7 
3.0 



1.8 



tl3.9 

32.0 
21.0 
21.4 
19.7 
16.6 
21.9 
14.8 
14.6 
12.9 
17.9 
12.1 
15.8 



tl5.1 

23.6 
22.3 
22.3 
19.8 
18.0 
21.6 
18.1 
20.4 
16.3 
18.8 
13.2 
16.9 



tl5.9 

29.6 
23.2 
22.0 
21.7 
21.6 
20.9 
19.7 
19.0 
18.8 
18.7 
17.9 
17.5 



Dorchester 

Somerset 

Queen Anne's. . . 

Harford 

Montgomery. . . . 
Prince George's . 
Anne Arundel . . . 

Calvert 

Howard 

Baltimore 

Baltimore City . . 

State 



t Includes Baltimore County pupils in last four years of high school who attended Balti- 
City schools at the expense of the County. 

♦ Excludes Baltimore County pupils in last four years of high school who attended Balti- 
more City schools at the expense of the County. 

° If the last five years of Baltimore County pupils in junior and senior high school work 
in Baltimore Citv are included in obtaining the ratio, the figures become 9.7, 10.0 and 10.0 in 
1937, 1938 and 1939. 

For individual schools, see Table XXX, pages 344-349. 



Attendance, % in High School, Colored High School Graduates 185 

Among the counties the ratio of colored pupils in high school 
to enrollment in elementary and high schools combined ranged 
from 7.4 in Baltimore County to 29.6 in Allegany. Six counties 
are included in the range from 20 to 30 per cent. Seven coun- 
ties had a smaller proportion of their colored enrollment in high 
school in 1939 than in 1938. (See Table 126.) 



County Colored High School Graduates Increase 



TABLE 127 

Graduates of Four- Year Maryland Colored High Schools 



High 



Boys Graduated in 



IN 


1937 


1938 


1939 


Total Counties 


§151 


§192 


§227 




**21 


***27 


36 




11 


*14 


21 




20 


17 


20 


Prince George's . . . 


**12 


**15 


**19 


Worcester 


6 


11 


*15 


Caroline 


4 


*9 


*14 


Montgomery 


14 


*13 


14 


Charles 


*7 


4 


11 


Somerset 


9 


*8 


10 


Harford 


5 


*7 


*9 




5 


**8 


8 


Talbot 


5 


7 


8 


Carroll 


6 


8 


**7 






*8 


7 


Calvert 


9 


6 


6 


Queen Anne's 


2 


7 


6 


Washington 






6 


Cecil 


*6 


*4 


5 


Howard 






2 


Kent 


'4 


"7 


2 




5 


*4 


1 


Baltimore City .... 




**167 


176 


Entire State 


x294 


x359 


x403 



High 
Schools 

IN 



Total Counties. 

Wicomico 

Charles 

Anne Arundel . . 
Dorchester. . . . 

Somerset 

Prince George's 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Montgomery . . . 

Harford 

Frederick 

St. Mary's 

Kent 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's. . 

Talbot 

Allegany 

Cecil 

Calvert 

Washington . . . 
Howard 

Baltimore City. 

Entire State . . . 



Girls Graduated in 



1937 


1938 


1939 


°222 


°294 


°333 


23 


****38 


*39 


**16 




*33 


***15 


***23 


***27 


*18 


*21 


26 


***20 


**14 


***25 




*****Jt:!t:29 


***22 


21 


*11 


**21 


*12 


13 


20 




***24 


19 


*5 


*7 


*16 


*8 


15 


15 


2 


*****25 




8 


7 


9 




**8 


**8 


*2 


*8 


8 


**12 


11 


8 


7 


1 


*7 


*6 


**6 


7 


4 


*16 


6 


4 


*4 


5 






1 


***225 


Ji:****275 


***297 


t447 


t569 


t630 



* Each asterisk represents a graduate who entered Bowie for teacher training in the fall 
following graduation from high school. 

§ The following county boys entered Bowie for teacher training in the fall following 
graduation from high school : 1937, 6 ; 1938, 18 ; 1939, 7. 

X The following boys from State public high schools entered Bowie for teacher training 
in the fall following graduation from high school : 1937, 9 ; 1938, 20 ; 1939, 7. 

° The following county girls entered Bowie for teacher training in the fall following 
graduation from high school: 1937, 30; 1938. 38; 1939, 21. 

t The following girls from State public high schools entered Bowie for teacher training 
in the fall following graduation from high school : 1937, 33 ; 1938, 43 ; 1939, 24. 

For graduates of individual schools in 1939. see Table XXX, pages 344 to 349. 



There were 560 graduates from county colored high schools in 
1939, of whom 227 were boys and 333 were girls. This was an 
increase of 35 boys and 40 girls over corresponding figures for 
1938. Among the counties the number of boys graduated varied 
from 1 in Allegany to 36 in Wicomico. For girls the range was 
from 1 in Howard to 39 in Wicomico. There were 176 boys and 



186 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Occupations of 1938 Colored High School Graduates 187 



297 girls graduated from the Baltimore City senior high schools, 
of whom 7 boys and 9 girls were residents of Baltimore County. 
(See Table 127.) 

Of the 227 county colored boys who graduated in 1939, seven 
entered the State Teachers College at Bowie in the fall of 1939, 
while 21 of the 333 county girls graduated in 1939 entered Bowie, 
in addition to two Baltimore County girls who graduated from 
the Baltimore City senior high school. 

Of the girls who entered Bowie in the fall of 1939, four came 
from St. Mary's and three each from Anne Arundel, Prince 
George's and Somerset Counties. (See Table 127.) 

Occupations of 1938 Colored High School Graduates During 1938-39 

Of the 192 boys graduated in 1938 from county colored high 
schools, there were 45 or 23.4 per cent who continued their edu- 
cation in college during 1938-39. In addition to these, 33 or 17.2 
per cent were either working or staying at home, 60 or 31.3 per 
cent were farming, fishing or in C.C.C. camps, 12 or 6.3 per cent 
were in stores or hotel work, 7 or 3.6 per cent were employed in 
transportation as chauffeurs, porters, etc., and 13 or 6.8 per 
cent were doing factory or mechanical work. Of 293 girls grad- 
uated in 1938, 77 or 26.3 per cent were enrolled in colleges, hos- 
pitals, and trade schools in 1938-39, the year following gradua- 
tion. Besides those continuing their education, 187 or 63.8 per 
cent were working or staying at home, or were married, and 
3 were working in stores. (See Table 128.) 

1938 SCHOOL CENSUS OF COLORED YOUTH OF AGES 14 TO 20 

In this connection the returns from the school census throw 
light on the employment in November 1938 of colored youth, in- 
cluding those Who did not graduate from high school. Of 9,400 
county colored boys and 8,888 colored girls in the age group 14 to 
20 years, inclusive, enumerated in the school census, 17 per 
cent of the boys and 26 per cent of the girls reported as not 
handicapped were enumerated as unemployed, 1 per cent of 
the boys and girls were reported as physically or mentally handi- 
capped and unemployed, 51 per cent of the boys and 34 per 
cent of the girls were reported employed, and 31 per cent of the 
boys and 39 per cent of the girls were in school or college. The 
enumeration is evidently less complete for each succeeding age 
group, there being 966 boys of age 20 in contrast with 1,533 of 
age 14, and 787 girls for age 20 as against 1,614 for age 14. This 
may mean that the older children have left the county or that 
the census is more nearly complete for the younger group. (See 
Table 129.) 



188 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 129 

Distribution of Colored Youth of Ages 14-20 Years Inclusive Enumerated 
in 23 Maryland Counties, November, 1938 



Per Cent of Total Number of Ages 14-20 Years Inclusive 





Total 
























Number 




Not Employed 














Ages 14-20 






















Ages 


Years 














Employed 


In School 








Not 


Physically 


Mentally 
















Handicapped 


Handicapped 


Handicapped 












Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 




(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


(10) 


(11) 


(12) 


Total and 


























Average .... 


9,400 


8,888 


16.6 


26.0 


.7 


.7 


.4 


.3 


51.2 


33.6 


31.1 


39.4 


14 


1,533 


1,614 


8.7 


8.7 


.4 


.4 


.3 


.2 


16.1 


8.8 


74.5 


81.9 


15 


1,546 


1,520 


14.0 


19.1 


.8 




.6 


.4 


32.5 


17.2 


52.1 


62.4 


16 


1,492 


1,419 


18.2 


26.3 


.7 


i 


.5 


.3 


48.9 


30.2 


31.7 


42.4 


17 


1,411 


1,359 


20.3 


34.1 


.6 


.7 


.5 


.3 


60.8 


39.7 


17.8 


25.2 


18 


1,379 


1,249 


21.0 


35.6 


.9 


.7 


.3 


.4 


66.6 


48.7 


11.2 


14.6 


19 


1,073 


940 


19.4 


35.9 


.5 


.6 


.5 


.1 


74.4 


56.4 


5.2 


7.0 


20 


966 


787 


15.4 


33.5 


1.0 


1.1 


.6 


.5 


78.6 


60.4 


4.4 


4.5 



The per cent of colored boys not handicapped who were unem- 
ployed was lowest, just under 9 per cent, for age 14, rose to its 
maximum, 21 per cent, at age 18, and decreased to 15 per cent at 
age 20. For girls, just under 9 per cent of the 14-year-old group 
were unemployed, While this was the case for nearly 36 per cent 
at age 19 and for 33.5 per cent at age 20. There was an excess 
of unemployment for colored girls over boys for each age group 
over 14 years. (See columns (3) and (4) in Table 129.) 

The employed colored boys included 16 per cent of the 14-year- 
old group and nearly 79 per cent of the 20-year group. Cor- 
responding figures for girls showed 9 per cent of the 14-year-old 
group employed and 60 per cent of the 20-year-old group. A 
larger per cent of boys than of girls was employed at each age. 
(See columns (9) and (10) of Table 129.) 

The per cent of colored boys and girls in school decreased from 
nearly 75 per cent for boys and nearly 82 per cent for girls at 
age 14 to just over 4 per cent at age 20 years. (See columns (11) 
and (12) of Table 129.) 

In the individual counties the per cent of unemployed colored 
boys of ages 16 to 20 years without handicaps was none at all 
in Queen Anne's and less than 10 per cent in Talbot and St. 
Mary's, while it was over 41 per cent in Harford and Anne Arun- 
del. Queen Anne's indicated just over 1 per cent of the girls 
reported without physical or mental handicap of ages 16 to 20 
years unemployed, and Talbot, Wicomico and Washington ap- 



School Census of Colored Youth of Ages 14 to 20 Years 189 



proximately 15 to 19 per cent, while at the opposite extreme, 
Harford reported more than 52 per cent and Anne Arundel more 
than 61 per cent of these colored girls unemployed. (See columns 
(3) and (4) of Table 130.) 



TABLE 130 

Distribution of Colored Youth of Ages 16-20 Years Inclusive Enumerated 
in 23 Maryland Counties, November, 1938 



Per Cent of Total Number of Ages 16-20 Years Inclusive 





Total 
























Number 




Not Employed 
















Ages 16-20 






















County 


Years 














Employed 


In School 








Not 


Physically 


Mentally 
















Handicapped 


Handicapped 


Handicapped 












Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 




(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


(10) 


(11) 


(12) 


Total and 


























Average .... 


*6,321 


*5,754 


19.0 


32.7 


.7 


.8 


.5 


.3 


*64.3 


*44.9 


15.5 


21.3 


Allegany 


81 


69 


21.0 


23.2 










45.7 


43.5 


33.3 


33.3 


Anne Arundel 


530 


568 


44.9 


61.3 


i!i 


.2 


.2 




38.1 


20.4 


15.7 


18.1 


Baltimore .... 


378 


331 


23.8 


32.6 


.8 


.9 


.5 


!3 


59.0 


41.7 


15.9 


24.5 


Calvert 


249 


224 


16.1 


49.5 










72.3 


31.7 


11.6 


18.8 


Caroline 


205 


192 


21.0 


31.2 


l!4 


lie 


l!6 




63.9 


49.0 


12.7 


18.2 


Carroll 


87 


77 


16.1 


32.5 


2.3 


1.3 






64.4 


42.8 


17.2 


23.4 


Cecil 


101 


111 


13.9 


33.3 






i!6 




74.2 


50.5 


10.9 


16.2 


Charles 


369 


334 


18.4 


36.2 


i.i 


!9 


.6 


l!2 


68.0 


38.6 


11.9 


23.1 


Dorchester. . . 


373 


348 


14.7 


39.4 


1.6 


.9 


1.1 


1.1 


72.1 


44.2 


10.5 


14.4 


Frederick 


201 


182 


19.9 


35.7 


2.0 


.6 


.5 




60.7 


42.3 


16.9 


21.4 


Harford 


176 


185 


41.5 


52.4 


.6 








37.5 


26.5 


20.4 


21.1 


Howard 


174 


139 


18.4 


24.5 


.6 






'.i 


72.4 


63.3 


8.6 


11.5 


Kent 


202 


176 


14.3 


30.1 


.5 




!5 




61.4 


41.5 


23.3 


28.4 


Montgomery . 


456 


467 


17.7 


30.2 


.9 


i!i 




'a 


69.3 


50.3 


12.1 


18.0 


Pr. George's. . 


826 


700 


12.7 


22.6 


.2 


1.1 


!5 


.1 


69.5 


52.3 


17.1 


23.9 


Queen Anne's. 


157 


139 




1.4 










84.1 


65.5 


15.9 


33.1 


St. Mary's 


423 


324 


9!2 


20.4 


l!2 


1^9 


1^4 


1^2 


77.6 


57.4 


10.6 


19.1 


Somerset 


337 


279 


16.9 


33.7 


1.5 


2.1 


1.2 




58.8 


34.8 


21.6 


29.4 


Talbot 


186 


191 


8.1 


14.6 










76.3 


70.2 


15.6 


15.2 


Washington . . 


89 


70 


24.7 


18.6 










59.6 


55.7 


15.7 


25.7 


Wicomico .... 


392 


335 


11.7 


17.9 






!3 


!3 


63.0 


53.1 


25.0 


28.7 




328 


312 


26.2 


34.9 


!3 


1^6 






64.0 


46.8 


9.5 


16.7 



* Includes one pupil in Garrett County. 



The per cent of colored boys of ages 16 to 20 years, employed, 
ranged from less than 40 per cent in Harford and Anne Arundel 
to 84 per cent in Queen Anne's. Approximately 20 per cent of 
the colored girls 16 to 20 years old were employed in Anne Arun- 
del, while this was the case for over 63 per cent of the girls in 
Howard, Queen Anne's and Talbot. (See columns (9) and (10) 
of Table 1?>0.) 

School or college attendance of colored boys 16 to 20 years old 
included fewer than 10 per cent in Howard and Worcester and 
one-fourth in Wicomico and one-third in Allegany. Correspond- 



190 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

ing figures for colored girls ranged from less than 15 per cent in 
Howard and Dorchester to over 33 per cent in Queen Anne's and 
Allegany. (See columns (11) and (12) of Table 130.) 

A comparison of colored youth of ages 14 to 20 years in Novem- 
ber 1936 and 1938 shows that the percentage unemployed and 
attending school was higher in the later year, and that the per- 
centage employed was lower. 

THE COUNTY COLORED HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM IN 1939 
Since four years of English are required in all high school 
curricula, practically every colored high school pupil was en- 
rolled in English, 95 per cent took courses in social studies, 86 per 
cent were enrolled in mathematics classes, and 84 per cent re- 
ceived instruction in science. Practically all the colored high school 
pupils in four counties had courses in the social studies, in 7 
counties almost every pupil was given instruction in mathematics, 
and in 8 counties all the pupils were enrolled in science classes. 
Courses in Latin were taken by 40 boys and 95 girls enrolled in 4 
high schools in three counties, and instruction in French was 
received by 31 boys and 122 girls in 4 high schools. (See Table 
131 and Table XXXI, pages 350-355.) 

Industrial arts or vocational industrial education courses were 
taken by 36 per cent of all county boys enrolled in 11 schools in 
10 counties. In addition to industrial work, agriculture including 
farm shop was taken by 44 per cent of the boys enrolled in 14 
schools in 13 counties. Courses in both industrial work an^ agri- 
culture were offered in the colored hig^h schools in Dorchester, 
Wicomico and at Easton in Talbot County. Courses in general 
or vocational home economics now given in every county having 
high schools, were taken by 83 per cent of the girls enrolled in 
all but 5 county colored high schools, two of which were only 
second group two-year schools. Both general and vocational 
(home economics was offered in 4 high schools. (See Table 131 
and Table XXXI, pages 350-355.) 

Classes in physical education were available to 117 boys and 
164 girls in 2 high schools. Instruction in music was received 
by 919 boys and 1,457 girls, or 53 per cent of the colored high 
school enrollment in 15 schools in 13 counties. Allegany was 
the only county to offer work in art. (See Table 131 and Table 
XXXI, pages 350 to 355.) 



Subjects Taught in County Colored High Schools 



191 



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192 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



THE BALTIMORE CITY COLORED SCHOOL PROGRAM 

There were 31,850 colored pupils enrolled in the Baltimore 
City schools in 1939, which included 24,226 in the elementary 
schools, 819 in occupational schools, 597 in vocational schools, 
4,451 in the junior high schools (grades 7-9) and 2,031 in the 
senior high schools. The junior and senior high school figures in- 
cluded Baltimore County pupils who attended Baltimore City 
schools at the expense of the county. During the Baltimore City 
session of 190 days, the attendance was 88.3 per cent in the ele- 
mentary schools, 88 in the vocational schools, 93 per cent in the 
junior high schools, and 94 per cent in the senior high schools. 
The colored vocational school enrolled 359 boys taking auto shop, 
shoe repairing, tailoring, carpentry, bricklaying, painting, land- 
scape gardening and floriculture and 238 girls taking cooking, 
dressmaking, and personal hygiene. (See Tables II and VIII, 
pages 313 and 321.) 

There were 191 physically handicapped colored children en- 
rolled in 10 special classes for sight conservation, the orthopedic, 
open air, and the deaf. (See Table 132.) 



TABLE 132 

Baltimore City Special Classes for Colored Pupils for Semester Ending 

June 30, 1939 













Promoted or 












Making Satisfactory 




Number 


Net Roll 


Average 


Per Cent 


Improvement 


Kind of Class 


of 


June 30, 


Net 


of Atten- 








Classes 


1939 


Roll 


dance 
















Number 


Per Cent 



Physically Handicapped Colored Pupils 



Total 


10 


191 


190 


87.9 


152 


79.6 




5 


85 


84 


88.1 


70 


82.3 


Orthopedic 


3 


68 


68 


89.7 


53 


77.9 


Open Air 


1 


24 


24 


83.3 


21 


87.5 


Deaf 


1 


14 


14 


85.7 


8 


57.1 


Mentally Handicapped Colored Pupils 


Total 


83 


2,201 


2,130 


79.8 


1,678 


76.2 


Opportunity 


51 


1,396 


1,376 


80.7 


1,040 


74.5 




26 


690 


115 


77.9 


550 


79.7 


Special Center 


6 


115 


639 


80.7 


88 


76.5 



There were 2,201 mentally handicapped colored children in 
83 opportunity classes, shop and special centers. Of the physi- 
cally handicapped 79.6 per cent were reported as promoted or 
making satisfactory improvement, and of the mentally handi- 
capped, 76.2 per cent made satisfactory improvement during 
1938-39. (See Table 132.) 



Baltimore City Colored Program; Training of County Colored 193 

Teachers 

Special speech training was given to 317 colored pupils who 
were handicapped by stammering, lisping, lalling, and cleft 
palates, while 47 were taught lip reading. Pupils remained in 
regular classes and were given instruction approximately one- 
half hour twice a week by a teacher of speech correction and 
one of lip reading who went from school to school. 

Twice a week in their homes 55 colored boys and 23 girls too 
handicapped to attend school were given an hour's instruction in 
the minimum essentials of the elementary school curriculum. 

Six Baltimore City schools were open during the summer of 
1938 with a staff of 50 teachers for the instruction of 2,157 
colored pupils. Of these 1,760 took review work and 397 did 
advanced work. (See Table 155, page 233.) 

The Baltimore City adult education program in 1938-39 pro- 
vided for 1,563 taking elementary school work, 1,185 taking 
academic work in secondary schools, 322 in commercial courses, 
852 receiving vocational training in industrial work and home 
economics, including cooking, personal hygiene and textiles, and 
432 who received training in parent education. (See Table 
157, page 235.) 

TRAINING OF COUNTY COLORED TEACHERS 

Of the 658 teachers employed in the county colored ele- 
mentary schools in October 1938, 651 or 98.9 per cent held regular 
certificates of first or higher grade, an increase of .2 per cent 
over corresponding figures for the preceding year. Thirty-two 
of these teachers, an increase of 20, held the Bachelor of Science 
Certificate in Elementary Education, which means graduation 
from a four-year teachers college. The advanced first-grade 
certificate representing three years of normal school training 
was held by 135 teachers, an increase of 72 over the preceding 
year. The remainder held first-grade certificates indicating 
graduation from a two-year normal school or equivalent. There 
were 6 teachers holding second-grade certificates and one sub- 
stitute. Every colored elementary teacher in 18 counties held 
at least a regular first-grade certificate. 

Of 148 county colored high school teachers employed in Octo- 
ber, 1^38, all but two special teachers, holding provisional cer- 
tificates, and three who were substitutes, had regular high 
school certificates. (See Table XIV, page 327.) 



194 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF COLORED TEACHERS 

There were 259 county colored elementary and 56 colored high 
school teachers who were summer school attendants in 1938. 
This was the largest number of county colored teachers ever to 
attend summer school, and is an increase of 19.1 in per cent for 
the elementary and 15.3 in per cent for the high school teachers 
over corresponding figures for 1937. (See Table 133.) In the 



TABLE 133 

Teachers in County Colored Schools Who Were Summer School Attendants 



Summer 


Elementary 


High School 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


1934 




131 


18.4 


37 


36.3 


1935 




173 


24.4 


25 


23.1 


1936 




169 


24.2 


29 


24.8 


1937 




137 


20.3 


30 


22.4 


1938 




259 


39.4 


56 


37.7 



TABLE 134 



County Colored Teachers in Service in October, 1938, Reported by County 
Superintendents and/or Colleges as Summer School Attendants in 1938 





Teachers Employed Oct., 




1938, Who Attended Sum- 




mer School in 1938 


County 










Elementary 


High 






Per 




Per 




No. 


Cent 


No. 


Cent 


Total and Average . . 


259 


39.4 


56 


37.7 


Harford 


16 


64.0 


4 


80.0 


Montgomery 


28 


62.3 


4 


57.1 




14 


63.7 


3 


50.0 




17 


50.0 


5 


41.7 


Anne Arundel 


36 


46.8 


4 


30.8 


Queen Anne's 


10 


45.4 


2 


40.0 


Cecil 


5 


41.7 


2 


50.0 




2 


40.0 


2 


40.0 


Talbot 


9 


39.1 


3 


37.5 




11 


39.3 


2 


33.3 


Caroline 


5 


33.3 


3 


50.0 


Baltimore 


16 


36.4 






Dorchester 


12 


32.4 


4 


36!4 


Kent 


8 


38.1 


1 


20.0 




11 


27.5 


5 


62.5 




5 


31.3 


1 


50.0 


Calvert 


10 


40.0 








13 


32.5 


3 


75^0 




2 


25.0 


1 


50.0 


Worcester 


6 


19.4 


5 


55.6 


Carroll 


3 


37.5 






Prince George's. . . . 


20 


25.0 


2 


13^3 



Summer Schools Attended 



Total 

Morgan College 

Hampton Institute 

Howard University 

Temple University 

Virginia State College 

University of Pennsylvania . . 

Columbia University 

Pennsylvania State College . . 

Stover College 

West Chester State Teachers 

College 

Cornell University 

Ball State Teachers College. . 

Hunter College 

19 other Colleges 



Number of 
County Colored 
Teachers 



Ele- 
mentary 



259 


56 


153 


23 


40 


3 


20 


1 


11 


4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


2 


5 


2 


2 


4 




3 






2 


2 




1 


"i 


13 


6 



Summer School Attendance and Resignations of County 195 
Colored Teachers 

individual counties the percentage of colored elementary teachers 
at summer school in 1938 included from 19 per cent to 64 per 
cent of the teachers employed in 1938-39. (See Table 134.) 

Morgan College attracted the largest number of colored 
teachers from the Maryland counties, having enrolled 153 ele- 
mentary and 23 high school teachers in the summer of 1938. 
Hampton Institute enrolled the next highest group, 40 elemen- 
tary and 3 high school teachers, while Howard University drew 
20 elementary teachers and 1 high school teacher. (See Table 
134.) 

TEACHER TURNOVER IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

County Elementary Schools 

There were 63 resignations from the county colored elementary 
schools from October, 1937, to October, 1938, a decrease of 4 under 
the number reported for the preceding year. These figures ex- 
clude 25 who transferred from one county to another and 3 on 
leave of absence. (See Table 135.) 

TABLE 135 

Causes Reported for Resignations of Colored Teachers from Maryland County 
Elementary and High Schools from October, 1937 to October, 1938, 
with Comparative Figures for Preceding Years 





Elementary School 


High School 


Cause of Resignation 
















Oct. '35- 


Oct. '36- 


Oct. '37- 


Oct. '35- 


Oct. '36- 


Oct. '37- 




Oct. '36 


Oct. '37 


Oct. '38 


Oct. '36 


Oct. '37 


Oct. '38 


Inefficiency 


25 


29 


27 


5 


6 


8 


Voluntary 




7 


14 




6 


1 




'4 


5 


4 


i 




2 


Maternity 




4 


4 








Left to study 


'2 


4 


3 






'2 


Abolished positions 


1 


4 


2 








Death 


2 


3 


2 








Low grade certificate 




2 


2 


i 




'5 


Retirement 


'3 


1 


2 










3 


1 


1 








Supervisory position 






1 


'2 










i 








"i 










'2 




1 




6 


6 




4 






Misconduct in office or immorality . 


2 




i 


2 








8 






1 






Total 


56 


67 


63 


18 


17 


20 




8 


1 


3 




1 






21 


22 


25 


'9 


9 


8 



Inefficiency continued as the chief cause of dismissal of county 
colored elementary teachers, 27 having been dropped for this 
reason. Fourteen teachers resigned voluntarily, 4 resigned be- 
cause of illness, 4 left for maternity, and 3 left to study. (See 
Table 135.) 



196 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



There were 50 new appointments to the county colored ele- 
mentary staffs for 1938-39 who represented 7.5 per cent of the 
total number of teaching positions. These figures exclude 25 
teachers who transferred to other counties. Of the 50 new 
appointments, 40 were inexperienced, 5 had had experience in 
the counties but were out of service the preceding year, 4 had 
taught outside of Maryland, and one was a substitute. (See 
Table 136.) 



TABLE 136 



Number and Per Cent of Colored Elementary School Teachers New to Mary- 
land Counties for School Year 1938-39, Showing Those Inexperienced, Expe- 
rienced and from Other Counties, with Comparisons for Preceding Years 



Yeab 

AND 

County 


New to 
County 


Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 

October 
to 

October 


Number New to Colored Elementary 
Schools Who Were 


dum- 
ber 


r^er 

v^ent 


Inex- 
peri- 
enced 


From 
Another 
County 


Experier 

In ^ 

Counties, 
but not 
Teaching 
Year 
Before 


iced 

But 
New 

to 
State 


Substi- 
tutes 


Total End Averager 


















1930-31 '. . 


°201 


26.4 


+ 5 


154 


32 


32 


11 


4 


1931-32 


°115 


15 4 


—6 


85 


24 


22 


5 


3 


1932-33 


°103 


13.9 


— 7 


78 


13 


16 


6 


3 


1933-34 


°73 


10.2 


14 


48 


25 


12 


8 


5 


1934-35 


°96 


13.2 


+ 8 


74 


13 


20 


1 


1 


1935-36 


°70 


9.7 


—3 


57 


31 


9 


2 


2 




°57 


8.2 


— 9 


39 


32 


12 


5 


1 


1937-38 


047 


6.9 


—23 


35 


21 


7 


1 


4 


1938-39 


°50 


7.5 


—18 


40 


25 


5 


4 


1 


Allegany 






—1 












Carroll 






—3 












Frederick 






—1 














'2 


4^4 






"2 










2 


5.7 


—2 


'2 












1 


6.7 


—2 






i 






Dorchester 


3 


7.9 




"i 


i 






"i 


Talbot 


2 


8.3 




2 












7 


8.6 


+ 3 


4 


i 




'2 






7 


9.0 


+3 


2 


1 


'3 


1 




Queen Anne's 


2 


9.1 


+ 1 


1 


1 








Baltimore 


5 


11.4 


+ 1 


4 


1 








Harford 


3 


12.0 




3 










Charles 


5 


12.5 


—2 


4 


i 










2 


12.5 


—1 


1 


1 








Kent 


3 


13.6 


—1 


1 


2 








St. Mary's 


4 


13.8 


—5 


2 


2 








Cecil 


2 


16.7 


—1 




1 


i 






Somerset 


9 


22.5 


—2 


i 


8 








Calvert 


6 


24.0 




6 










Washington 


2 


25.0 


— i 


1 






"i 






8 


25.8 


—4 


5 


'3 








Baltimore City 


49 


7.9 


+24 


43 


2 


1 


3 




Elem. and Occup, . 


46 


7.7 


+21 


42 


2 


1 


1 




Vocational 


3 


12.0 


+ 3 


1 






2 




Total State 


97 


7.5 


+ 4 


83 


27 


6 


7 


1 



" Total number and per cent new to counties and State as a group exclude transfers from 
other counties 



Teacher Turnover in Colored Elementary and High Schools 197 



In the individual counties the turnover in the colored elemen- 
tary schools varied from none at all in 3 counties to 25 and 26 
per cent in the counties with the highest percentage of turn- 
over. Eleven counties had a higher percentage of turnover 
in 1939 than in 1938. (See Table 136.) 



County High Schools 
TABLE 137 



Number and Per Cent of Colored High School Teachers New to Maryland 
Counties for School Year 1938-39, Showing Those Inexperienced, Experi- 
enced, and from Other Counties, with Comparison for Preceding Years 





New to County 




Number New to Colored High Schools 
Who Were 


Year 






\yn<xii}^xS ill 

Number of 






Experienced 




AND 






Teaching 
















X UoltlUliO 


















October 


Inex- 






In . 










to 


peri- 




But 


Counties 


Substi- 




Num- 


Per 


October 


enced 


From 


New 


But Not 


tutes 




ber 


Cent 






Another 


to 


Teaching 


and 












County 


State 


Year 


Other 














Before 




Total and 




































1 QQn— ^11 


°26 


30.2 


MSI 


22 


1 


3 


1 




1931-32 


°35 


38.5 


+ 9 


28 


1 


5 


2 




1932-33 


°28 


29.5 


+ 3 


21 


1 


1 


6 




1933-34 


°15 


15.8 


+2 


11 


1 


3 




i 


1934-35 


°20 


19.4 


+8 


17 


1 


1 


i 


1 


1935-36 


°25 


22.3 


+ 6 


15 


1 


4 


1 


5 


1936-37 


°28 


23.9 


+ 9 


21 


1 


6 




1 


1937-38 


°38 


27.7 


+ 18 


30 


8 


8 






1938-39 


°35 


23.2 


+ 14 


27 


8 


5 


"2 


"i 


Allegany 


















Carroll 


















Howard 


















Kent 


















Washington 


















Montgomery 


"i 


14]3 


'+i 




i 








Anne Arundel .... 


2 


15.4 




2 










Frederick 


1 


16.7 














Harford 


1 


20.0 




i 










Cecil 


1 


25.0 


'+i 


1 










Prince George's . . 


4 


25.0 


2 








i 


Wicomico 


3 


25.0 




2 


i 










2 


28.6 


'— i 


2 












2 


28.6 


+1 


2 












3 


33.3 




2 


i 










3 


33.3 


■+3 


2 










Talbot 


3 


37.5 


+ 1 


1 


'2 








Queen Anne's. . . . 


2 


40.0 


+ 1 


1 


1 








Charles 


5 


45.5 


+ 4 


4 


1 








Calvert 


4 


66.7 


+2 


3 




'i 






Somerset 


6 


75.0 


+ 1 


2 


*i 


2 


"i 




Baltimore City. . . 


23 


10.6 


+ 19 


14 


2 


2 


5 




Senior High .... 


1 


1.2 








1 






Junior High .... 


22 


16.4 




i4 


'2 


1 


*5 




State 


56 


15.3 


+ 33 


41 


10 


7 


7 


1 



° Total number and per cent new to counties and State as a group exclude transfers from 
other counties. 



198 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



There were 20 resignations from colored 'high schools, 3 more 
than for the preceding year. Of these withdrawals, 8 were dis- 
missed for inefficiency, 5 because they did not meet all certificate 
requirements, 2 left because of illness, 2 to study, one resigned 
voluntarily, one to teach in Baltimore City, and one to do work 
other than teaching. (See Table 135.) 

There were 35 teachers, 23.2 per cent of the teaching staff, 
new to the county colored high schools in 1938-39, compared 
with 38 new appointees who included 27.7 per cent of the staff for 
the preceding year. In the past nine years, partly due to the 
increasing size of the high school staff, the turnover has been 
high, ranging between 20 and 38 in number and between 19 and 
30 in percentage, except in 1933-34. In 16 of the 21 counties 
having a high school for colored pupils, from 1 to 6 colored 
teachers were new to the teaching staffs in 1938-39. (See Table 
137.) 

Turnover in Baltimore City Schools 

The turnover in the Baltimore City colored schools from 1930 
to 1939 is given in detail in Table 138. In 1938-39 the number of 
new appointments in the Baltimore City colored schools included 
46 in the elementary and occupational schools, of whom 42 were 
Inexperienced. Of these new appointments 21 were explained 
by an increase in the number of teaching positions. There 
were 3 new teachers in the vocational schools, and 23 new people 
of whom 14 were inexperienced in the colored junior and senior 
high schools of Baltimore City. Nineteen of the 23 appointees to 
Baltimore City colored high schools filled positions added to care 
for the larger enrollments. (See Table 138.) 

SCHOOLS IN WHICH NEWLY APPOINTED COUNTY COLORED 
TEACHERS RECEIVED THEIR TRAINING 

Of the 44 newly appointed teachers in the county colored ele- 
mentary schools in 1938-39, there were 27 or over 61 per cent 
who were graduates of the three year course at Bowie State 
Teachers College. Of the remaining 39 per cent, 6 graduated 
from Miner Normal School and 3 from Shippensburg State 
Teachers College. (See Table 139.) 

Of the 32 newly appointed county colored high school teachers, 
8 came from Morgan College, 7 were trained at Hampton Insti- 
tute, 4 each at Princess Anne College and Virginia State College, 
and 2 at Howard University. (See Table 139.) 



Turnover of County and City Teachers; Men Teachers 199 
TABLE 138 



Turnover of Colored Teachers in Baltimore City Schools 









Colored Teachers New to Baltimore City Schools 




Total 
Number 
of 


Change 
in 




Who Were Experienced 


Year 


Colored 
Teachers 

New to 
Baltimore 
City 


Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 


Inex- 
peri- 
enced 


From 
Other 
States 


But Not 

in 
Service 
Preceding 
Year 


In 
County 
Preceding 
Year 


In Other 
Type of 

Baltimore 
City 
School 


Other 



Elementary and Ocxupational Schools 



1929-30. . . . 


54 


+ 31 


43 


5 


3 


3 






1930-31. . . . 


44 


+26 


37 


1 


4 


1 




1 


1931-32. . . . 


35 


+22 


25 




5 


3 


'i 


1 


1932-33. . . . 


53 


—20 


27 








25 


1 


1933-34 .... 


18 


+ 32 


12 




6 




* 




1934-35. . . . 


60 


+ 5 


43 




6 


ii 






1935-36 


27 


+20 


23 




4 








1936-37. . . . 


32 


+ 10 


27 




5 








1937-38 


36 


+ 19 


34 








"i 




1938-39.... 


46 


+21 


42 


i 


"i 


2 







Vocational Schools 



1929-30. . . . 


3 


+ 1 








3 






1930-31 


1 
















1931-32 


3 


"+2 




i 






i 




1932-33.... 


1 












1 




1933-34. . . . 


2 


'+i 






i 








1934-35 
















1935-36 


"i 


'+i 




i 










1936-37. . . . 


2 


+1 




1 










1937-38 


1 


+1 














1938-39 


3 


+ 3 




2 











Junior and Senior High Schools 



1929-30 


13 


+ 9 


5 


4 


2 




2 




1930-31 .... 


22 


+ 8 


8 


5 


2 


"i 


5 


"i 


1931-32. . . . 


13 


+ 6 


7 


2 


2 


1 




1 


1932-33.... 


18 


—8 


7 


2 






'9 




1933-34 .... 


5 


+ 10 


2 




'i 


2 


* 




1934-35. . . . 


9 


+4 


5 


2 


2 








1935-36. . . . 


13 


+ 9 


7 


1 


1 


'i 


'3 




1936-37 


9 


+ 7 


8 


1 










1937-38. . . . 


15 


+ 6 


9 


2 


2 




'2 




1938-39 


23 


+ 19 


14 


6 




"i 


1 





* Changes from one type of school to another were not reported. 



MEN TEACHERS IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS 



The counties employed 155 colored men teachers in 1938-39 
who represented 19.1 per cent of the staff. The number of men 
employed has been increasing gradually since 1928, chiefly be- 
cause of the increase in the number of high school positions. Of 
the county colored elementary staff, 12 per cent were men and of 
the colored high school teaching staff, over half were men in 
1939. (See Table X, page 323.) 



200 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 139 

Normal School or College Attended by Inexperienced County Colored School 
Teachers and Those with Previous Experience in Other States Who 
Were New to Maryland Counties During the School Year, 1938-39 



School or College 
Attended 



Total 

Bowie S. T. C, Md 

Miner Normal School, Wash., D.C. . 

Shippensburg S. T. C, Pa 

West Va. State College 

Lowell S. T. C, Mass 

Trenton S. T. C, N. J 

Dover State College, Del 

Agricultural and Technical Col.,N.C. 

Bennett College, N. C 

Unknown 



Newly 
Appointed 
Elementary 

School 
Teachers 



t44 

*27 

3 
*2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



School or College 
Attended 



Total 

Morgan College, Baltimore 

Ham.pton Institute, Va 

Princess Anne College, Md 

Va. State College for Negroes. . 
Howard University, Wash., D.C 

Duquesne University, Pa 

Indiana S. T. C 

Northeastern University, Mass.. 

Talladega, Ala 

Tuskegee Institute, Ala 

Va. Union University 

West Va. State College 



Newly 
Appointed 
High 
School 
Teachers 



* Each asterisk represents one teacher with experience outside the state, 
t Includes 4 teachers with previous experience outside the state. 
° Includes 5 teachers with previous experience outside the state. 



In Baltimore City 186 of the 883 colored teachers or 21 per cent 
of the staff were men. This was an increase of 15 in number 
and of .6 in per cent compared with corresponding figures for 
1938. (See Table X, page 323.) 

SIZE OF CLASS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 
Elementary Schools 

The average class in the county colored elementary schools in- 
cluded 34.9 pupils in 1939 as compared with 33.7 in 1938. In the 
individual counties the average number of pupils belonging per 
teacher varied from approximately 27 pupils in Cecil to 42 in 
Caroline and Baltimore Counties. All but five counties had 
larger classes in the colored elementary schools in 1939 than in 
1938, largely due to consolidation of schools. (See Chai^t 26.) 

In Baltimore City the average number of pupils belonging per 
colored teacher and principal was 35.9, a decrease of 1.1 under the 
corresponding figure for 1938. In eight counties the average 
number of pupils belonging per teacher was higher than it was 
in Baltimore City. The average for the State as a whole was 
35.4 pupils belonging per colored elementary teacher and princi- 
pal. (See Chart 26.) 



Average Size of Class in Colored Elementary Schools 201 



CHART 26 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COLORED ELEvlENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 





1937 


1938 


County Average 


33.3 


33.7 


Caroline 


36.2 


37.0 


Baltimore 


41.6 


42.1 


Calvert 


42.2 


40.2 


Worcester 


31.6 


34.1 


Allegany 


37.5 


35.5 


Wicomico 


35.5 


34.4 


Montgomery 


35.0 


35.6 


Carroll 


30.1 


28.6 


Anne Arundel 


34.8 


35.3 


Howard 


33.2 


32,3 


Frederick 


31.1 


33.9 


Charles 


32.1 


31.5 


Prince George^ s 


34.3 


33.4 


V/ashington 


29.9 


29.3 


Somerset 


31.0 


31.6 


St. Mary's 


29.8 


29.6 


Talbot 


26.4 


32.3 


Dorcliester 


32.7 


32.5 


Harford 


29.4 


30.8 


Kent 


32.8 


31.1 


Queen Anne's 


29.0 


27.2 


Cecil 


23.3 


25.5 


Baltimore City 


37.5 


37.0 


State 


35.2 


35.3 






Excludes 32.1 pupils for junior high and 22.3 pupils for vocationul schools. 



Colored High Schools 

The average number of pupils belonging per county high school 
teacher and principal was 28 in 1939, a decrease of 1.6 under the 
average for 1938, due chiefly to the appointment of additional 
teachers to reduce size of classes and to enrich the program. 
Among the counties the ratio of pupils to teachers ranged from 18 



202 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

in Washington to 37 in Montgomery. In seven counties the num- 
ber of pupils per colored high school teacher was higher in 1939 
than in 1938. Baltimore City had a ratio of 24.7 pupils to each 
principal and teacher in the colored senior high schools. In 13 
counties the ratio of high school pupils to principals and teachers 
was higher than it was in Baltimore City. (See Chart 27.) 



CHART 27 



AVEEIAGE NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COLORED HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER 



County 1937 1938 1939 
Co. Average 30.7 29. G 




Balto. City 30.2 28.3 
State 30.5 29.2 



t Data for senior high schools only. Includes Baltimore County pupils whose tuition is 
paid by the county. 



Pupil-Teacher Ratio in Colored High Schools; Average 203 
Salary per Colored Teacher 



AVERAGE SALARY PER COLORED PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER 

CHART 28 

Average Salary Per County Colored Elementary and High School Teacher 

and Principal 



* 1.000 



» 800 



$ 600 



i 400 



i zoo 



















> 

/ 

/ 


1 
t 

1 
1 

1 

_/ 


— «* , 












/ 

t 

















































































































1925 1321 1331 13^3 1935 ^37 1939 



204 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Salaries in Colored Elementary Schools 

The average salary per colored elementary teacher increased 
by 1101 from $745 in 1938 to $846 in 1939. In 1938 the cuts 
effected by the 1933 and 1935 legislation were restored in full 
and many counties in 1938-39 increased salaries above the State 
minimum. The 1939 average salary was the highest paid in the 
period from 1923 to 1939, exceeding the maximum of $657 paid 
in 1933 before the cuts went into effect. The annual increase 
of teachers having standard professional training of graduation 
from a two- or three-year normal school course and the greater 
stability of the staff shown by the decrease in turnover making 
more teachers eligible for increments due to experience, explains 
the gradual and steady increase from 1923 to 1933, inclusive, 
and part of the increase in 1938 when full restoration of salary 
cuts and increments were made. A number of the counties in- 
creased salaries for colored teachers above the required State 
minimum in 1938-39. (See Table 140 and Chart 28.) 



TABLE 140 



Average Annual Salary Per County Colored Elementary Teacher, 1923-1939 



Year Ending June 30 


Average 
Salary 


Year Ending June 30 


Average 
Salary 


1923 


$513 
532 
546 
563 
586 
602 
621 
635 
643 


1932 


$653 
657 
595 
602 
636 
653 
745 
846 




1933 


1925 


1934 


1926 


1935 




1936 




1937 




1938 


1930 


1939 







In the individual counties the average salary per colored ele- 
mentary teacher and principal varied from $588 to $1,434 and 
$1,450, the latter the highest average salaries ever paid in the 
county colored elementary schools. Six counties paid less than 
$700, five paid between $700 and $799, six between $800 and $999, 
and five counties paid from $1,097 to $1,450. The average salary 
per colored elementary teacher and principal in 1939 was higher 
in every county but one than in 1938, and higher in every county 
than in 1933 before salary cuts went into effect. (See Chart 29.) 

Since salaries of colored teachers are paid on a monthly basis, 
the counties having the highest salaries are for the most part 
those which keep their schools open the longest time. Among the 
eleven counties with the highest average salaries, only three, 
Anne Arundel, Caroline and Queen Anne's had their schools open 
fewer than 180 days. The minimum length of session required 



Average Salary per Colored Elementary Teacher 205 



CHART 29 



AVER/vGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN COLORED ELE.^EI^ITARY SCHOOLS 



County 


1933 


1937 


1938 


Co. Av. $ 657 


$ 653 


^ 745 


■Joatgomery 


641 


742 


1060 


Balti3iore 


1139 


1198 


1328 


Allegaay 


1223 


1286 


1299 


VJashington 


907 


773 


852 


Cecil 


726 


750 


771 


Frederick 


590 


623 


725 


Harford 


703 


692 


731 


Carroll 


587 


577 


658 


A. Arundel 


661 


704 


793 


Caroline 


534 


518 


597 


Q, Anne's 


561 


525 


621 


Kent 


582 


541 


632 


Pr. Geo, 


744 


764 


769 


Talbot 


562 


524 


607 


Howard 


568 


533 


615 


Calvert 


593 


562 


604 


Dorchester 


541 


497 


584 


St. Mary' s 


570 


533 


625 


Charles 


578 


533 


622 


Wicoaico 


586 


563 


614 


Somerset 


539 


501 


584 


Vt'orcester 


559 


507 


581 


3alto.City 1514 


1670 


1715 


State 


1056 


1120 


1207 




t Excludes $2,010 for junior high and $2,008 for vocational teachers. 



for colored schools is 8 months or 160 days ; but 10 counties had 
the colored schools open at least 180 days, the minimum session 
required for the white schools. According to Chapter 552 of the 
laws of 1937, after September, 1939, all colored schools must be 
kept open at least 180 days. 

The average salary per colored elementary teacher and princi- 
pal in Baltimore City in 1939 was $1,749, an increase of $34 
over the average salary paid in 1938. For the State as a whole 
the average salary paid in the colored elementary schools was 
$1,291. (See Chart 29.) 



206 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Colored High School Salaries 

The average salary for county colored high school teachers and 
principals was |997 in 1939, an increase of $92 over 1938, ex- 
plained by increases above the minimum schedule made by some 
of the counties. The 1939 average is the highest ever paid. 
(See Chart 28.) 

CHART 30 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 1933 1937 1938 1939 
Co .Average $ 837 $ 821 $ 905 




Balto.City* 1796 2270 2302 



State 



1197 1303 1357 



These teachers instruct Baltimore County pupils whose tuition is paid by the county. 



Among the counties average salaries varied from §721 to 
§1,599. The length of session affects the salary paid because 
the salary schedule is set up on a monthly basis. In general, 
counties having higher salaries have a longer school year. 



Average Salary per Colored High School Teacher; Cost per 207 
Colored Pupil 

Four counties with the lowest average salaries paid less in 
1939 than in 1938. In one county the average salary per colored 
high school principal and teacher was lower in 1939 than in 1933. 
(See Chart 30 and Table XV, page 328.) 

The average salary paid to a colored senior high school teacher 
and principal in Baltimore City was $2,147, compared with $2,302 
the preceding year. The average salary for 1939 in the State 
as a ^hole was $1,398. (See Chart 30 and Table XV, page 328.) 

COST PER PUPIL IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

Elementary Schools 

The average cost per pupil belonging for current expenses in 
the county colored elementary schools increased from $31.76 in 
1938 to $34.67 in 1939, a gain of $2.91. Among the counties 
costs ranged from $26 to $64. Cecil, which has the smallest 
classes, and Montgomery, Allegany, Baltimore and Washington 
which pay the highest salaries have the highest per pupil costs, 
since these two items are the most significant in determining 
per pupil costs. A comparison of Charts 26 and 29 with Chart 31 
indicates the effect of size of class and average salary on current 
expense costs. In only one county was the cost per colored ele- 
mentary pupil lower in 1939 than in the preceding year. (See 
Chart 31 and Tables 169 and XXVI, pages 254 and 339.) 

In Baltimore City, the average cost per colored elementary 
pupil increased by $4.19 to $61.53 in 1939. The current expense 
cost per colored elementary pupil for the entire State was $48.08. 
(See Chart 31 and Tables 169 andXXVI, pages 254 and 339.) 

High Schools 

In 1939 the average current expense cost per county colored 
high school pupil was $65.68 as against $58.54 for the preceding 
year, an increase of $7.14, due in part to the higher salaries paid 
in 1939, to smaller classes and an enriched program. Current ex- 
pense costs per county colored high school pupil ranged from $40 
to $118. Four counties had lower current expense costs per 
colored high school pupil in 1939 than in 1938. 

The average tuition payment of $119 for 197 Baltimore County 
pupils attending Baltimore City junior and senior high schools 
was an average of $95 per junior and $150 per senior high school 
pupil paid by Baltimore County. This exceeds the average 
current expense cost per senior high school pupil in Baltimore 



208 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 31 



County- 
Co. Average 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN COLORED ELHylENTARY 
SCHOOLS FOR CURRENT EXP£I4SES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



1937 1938 1939 
29 $ 32 




Balti:aore City 55 



Exclude $79 for junior high and $130 for vocational schools 



City — $107 — by $12, the difference being attributed to capital 
outlay and debt service costs. Transportation cost on the average 
$15 additional per Baltimore County student attending high 
school in Baltimore City. (See Chart 32 and Table XXVII, page 
340.) 



Cost per Colored Elementary and High School Pupil 209 



CHART 32 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPEInISES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



Co. 



County 

Average 



1937 
+$ 52 



Baltimore 
Alle gany 
Washington 
Cecil 
Calvert 
Queen Anne's 
Montgomery 
Carroll 
Caroline 
Talbot 

Prince George' s 
Charles 
Frederick 
Howard 
Anne Arundel 
Kant 

Dorchester 
Harford 
V/orcester 
Wicomico 
St. Mary's 
Somerset 



1938 1939 
t$ 59 



t 133 

68 
81 
62 
46 
65 
49 
64 
56 
40 
60 
49 
52 
64 
41 
46 
45 
54 
25 
40 
36 
31 



t 132 
120 
89 



73 IQI 

55 



Baltimore City t95 tl05 
State 64 71 




t Average tuition payment to Baltimore City for 197 Baltimore County pupils attending 
Baltimore City junior and senior high schools, excluded from Baltimore City, shown separately 
for Baltimore County. 



GROWTH IN COUNTY COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

A comparison of enrollment, teaching staff, and salaries in col- 
ored high schools in 1939 with corresponding figures for previous 
years shows the great strides which have been made. In 1939 the 
counties enrolled 4,567 colored high school pupils, for whom 150 
teachers were employed at a salary cost of $150,143 while in 1938 



210 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



be 



li 



Is" 

Mi 

rH 

i 



1=^ 

I 



2 giisliilisisiii^iiSSs 



liigiiiiiii§iiii§iiii 



i iigiiiiil ; :isii iiliii 



4 " 



wmmmwwM 



) «£> C5 ?D m U5 5 



iia • d 1-1 th N ' 



? 



i: 



I ^S; : :^ 



5 ^: 




Growth in Colored High School and Vocational Program 211 



there were 4,334 pupils enrolled, with a staff of 134 teachers, 
costing $121,243 for salaries. In 1925 the 15 counties which 
provided high schools for colored pupils enrolled 862 pupils who 
were taught by 43 teachers receiving $33,587 in salaries. (See 
Table 141.) 

Fifteen counties had more colored high school pupils enrolled 
in 1939 than in the preceding year. Twelve counties reported a 
larger teaching staff in 1939 than in 1938, three reported fewer 
teachers and of the remaining six counties having high schools 
for colored pupils, there was no change in the number of teachers 
employed. All but two counties showed increases over 1938 in the 
total amount of salaries paid colored high school teachers. (See 
Table 141.) 

Baltimore County pupils attending Baltimore City high schools 
are not included in Table 141. 



FEDERAL AID FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN COLORED 

HIGH SCHOOLS 

Reimbursement from the Federal Government amounting to 
$18,162 towards the salaries of day high school instructors of 
vocational education was received by 17 counties in 1939. For 



TABLE 142 

Federal Aid for Vocational Education in Maryland County Colored Day 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1939 



County 


Enrollment and Expenditures from Federal Funds for 


Total 
Federal 


Agriculture 


Vocational 
Home Economics 


Industrial 
Education 
















Aid 




Enroll- 




Enroll- 




Enroll- 








ment 


Aid 


ment 


Aid 


ment 


Aid 




Total Counties: 
















1937-38 


576 


$6,610 


634 


$5,950 


182 


$2,806 


$15,366 


1938-39 


7S9 


7,244 


1,038 


t6,844 


165 


4,074 


18,162 


Allegany 






40 


731 


25 


988 


1,719 


Anne Arundel 






23 


450 


64 


1,728 


2,178 


Calvert 


■ '50 


833 


96 


465 






1,298 




61 


733 


121 


510 






1,243 


Carroll 


40 


300 










300 


Charles 


138 


557 


iie 


693 






1,250 




54 


*417 


26 


360 


' '3i 


'288 


1,065 


Frederick 






20 


t.... 


34 


685 


685 


Howard 


■ "26 


289 


32 


203 






492 


Kent 


75 


720 


105 


520 






1,240 


Montgomery 


108 


708 


138 


1,325 






2,033 


Prince George's 


78 


550 










550 






' 68 


'526 






520 


St. Mary's 


* 46 


*387 


93 


380 






767 


Talbot 


34 


*500 


47 


367 


" "ii 


385 


1,252 


Wicomico 


48 


570 










570 




31 


680 


" '53 


320 






1,000 



* Includes the following amounts for travel : Dorchester, $67 ; St. Mary's, $67 ; Talbot, $127. 
t Reimbursement not given although the offering for 20 Frederick County girls met 
requirements. 



212 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



agriculture, $7,244 from Federal funds were available for 13 
counties with 789 pupils enrolled, an increase of $634, of one 
county, and of 213 pupils over the year preceding. For vocational 
home economics, the Federal reimbursement of $6,844 was $894 
above 1938, the number of counties offering it 13 in 1939 instead 
of 9 in 1938, and the number of pupils enrolled 1,038, more than 
in 1938 by 404. For industrial education $4,074 of Federal funds 
was paid to five counties which enrolled 165 colored high school 
pupils. (See Table 142.) 

TRANSPORTATION OF COLORED PUPILS AT PUBLIC EXPENSE 

The 4,147 county colored elementary pupils transported to 
school by 22 counties in 1939 at public expense represented 17.7 
per cent of the total county colored elementary school enrollment. 

TABLE 143 



Colored Pupils Transported, Public Expenditures for Transportation, and 
Cost Per County Colored Pupil Transported for Year Ending July 31, 1939 



County 


Elementary Schools 


High Schools 


Colored 
Pupils Trans- 
ported at 
Public Expense 


Cost of 
Trans- 


Cost 
per 
Colored 

Pupil 
Trans- 


Colored 
Pupils Trans- 
ported at 
Public Expense 


Cost of 
Trans- 


Cost 
per 
Colored 

Pupil 
Trans- 










portation 








portation 




Number 


Per Cent 




ported 


Number 


Per Cent 


ported 


Total and Average: 
























1937 


1,727 


7 


3 


$32,295 


$18 


70 


2,395 


58 


5 


$42 , 656 


$17.81 


1938 


2,665 


11 


4 


48,590 


18 


31 


2,983 


67 


2 


59,552 


19.90 


1939 


4,147 


17 


7 


67,161 


16 


58 


3,258 


69 


8 


68,743 


21.10 




4 


1 


8 


66 


16 


43 


15 


15 


5 


234 


15.60 


Anne Arundel 


a91 


a3 


2 


916 


14 


55 


221 


50 


3 


7,283 


32.96 




394 


21 


4 


6,165 


15 


65 


cl58 


c84 


9 


c2,922 


C18.49 


Calvert 


211 


19 


9 


2,214 


10 


49 


142 


97 


3 


4,353 


30.66 




424 


65 


7 


7,272 


17 


15 


156 


83 


9 


2,690 


17.24 


Carroll 


151 


46 


9 


2,829 


18 


73 


72 


72 


7 


1,645 


22.84 


Cecil 


85 


25 


4 


2,781 


32 


71 


73 


74 


5 


2,110 


28.90 


Charles 


103 


7 


5 


1,852 


17 


98 


282 


89 


2 


6,637 


23.54 


Dorchester 


216 


17 


8 


4,580 


21 


21 


170 


64 


4 


3,979 


23.40 




217 


28 


1 


4.180 


19 


26 


114 


56 


.4 


3,455 


30.31 


Harford 


74 


9 


6 


1,061 


14 


33 














42 


7 


4 


1,161 


27 


65 


■ 22 


37 


.9 


'609 


27! 66 


Kent 


156 


24 


6 


3,516 


22 


54 


145 


80 


.6 


3,113 


21.47 


Montgomery 


438 


25 


9 


7,300 


16 


67 


248 


88 


.6 


d2 , 596 


dlO.47 


Prince George's. . . 
Queen Anne's 


b74 


b2 


6 


blOO 


bl 


35 


371 


81 


.7 


7,971 


21.49 


132 


23 





2,551 


19 


33 


86 


83 


.5 


2,997 


34.85 




271 


29 


4 


2,654 


9 


79 


212 


94 


.6 


3,597 


16.97 




236 


17 


9 


2,592 


10 


99 


220 


74 


.8 


3,355 


15.25 


Talbot 


216 


27 


3 


3,660 


16 


94 


135 


68 


.2 


2,214 


16.40 


Washington 


29 


12 


2 


1,320 


45 


51 


6 


10 


.5 


570 


95.00 




263 


20 


7 


3,420 


13 


00 


262 


70 


.2 


4,073 


15.55 




320 


26 


8 


4,971 


15 


54 


148 


55 


.2 


2,340 


15.81 



a Includes 28 pupils transported to Bowie Demonstration School at State expense, excluded 
in computing per pupil costs. 

b Includes 74 pupils transported to Bowie Demonstration School towards the cost of which 
the county expended $100, omitted in computing average cost per pupil transported in 22 
counties. 

c Pupils from Baltimore County transported to Baltimore City junior and junior-senior 
high schools at county expense. In addition each pupil paid 10 cents a day. 
d In addition each pupil transported paid $15 per year. 



Transportation of Colored Pupils at Public Expense 213 



The increase of 1939 over 1938 was 1,482 in number of pupils, 
2 in number of counties, and 6.3 in per cent transported. In 
the individual counties, the range in per cent of colored elemen- 
tary pupils transported ran from 1.8 to 65.7 per cent. (See 
Table 143.) 

The public expenditures for transporting county colored pupils 
to elementary schools in 1939 amounted to $67,161, an increase 
of $18,571 over 1938. The cost per colored elementary pupil 
transported, $16.58 in 1939, v^as $1.73 lower than the correspond- 
ing cost in 1938. Costs per colored elementary pupil transported 
in the individual counties varied from approximately $10 to $45. 
(See Table 143.) 

There were 3,258 county colored pupils transported to high 
schools at public expense in 1939, an increase of 275 pupils over 
the number transported the preceding year. These pupils 
represented 69.8 per cent of the total county colored high school 
enrollment, an increase of 2.6 over the corresponding percentage 
of 1938. Among the counties the percentage of colored pupils 
transported at public expense in the 21 counties which provided 
transportation for high school pupils ranged from approximately 
10 per cent in one county to over 97 per cent in another. (See 
Table 143.) 

The cost to the public of transporting pupils to county colored 
high schools was $68,743 in 1939, an increase of $9,191 over the 
corresponding amount spent in 1938. The cost to the public per 
pupil transported to colored high schools averaged $21.10, an 
increase of $1.20 over 1938, with a range from approximately 
$15 in four counties to $95 in another transporting only 6 pupils. 
Each hig'h school pupil transported in Montgomery County paid 
$15 in addition to the county payment of $10.47 and each of the 
158 Baltimore County colored pupils who attended junior and 
senior high schools in Baltimore City at a transportation cost to 
the county of $2,922 or $18.49 per pupil, paid 10 cents per day 
additional toward the cost of transportation. (See Table 143.) 

colored school libraries aided by rosenwald fund 

During the school year 1938-39, the Rosenwald Fund distributed a number 
of sets of library books valued at $36 and $15 to the colored schools of the 
South. There were sets of books for the elementary school libraries, books by 
and about negroes, and stories of many lands. The county or school paid 
two-thirds of the cost for each set, while the Rosenwald Fund paid one-third 
of the cost plus transportation charges. The more expensive sets were 
received by 11 schools in 4 counties, while the less expensive ones went to 15 
schools in 4 counties. Three of these schools purchased more than one set of 
the library books. The list of colored schools which have received libraries 
through the Rosenwald Fund from 1928 to 1939 is given in Table 144. 



214 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 144 

Colored Schools Which Have Received Libraries Through Aid from the 

Rosenwald Fund 



County and School 



Year 
Aid 
Received 



County and School 



Year 
Aid 
Received 



County and School 



Year 
Aid 
Received 



Allegany: 

Cumberland .... 
Anne Arundel: 

Brown's Woods . 

Annapolis El. ... 

Camp Parole . 

Wiley Bates High 

Church ton 

Bristol 

Furnace Branch . . 

Jones 

Galilee 

Queenstown 

Freetown 

Conway 

Eastport 

Galesville 

Baltimore: 

Catonsville 

Shepperd 

Sparrows Point. . . 
Calvert: 

Prince Frederick , 

Mt. Hope 

Caroline: 

Federalsburg 

Lockerman High . 

Ridgely 

Denton 

Jonestown 

Greensboro 

Carroll: 

Westminster 

Robert Moton El. 

Johnsville 

Union Bridge . . . . 

Parrsville 

Cecil: 

Elkton 

Charles: 

Pomonkey 



1937 

1929 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1936 
1936 

1939 
1939 
1939 

1929 
1931 

1928, 1938 

1936 
1936, 1938 

1936 

1938 

1938 

1929, 1937 
1939 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 

1929, 1937 

1929, 1936 



Charles (Cont.) 

Mason Springs. 
Dorchester: 

Cambridge. . . . 

Pine Street 

Frederick: 

Frederick 

Lincoln 

Bentz Street. . . 

Hopeland 

Harford: 

Bel Air 

Havre de Grace 

Kalmia 

Howard: 

Cooksville 

Dorsey 

Ellicott City.. . 

Highland 

Elkridge 

Daisy 

Atholton 

Guilford 

Kent: 

Coleman 

Chestertown . . . 
Montgomery: 

Sandy Spring. . 

Rockville 

Takoma Park. . 

Clarksburg .... 

Cloppers 

Germantown . . . 

Laytonsville . . . 

Martinsburg. . . 

Poolesville 

Scotland 

Spencerville . . . 

Stewardtown . . 
Prince George's: 

Marlboro 

Berwyn 



1938 

1932. 1937 
1936 

1928 
1931, 1936 
1935 
1939 

1928, 1936 
1931 
1935 

1936, 1937 

1938 
1936, 1938 
1936, 1938 
1936, 1938 

1938 

1938 

1938 

1938 

1928 
1930, 1938 

1928 
1929, 1939 
1930 
1939 
1939 
1939 
1939 
1939 
1939 
1939 
1939 
1939 

1928 
1929 



Prince George's 
(Cont.) 

Brentwood 

Highland Park. . 

Meadows 

Queen Anne's: 

Corsica 

Starr 

St. Mary's: 

Abell 

Hollywood 

Mechanicsville . . 

Scotland 

Jarboesville 

Great Mills 

Banneker 

Oakville 

Milestown 

Piney Point. . . . 

Clements 

Fenwick 

Phyllis Wheatley 
Somerset: 

Princess Anne . . . 

Crisfield 

Mt. Vernon 

Dames Quarter . . 

Deal Island 

Kingston 

Talbot: 

Easton 

St. Michael's. . . . 

Matthewstown . . 
Wicomico: 

Sharptown 

Nanticoke 

Salisbury 

Rockawalkin 

Worcester: 

Snow Hill 

Berlin 

Girdletree 



1929 
1929 
1938 

1936 
1936 

1929 

1930 

1935 

1935 
1935, 1936 

1935 
1935, 1936 

1935 

1935 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1937 

1929,1931 
1930, 1935 

1939 

1935 

1939 

1939 

1939 

1928, 1939 
1928, 1939 
1939 

1928 
1929, 1936 
1929, 1931 

1936 

1937 
1938 
1938 



SERVICES OF THE MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSION 
TO THE COLORED SCHOOLS OF MARYLAND, 1938-39 

Three colored teachers in three elementary schools in Harford, Howard and 
Prince George's and one high school teacher in Montgomery borrowed 61 
volumes from the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission in 1938-39. 
The schools paid for transporting the books from and returning them to the 
Library Commission office at 400 Cathedral Street, Baltimore, Maryland. 
Bowie State Teacher's College through its library also borrowed 22 volumes 
from the Commission. 



CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR COLORED SCHOOLS IN 1939 

Capital outlay for county colored schools totaled $171,152 in 
1939, as against $137,683 in 1938, an increase of $33,469. In 1939, 
Frederick invested nearly $49,000, Prince George's over $31,000, 



Libraries; Capital Outlay; Value of School Property per 
Colored Pupil 



215 



Charles and Caroline over $20,000 and Montgomery over $15,000 
in colored schools. It is through capital outlay that buildings 
become available for consolidation of schools. Baltimore City's 
capital outlay of $3,200 for colored schools in 1939 made the total 
for the State as a whole, $174,352. (See Table 180, page 269, and 
Tables XXVI and XXVII, pages, 339 and 340.) 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY USED BY COLORED PUPILS 

CHART 33 



VALUE 01 SCHOOL PROPERTY PER COLORED SCHOOL PDPIL BELONGING 

Cotin-by *1937 tl938 tl939 
Co. Average $ 61 $ 70 



Allegany 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Cecil 

Caroline 

Baltimore 

Harford 

Pr. George* s 

Charles 

Frederi ck 

Montgomery 

Worcester 

Q,ueen Anne*s 

Tal^Dot 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Anne Arundel 

Somerset 

Howard 

Kent 

St. Mary^s 
Calvert 



199 
149 

94 
47 
62 
91 
85 
88 
58 
68 
65 
43 
66 
58 
54 
46 
45 
30 
39 
21 
21 
24 



Baltimore City 256 250 
State 161 164 




* Includes value of equipment in most of the counties, but not in Baltimore City, 
t Includes value of equipment in all the counties, but not in Baltimore City. 



216 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



School property, including sites and equipment, used by county 
colored pupils was valued at $1,911,585 in 1939, an increase of 
$44,197 over corresponding figures for the preceding year. The 
State Supervisor of Colored Schools checked the valuation of 
each county building so that the amounts reported for colored 
schools in individual counties are on a comparable basis. Since 
increase in number belonging kept pace with increase in valuation, 
the average value of school property per county colored pupil 
was $70, the same as in 1938. Nine counties show^ed an increase 
in the valuation of property used by colored pupils. In the indi- 
vidual counties the range in value of school property per colored 
pupil was from $25 to $221. Most of the counties with the lowest 
school property value per pupil were using a number of rented 
buildings, the value of which was not included in the figures 
given. Eight counties showed an increase in value of school prop- 
erty per colored pupil belonging. (See Chart 33 and Table 
184, page 273.) 

School property used by colored pupils in Baltimore City was 
valued at $7,262,333 in 1938 and 1939, but since the number of 
pupils using the buildings increased, the value of property per 
pupil belonging decreased from $250 to $243. For the State as a 
whole the valuation of school property was $161 per colored pupil 
belonging. (See Chart 33 and Table 184, page 273.) 



SIZE OF COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



TABLE 145 

Size of Teaching Staff in Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools, 
Year Ending June 30, 1939 



Num- 
ber 

Teach- 
ers 


Total No. 
Schools 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


1 St. Mary's 


1 Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 


Total . 


392 


2 


38 


19 


18 


5 


6 


9 


30 


27 


14 


17 


11 


16 


25 


43 


17 


19 


23 


17 


3 


17 


16 


*1. . . 


232 


1 


18 


7 


14 




4 


6 


22 


23 


9 


12 


7 


13 


9 


16 


14 


11 


12 


14 


2 


10 


8 


*2. . . 


114 




14 


8 


2 


i 


1 


3 


6 


3 


3 


4 


3 


2 


13 


23 


1 


7 


8 


2 




5 


5 


*3. . . 


22 




4 




1 


3 


1 




2 




1 




1 




2 


2 


2 


1 


1 






1 




*4. . . 


10 






1 


1 


1 










1 






"i 


1 


1 














2 


*5... 


7 


"i 


1 


2 
















i 


















1 




1 


*6.. . 


2 




































1 


1 








*7. . . 


1 






1 








































♦8. . . 


2 


















1 




























*11. . . 


1 










































1 




*14. . . 


1 




1 











































* Indicates that this number of teachers was employed the entire year or part of the year. 



Value of School Property; Size of Colored Elementary 217 

Schools 

Of 392 colored elementary schools in the Maryland counties in 
1938-39, 232 employed one teacher, 114 two teachers, 22 had three 
teachers, 10 four teachers, 7 five teachers, 2 each had six and 
eight, while 3 other schools had seven, eleven, and fourteen 
teachers, respectively. The largest county colored elementary 
school with a teaching staff of 14 was located at Annapolis, while 
the next largest with a staff of 11 teachers was found in Salisbury. 
The number of county colored elementary schools varied from 
2 and 3 in the counties having a small colored population to 38 and 
43 in the counties with the largest colored population. (See Table 
145.) 

There were 33 fewer colored elementary schools in operation 
in 1939 than in the preceding year. There was a decrease of 
39 in the number of one-teacher schools, but an increase in the 
number of larger schools. Thirteen counties reduced the number 
of colored elementary schools. Worcester reduced the number 
by 8, Caroline by 5, St. Mary's by 4, Carroll by 3, four counties 
by 2, and five counties by 1 school each. Caroline is the first 
county to have no one-teacher colored schools. (See Table 145.) 



Decrease in One-Teacher Schools 

During the school year 1938-39 there were 232 county colored 
elementary teachers or 35 per cent of the colored elementary 
staff giving instruction in one-teacher schools. This was a de- 



TABLE 146 



Decrease in Colored One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1939 







Colored Elementary Teachers 




School Year Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 






Total 












Number 


Per Cent 


1920 




683 


422 


61.8 


1921 




694 


408 


58.8 


1922 




708 


406 


57.3 


1923 




712 


403 


56.6 


1924 




728 


395 


54.4 


1925 




721 


397 


55.1 


1926 




728 


394 


54.1 


1927 




725 


382 


52.7 


1928 




734 


378 


51.5 


1929 




734 


372 


50.7 


1930 




733 


363 


49.5 


1931 




739 


353 


47.7 


1932 




727 


344 


47.3 


1933 




718 


334 


46.5 


1934 




708 


331 


46.7 


1935 




714 


318 


44.5 


1936 




709 


309 


43.6 


1937 




697 


293 


42.0 


1938 




677 


271 


40.0 


1939 




658 


232 


35.3 



218 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



crease of 39 under the number of teachers in one-teacher schools 
in 1938 and of 190 under the corresponding number in 1920. 
(See Table 146.) 

In the individual counties the number of colored elementary 
teachers working in one-room schools ranged from to 23, while 
the percentages varied from to 63.6 per cent. The counties 
having a large proportion of pupils in one-teacher schools will 
benefit from a consolidation program. (See Table 147.) 

In the report for the year 1936-37 (see pages 186-187) a state- 
ment and table were included showing 30 colored one-teacher 
schools in fifteen counties classified as unfit for use. The State 
Supervisor of Colored Schools finds that the number of one- 
teacher schools unfit for use in 1938-39 has been reduced to 8, 
of which 3 are in Calvert, and one each in Anne Arundel, Balti- 
more, Charles, Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's Counties. 



NUMBER OF COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

There were 30 county colored high schools in 1939 of which 
28 were first group and 2 were second group schools. Since 
Baltimore County continued its practice of sending its qualified 
colored elementary school graduates to Baltimore City at the 
expense of the county, all of the counties offered high school 
opportunities to their colored population. In 1939 all the colored 
high schools had a four-year curriculum, except two schools 
in Worcester with a two-year course, after which pupils are 
transported to the consolidated four-year school in the county. 
Baltimore City had two junior-senior high schools, one with 
grades 7-12, the other with grades 7-10, and two junior high 
schools with grades 7-9. (See Table 148 and Chart 34.) 



TABLE 147 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers in Colored One-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending June 30, 1939 



County 



County and Average 

Caroline 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 

Anne Arundel 

Worcester 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Somerset 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



Number Per Cent 



232 



County 



35.3 



16.1 
17.2 
20.0 
20.1 
23.4 
25.8 
28.6 
29.4 
30.2 



St. Mary's — 

Howard 

Frederick 

Carroll 

Harford 

Cecil 

Charles 

Calvert 

Talbot 

Kent 

Dorchester. . . 
Queen Anne's 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



Number Per Cent 



11 


39.3 


7 


43.8 


9 


40.9 


4 


46.0 


12 


48.0 


6 


50.0 


22 


55.0 


14 


56.0 


14 


58.3 


13 


61.9 


23 


62.2 


14 


63.6 



Colored One-Teacher Schools and High Schools 



219 




220 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 148 

Number of Approved Colored High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1939 
with Comparisons for Preceding Years 



County 



Total Counties: 

1920 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 
Calvert 



Total 



Group 



n 



*ii 

*12 
*13 
14 
14 
17 
21 
23 
24 
24 
25 
25 
25 
27 
28 

1 
1 
1 



t2 



County 



Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington. . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 

State 



Total 



Group 



t2 



t First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and 
two teachers. They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an 
enrollment of 15, an attendance of 12, and one teacher. They give a two-year course. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2 prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

X Junior high schools with grades 7 to 9, one having grades 7 to 10. 
° Junior-senior high school, grades 7-12. 
For individual schools, see Table XXX, pages 344 to 349. 



SIZE OF COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

The 30 colored high schools employed from 2 to 13 teachers and 
enrolled on the average from 42 to 412 pupils. The largest col- 
ored high school at Annapolis employed 13 teachers for an average 
enrollment of 412, while the next largest at Salisbury had 12 
teachers with 354 belonging on the average. The median county 
colored high school employed 5.3 teachers and enrolled 131 pupils. 
(See Table 149 and Table XXX, pages 344 to 349.) 



THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE COLORED SCHOOLS* 

The 1938-39 physical education program included seasonal 
interschool activities (fall — soccer for boys, fieldball for girls; 
winter — basketball for boys and for girls ; spring — county track 
and field meets and baseball), intramural activities, badge test 
activities, organized recess activities, and general physical educa- 
tion class activities. 



* Prepared by Thomas C. Ferguson, Supervisor of Physical Education and Recreation. 



Number and Size of Colored High Schools; Physical Education 221 



TABLE 149 

Size of Teaching Staff and Size of Enrollment in County Colored High 
Schools for Year Ending June 30, 1939 



Total 




ndel 












rchester 










ery 


orge's 


ne's 


05 






fi 

o 




No. 
High 
Schools 


egany 


ne Aru 


Ivert 


roline 


rroll 


'o 


arles 


jderick 


rford 


ward 


c 


)ntgom 


O 

m 
o 


een An 


*>. 


■nerset 


Ibot 


ishingti 


o 
w 

1 

o 




< 


a 
< 


o 


O 


a 

O 


Q 


O 


o 
Q 




n 


o 

a 










M 


o 
CO 









Number of Schools Distributed by Size of Teaching Staff 



All Schools 


30 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1 


2 


2 


2 
1 


1 

i 


1 


3 
*2 


2 


*5 
3 
5 
7 
2 
5 

1 

1 
1 






















1 










1 


i 


3 




















1 
1 






















1 


1 












1 
1 


i 


1 


5 


1 








1 




1 




1 








1 


6 




1 
















1 






7 


1 






1 




1 








1 


1 














9 




























12 






































1 




13 




1 













































































Number of Schools Distributed by Size of Enrollment 



26- 50. . . 


3 


51- 75. . . 


*3 


76-100. . . 


6 


101-125. . . 


2 


126-150. . . 


6 


151-175. . . 


4 


176-200. . . 


2 


226-250. . . 


1 


251-275. . . 


1 


351-375. . . 


1 


401-425. . . 


1 



* Includes two second group schools in Worcester County. 



There were 5,412 boys and 6,115 girls reported by 20 counties 
who took part in the badge test activities. All the tests were 
given on the school grounds under the supervision of the class- 
room teachers. In this way a child found deficient in parts of a test 
was given additional opportunities to complete the test. Requisi- 
tions for badges were sent to each county superintendent in 
December, March, and May. (See Table 150.) 

The intramural athletic program consists of regularly scheduled 
competitive seasonal sport activities in which all pupils partici- 
pate at least once each week. The emphasis should first be placed 
on the intramural program with the interschool program as an 
outgrowth. The intramural program takes place on the school 
grounds at a regularly scheduled time, before or after school, or 



222 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 150 

Participation of County Colored Pupils in Physical Education Program, 

1938-39 



County 


Badge Tests 


Intramural 
Athletics 


Interschool 
Athletics 


Total Number 

Individual 
Participants* 


rSoys 


Uirls 


JBoys 


Liirls 


rJoys 


Liirls 


xioys 


LrirlS 


t20 Counties, 1937-38 . 


O.Uol 


K con 


^ , ooo 


£i , 0^0 


4 , o^D 




O , oOo 


7 91 y( 


1938-39. 




D , 1 iO 




o , OoU 


O , OOD 


, D4 < 


7 

< , Oi.4 


S 979 


Allegany 


77 


117 


45 


92 






79 


117 


Anne Arundel 


638 


814 


488 


550 


58i 


564 


990 


1,137 




418 


514 


10 


15 


434 


459 


489 


585 


Calvert 


192 


274 






342 


404 


342 


409 


Caroline 


145 


242 


40 




134 


217 


232 


281 


Carroll 


132 


128 


198 


2i6 


158 


182 


198 


210 


Cecil 


119 


128 


62 


36 


131 


136 


167 


162 




182 


219 


60 


158 


130 


143 


321 


409 




496 


550 


121 


110 


456 


436 


626 


617 




316 


327 




66 


247 


300 


376 


399 




291 


297 


258 


285 


284 


260 


384 


387 


Howard 


193 


129 


20 


22 


218 


146 


242 


174 


Kent 


198 


144 


130 


161 


279 


257 


344 


333 




412 


427 


310 


237 


230 


240 


507 


519 


fPrince George's 


















Queen Anne's 


190 


248 


139 


153 


184 


229 


240 


286 


St. Mary's 


391 


441 


496 


538 


428 


431 


509 


549 


















393 


Talbot 


197 


2i2 


88 


158 


255 


343 


293 


Washington 


36 


78 






41 


16 


77 


94 


Wicomico 


420 


470 


553 


576 


446 


501 


626 


739 




369 


356 


189 


213 


358 


383 


472 


472 



* Each boy and girl is included only once. 

t No report submitted from Prince George's and Somerset Counties. 



during school hours, between natural homogeneous groups within 
the school. The participation of pupils as officials and in carry- 
ing on administrative duties helps develop leadership and citizen- 
ship. In 1938-39 there were 3,207 boys and 3,580 girls in 20 
counties who participated in this program. (See Table 150.) 

Closely allied to this program is the play program of the ele- 
mentary schools which the teachers organize and supervise. 

There were 5,336 colored boys and 5,647 girls in 20 counties 
who took part in the interschool program. The champions for 
1938-39 were as follows : 



Game Eastern Shore Western Shore 

Soccer (Boys) Salisbury Pomonkey 

Fieldball (Girls) Kennard Bel Alton 

Basketball (Boys) Cambridge Lakeland 

Basketball (Girls) Cambridge Lakeland 

Track and Field Dorchester St. Mary's 



Physical Education and Health Activities for Colored 223 
Children 

activities of state and county departments of health for 
colored children* 

Colored children are included in the total reported by the health officers 
with regard to physical examinations, immunizations, inspections, and other 
activities for the control of communicable diseases among school and pre- 
school children. (See Table 40, page 66.) 

Health conferences for the examination of children approaching school age 
in preparation for their admission to school, were held in all but three of the 
counties having colored schools, under the joint direction of the Bureau of 
Child Hygiene and the County Departments of Health either in connection 
with the regularly scheduled child health conferences, the "Summer Round 
Up" of pre-school children, or the visits of the Health Trailer. There were 
1,505 colored children examined in comparison with 1,463 in 1938. (See 
Table 40, page 66.) 

A marked improvement was shown in the percentage of children protected 
against diphtheria. Of the total number of colored children examined, 214 or 
14 per cent had not been immunized against diphtheria in 1939 compared with 
274, or 19 per cent in 1938. The showing with respect to vaccination against 
smallpox was less favorable. Protection against smallpox had been neglected 
for 477, or 32 per cent of the total in 1939, in comparison with 319, or 22 per 
cent, in 1938. Clinics for protection against both of these diseases were made 
available by the County Health Officers for all for whom the service had been 
neglected. (See Table 40, page 66.) 

national negro health week* 

Under the leadership of the State, Baltimore City and the County Depart- 
ments of Health, colored communities in every part of the State took an 
active part in the observance of the twenty-fifth anniversary of National Ne- 
gro Health week. The arrangements in each county were under the direction 
of the County health officers and public health nurses, with county superin- 
tendents, teachers, community leaders, ministers, and others interested, 
assisting. 

In accordance vdth the suggested program arranged by the U.S. Public 
Health Service and followed, in general, in the observance in Maryland, each 
day was devoted to some specific health problem, with special reference to the 
place of that problem in the year-round-activities. The activities included 
exercises in the schools and churches, health conferences and clinics, commun- 
ity meetings, general cleanup and sanitation campaigns, and poster contests. 

Certificates of merit — all in class A — for participation in the 1939 Health 
Week activities were awarded by the National Negro Health Week Commit- 
tee to the State and Baltimore City Departments of Health, the Negro Health 
Week Committee of Baltimore City, and the Departments of Health of Caro- 
line, Prince George's, Talbot, Wicomico and Worcester Counties. A Class A 
certificate was also awarded to the Health Club of Wetipquin, Wicomico 
County. The elementary school at Salisbury and the school at Sharptown 
received special mention for posters entered in the poster contest. 

cleanliness and neatness improvement contests* 

In response to the offer of special awards to the two schools showing the 
greatest improvement during a given period, in the personal habits, clean- 
liness, neatness of dress and general appearance of the pupils, and in the 
condition and appearance of the school rooms and school grounds, a cleanliness 



* Data prepared by Gertrudp R. Knipp, under the direction of Dr. Robert H. Riley, Direc- 
tor of State Department of Health. 



224 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

and neatness improvement contest was held in the colored elementary schools 
of St. Mary's County, during the spring term, following Negro Health Week. 
The contest was held under the joint direction of the County Superintendent 
of Schools and the County Health officer. On their recommendation, on the 
basis of day by day scores kept by the teachers and before and after inspec- 
tions by the health officer, first and second places were assigned to the public 
schools at Patuxent Beach and White Marsh. Each was awarded a framed 
portrait of Dr. George W. Carver, the distinguished Negro scientist. The 
prizes were the gift of Dr. H. Maceo Williams, of Baltimore City. 

The plan of holding cleanliness and neatness improvement contests as a 
follow-up or in connection wth Negro Health Week was started in 1931 with 
St. Mary's and Dorchester Counties as the first contestants. Since then sim- 
ilar contests have been held in Queen Anne's, Talbot, Caroline, Somerset, 
Anne Arundel, Worcester, and other counties. The 1939 contest was the second 
held in St Mary's County. 

PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

In 1939 there were 358 active parent-teacher organizations in 
89.7 per cent of the county colored schools. This was a decrease 
of 33 in the number of organizations due to school consolidation, 
but an increase of .2 in per cent, compared with 1938. Seven 
counties, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Caroline, Kent, Queen Anne's, 
Somerset and Talbot, reported a parent-teacher association in 
every school. On the other hand, there were no P. T. A.'s in 
Allegany and Washington Counties and they were found in fewer 
than half of the colored schools of Frederick. Five counties 
organized additional parent-teacher associations in the colored 
schools in 1939 over the number shown in 1938. Because such 
groups if properly guided can assist in improving conditions for 
children through the co-operation of parents and teachers, their 
functioning should be encouraged by teachers, supervisory and 
administrative officials. (See Chart 35.) 

During 1938-39 according to reports from teachers summarized 
by county superintendents, the parents of 10,709 county pupils or 
37.4 per cent of all colored pupils, visited the county schools to 
consult with teachers regarding the progress of their children or 
to acquire at first hand a knowledge of school problems and 
classroom instruction. The value of these contacts between the 
school and the home may be inestimable in giving both the teacher 
and the parent a better understanding of the problems which each 
must face. Not only did the parents visit the schools but teachers 
reported that they visited the homes of 12,918 or 45.1 per cent 
of their pupils. 

RECEIPTS OF AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN COUNTY 

FUNDS 

The twelve counties which reported receipts of colored schools 
from other than public funds showed gross collections of $15,732. 
Of this amount 20.4 per cent represented contributions from 
P. T. A.'s. 16.8 per cent were payments by parents toward high 
school transportation, and 13.0 per cent was derived from sales. 



Colored P.T.A.'s; Other than Public Funds for School 225 
Purposes 



CHART 35 



PARS^T-TMCHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS, 1938 and 1939 



County- 
Total and 
Co. Average 

A, Arundel 
Baltimore 
Caroline 
Kent 

Q. Anne*s 
Somerset 
Talbot 
Pr. George' 
Charles 
St. Mary»s 
Dorchester 
Cecil 
Harford 
Wicomico 
Mont goraery 
Calvert 
Hovrard 
Worcester 
Carroll 
Frederick 
Allegany- 
Washington 



Nuraber 



Per Cent 







1 Q'V? 

X JOO 


391 


358 


89.5 


40 


39 


100.0 


21 


19 


100 . 


10 


5 


100.0 


16 


16 


94.1 


17 


18 


94.4 


25 


23 


100.0 


16 


17 


94.1 


s 44 


43 


97.8 


28 


29 


93.3 


25 


18 


100.0 


28 


25 


100.0 


6 


8 


66.7 


18 


15 


90.0 


17 


15 


89.5 


24 


22 


92.4 


16 


16 


84.2 


11 


9 


84.6 


20 


12 


83.3 


4 


3 


44.4 


4 


6 


25.0 


1 




50.0 




Collections from dues represented 2.7 per cent and 2.4 per cent 
was received through athletics. Expenses amounting to $3,743 
reduced the net receipts to $11,989. (See Table XXVIII, page 
341.) 

Of the net receipts the largest proportion, 24.3 per cent was 
expended for transportation of high school pupils. Montgomery 
County required a payment of $15 per year for transportation of 
each high school pupil. In addition, 11.0 per cent was spent for 
physical education, 8.8 per cent for buildings and grounds, and 
8.5 per cent for social affairs and trips. The amounts expended 
in the individual counties reporting varied from $82 to $2,644. 
(See Table XXVIII, page 341.) 



226 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



BOWIE STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE 
Enrollment 

There were 177 students enrolled at the Bowie State Teachers 
College during the school year 1938-39, an increase of 39 over 
1937-38. In the fall of 1939 the enrollment was 131, of whom 39 
were freshmen, 59 sophomores, and 33 seniors. The 1939 fall 
enrollment included 96 women and 35 men. The freshmen and 
sophomores were enrolled for a four-year course, while the seniors 
were completing the last year of a three-year normal school 
course. (See Table 151.) 

TABLE 151 



Enrollment and Graduates, Bowie State Teachers College 



Year 


Total 


Freshmen 


Sophomores 


Juniors 


Seniors 


Graduates 






















Ending 


Enroll- 


c 




c 




c 








c 




June 30 


ment 


0) 

S 




s 


s 


s 


c 


0) 

B 


a 


<D 

s 


a 






o 




O 




o 




o 




o 


0) 
























% 


1924 


11 










7 


4 










1925 


23 










7 


6 


5 


5 


5 


5 




36 










16 


8 


6 


6 


6 


5 


1927 


81 










43 


15 


15 


8 


12 


8 


1928 


104 










34 


16 


41 


13 


38 


11 


1929 


128 










57 


19 


35 


17 


28 


16 


1930 


120 










34 


13 


56 


17 


45 


14 


1931 


109 










44 


11 


39 


15 


30 


12 


1932 


106 










34 


16 


43 


13 


41 


11 


1933 


122 










44 


26 


33 


19 


30 


19 


1934 


99 










29 


8 


39 


23 


36 


19 


1935 


100 


42 


9 






1 


1 


28 


19 


a27 


bl7 


1936 


96 


28 


9 






31 


7 


12 


9 


ctl2 


ct9 


1937 


116 


34 


12 






25 


7 


29 


9 


t28 


t9 


1938 


138 


49 


14 






32 


8 


27 


8 


t25 


t8 


1939 


177 


*59 


*25 






39 


11 


37 


6 


dt33 


t6 


Fall of 1939 


131 


*30 


*9 


*4o 


*i9 






26 


7 







a Includes 3 who completed the three-year course, two of whom had completed the two- 
year course in 1934. 

b Includes 9 who completed the three-year course who had completed the two-year course 
in 1934. 

t Completed the three-year course. 

c All except three had previously completed the two-year course, 
d Includes two who had previously completed the two-year course. 

* For the freshmen who entered in the fall of 1938 and 1939 there will be a four-year 
college course. 

Results of State-wide tests given county high school seniors for 
the past three years have been available to aid in the selection 
of entrants to Bowie. As a further check a battery of tests has 
been given all those seeking to enter Bowie. The State Board 
of Education on October 14, 1938, passed the following resolution 
with regard to the admission of freshmen to the State Teachers 
College at Bowie : 

Until further notice the State Superintendent of Schools is hereby 
authorized by the State Board of Education to admit to the State 
Teachers College at Bowie, from among the applicants who stand highest 
in the entrance tests, not more than sixty freshmen, of whom not more 
than one-third shall be boys. 



Bowie State Teachers College Students and Faculty 227 



Graduates 

In 1939 there were 39 graduates of the three-year normal school 
course in addition to one special student. Teaching positions in 
the Maryland counties were secured by 24, and of these 14 were 
appointed to positions in their home counties. Of the remaining 
15 who failed to secure teaching positions, 11 were women and 4 
were men. (See Table 152.) 

TABLE 152 



Home and Teaching County of 1939 Graduatesf of Bowie State Teachers 

College 



County 


Home 
County 


Teaching 
County 


County 


Home 
County 


Teaching 
County 


Women 


Men 


Women 


Men 


Women 


Men 


Women 


Men 


Total Counties . . . 


n31 


o6 


23 


2 


Charles 


*1 


kl 
















Kent 


bl 




di 




Prince George's . . 


*4 


n 


a4 




Baltimore 


*1 








Anne Arundel .... 


*4 




3 




Calvert 


*1 








Talbot 


**4 




2 






ml 










a3 




2 






hi 












bc2 


'i 






fgh3 






d3 


2 




*i 








g*2 






ki 


Montgomery 


*i 






Washington 


c*2 


















Carroll 


1 




e2 




Baltimore City. . 


ef*3 








Caroline 


tl 




mt2 


















Entire State .... 


n*34 


o6 


23 


2 



* Each asterisk represents one graduate not teaching. 

t Includes one special student who is not a graduate of the three-year course. 

a Includes one graduate for St. Mary's teaching in Prince George's. 

b Includes one graduate from Kent teaching in Wicomico. 

c Includes one graduate from Washington teaching in Wicomico. 

d Includes one graduate from Worcester teaching in Kent. 

e Includes one graduate from Baltimore City teaching in Carroll. 

f Includes one graduate from Baltimore City teaching in Howard. 

g Includes one graduate from Dorchester teaching in Howard. 

h Includes one graduate from Harford teaching in Howard. 

k Includes one graduate from Charles teaching in Dorchester. 

m Includes one graduate from Frederick teaching in Caroline. 

n Includes 10 graduates not teaching. 

o Includes 4 graduates not teaching. 



Faculty and Practice Centers 

During 1938-39 the professional and office staff of the Bowie 
State Teachers College included 18 persons — the president, 8 
instructors on full-time and one on part-time, 3 teachers in the 
demonstration school, a librarian, a financial secretary, a regis- 
trar, a typist, and a dietitian. There were five two-teacher and 
two one-teacher schools in which the student teachers did their 
practice work. 

Cost Per Student 

Current expenses at the Bowie State Teachers College for 1939 
totaled $62,911, of which $36,418 w^as spent for instruction and 
$26,493 for the dormitory. This was an increase of $3,322 over 



228 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



the expenditures for 1938, due to the employment of an additional 
part-time instructor to take care of increased enrollment and 
higher operation costs resulting from the enlarged floor space 
available in the new buildings. (See Table 153.) 

TABLE 153 

Cost Per Student at Bowie State Teachers College, 1938-39 

EXPENDITURES 

Instruction Residence 

Administration : 

Salaries and Wages $2 , 603 .33 $3 , 052 . 02 

other than Salaries 881.31 367.44 

Instruction: 

Salaries dl6,799.67 

other than Salaries ad5,010.00 .... 

Operation and Maintenance: 

Salaries and Wages d4,029.63 ab7,415.79 

other than Salaries d7,093.60 a7,012.15 

Food .... c8,645.65 

Total Current Expenses ad$36 , 417 . 54 abc$26 , 493 . 05 

RECEIPTS 

From Students: 

Board and Lodging $17,419.80 

Service Rendered (Work Credit) 96.04 

Contingent Fees $781.74 

Health Fees 744.85 

Athletic Fees 5.00 

Registration Fees 22.00 

Totals from Students a$l,553.59 a$17, 515.84 

From State for Current Expenses 34 , 863 . 95 8 , 977 . 21 

COST PER STUDENT 

Average Number of Students 158 153 

Average Total Cost per Student d$230.49 $173.16 

Average Payment per Student 9.83 1 14 . 48 

Average Cost to State per Student d220 .66 58 . 67 

Total Cost to State per Resident Student $279 . 33 

a Excludes special deposits part of which were used to purchase books to start a library for 
each student. 

b Excludes $295.68 for laundry service rendered faculty and students, but includes $96.04 
estimated value of service rendered by students during year. 

c Excludes $248.98 for food and service rendered faculty and students and paid for by them. 

d Includes charge against college students of entire cost of instructing 102 pupils in the 
campus demonstration school. 



The State Board of Education decreased the fees for a resident 
student for the year 1938-39 from $135 to $110. The 1938-39 
receipts from students including $96 for services rendered totaled 
$19,069, which was slightly less than corresponding receipts for 
1937-38, but the number of students was 35 larger in the later 
year. The receipts from the State for current expenses were 
$43,841 in 1938-39 compared with $40,315 in 1937-38. (See Table 
153.) 

In 1938-39 the total cost of instructing a student at Bowie was 
$231, of which $10 was paid by the student and $221 by the State. 
This was a decrease of $32 under 1938, of which $7 benefited the 



Financing Bowie State Teachers College; Coppin Teachers 229 

College 

student and $25 the State. Of the average total enrollment of 158, 
all but 5 were resident students. The total expenditure for board 
and room per resident student amounted to $173. Since each resi- 
dent student paid an average of $114 in fees or service for room 
and board, etc., the cost to the State per student for these purposes 
was $59. The combined cost to the State for instruction and 
dormitory expenses amounted to $279 per student in 1939, a de- 
crease of $42 under the corresponding amount in 1938. (See 
Table 153.) 

Fifty-three students at the Bowie State Teachers College re- 
ceived $1,415 from Federal appropriations made available to 
them through the National Youth Administration, an average of 
$26.69 per student. In return these students gave service to the 
school. 

Inventory 

The inventory of the property of the Bowie State Teachers 
College as of September 30, 1939, totaling $521,840 was distri- 
buted as follows: Land, $14,908; buildings, $433,791; equipment 
and other, including motor vehicles, $73,141. 

COPPIN TEACHERS COLLEGE 

In order to keep the professional training of grade teachers 
for the colored elementary schools up to high standards, the 
Coppin Teachers College, by order of the Baltimore City Board 
of School Commissioners, introduced a four-year curriculum on 
September 1, 1938. The State Board of Education has authorized 
the Board of School Commissioners to award the degree of Bache- 
lor of Science to the graduates of this curriculum beginning in 
June, 1942. 

During 1938-39 there were 44 men and 120 women enrolled at 
the Coppin Teachers College. The average net roll of 151 students 
was a decrease of 9 under that for the preceding year. Fifteen 
men and 37 women were graduated from the three-year course. 
The faculty consisted of the principal and 4 assistants. The 
current expenses for the school amounted to $21,584 making the 
average instruction cost $143 per student belonging. 

The Federal Government through the National Youth Admini- 
stration made available $2,175 to 41 students at Coppin Teachers 
College in return for services rendered, an average of $53.49 per 
student. 

SUPERVISION OF COLORED SCHOOLS 

The State Supervisor of Colored Schools spends most of his 
time in the field visiting schools with the county supervisors of 
colored schools and working with the colored high school princi- 
pals and teachers. 



230 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

At the conference held for colored supervisors in August, 1938, 
the following subjects were discussed : a remedial reading pro- 
gram following the State-wide testing; supervisory help in analyz- 
ing difficulties and helping teachers to appraise their methods 
objectively; helping teachers to improve their scholarship and 
cultural background ; measuring the progress of schools as shown 
in the annual report; use of the school library as an educative 
agency ; use of summer school attendance to improve supervision ; 
helping teachers to realize the educative value of each subject and 
to keep them from overemphasizing any one subject; supervisory 
assistance to the State Teachers College at Bowie in improving 
its graduates; qualities desired in candidates for teaching posi- 
tions; teaching teachers to clinch subject matter; standards with 
respect to teachers, pupils, buildings and grounds, and com- 
munities by which supervision may be judged. 

Two conferences were held with high school principals at which 
problems of late entrance and absence of pupils, needs of new 
entrants, reporting progress of pupils and checking up on lag- 
gards, suiting the curriculum to the needs of pupils, testing, 
the marking system, supervision by the principal, relations with 
patrons, guidance, and relations between high and elementary 
schools were discussed. 

At conferences with high school teachers procedures for help- 
ing pupils improve their reading, for giving pupils guidance, for 
learning more of the home and community background of pupils, 
for promoting the use of the library, for desirable changes in cur- 
riculum, for improving the scholarship of graduates, and for 
improving teaching techniques were presented and considered. 

The State Supervisor of Colored Schools visited the Bowie State 
Teachers College during the year to study the quality of instruc- 
tion and to confer with both faculty and students. He also 
continued to advise principals and teachers to direct to Bowie 
only those high school graduates who have maintained high 
scholarship records and who have the personal qualities necessary 
for a good teacher. Some of his time at the office is spent in 
interviewing prospective county teachers in order to make sug- 
gestions regarding desirable colored teachers to the county super- 
intendents. The salary and travel expense of the State Super- 
visor of Colored Schools, except for $250, are paid by the General 
Education Board. 

Each of 13 counties received $750 from the State as reimburse- 
ment toward the salary of a full-time colored supervisor. Two 
counties which consolidated so that the number of colored schools 
was under ten, and which employed part-time colored supervisors, 
were no longer eligible to the State reimbursement of $750 for 



State and County Supervision of Colored Schools; Physical 231 
Education 

supervision. Ten of the colored supervisors employed were men 
and five were women. In five counties the supervisor devoted 
some time to high school instruction in industrial arts, home 
economics, mathematics, and the social studies. The attendance 
officers in Cecil, Howard, Queen Anne's, and Somerset spent part 
of their time in supervising colored schools, the Assistant Super- 
intendent of Schools in Baltimore County had the supervision of 
colored schools as part of his duties, and in Anne Arundel and 
Wicomico the attendance officers gave attention to the colored 
school program, although these counties employed colored super- 
visors. 

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN MARYLAND COUNTY SCHOOLS* 

The 1938-39 physical education program included seasonal 
interschool activities (fall — soccer for boys, fieldball for girls; 
winter — basketball for boys and for girls ; spring — county track 
and field meets and baseball) , intramural activities, badge test 
activities, organized recess activities, and general physical educa- 
tion class activities. 

The seasonal program was again in the charge of the county 
games committees. The members of each of these county commit- 
tees were appointed by the county superintendent of schools or 
elected by the county teachers' association, the county superinten- 
dent and the State Supervisor of Physical Education and Recrea- 
tion being ex-officio members. Membership in so far as possible 
was limited to representatives of the following types of schools in 
each county: high schools, graded schools having six or more 
teachers, small graded schools having three to five teachers, two- 
teacher schools, and one-teacher schools. Frequent meetings of 
these committees were held to acquaint each member with the scope 
of and duties for the various programs. These committees obtain- 
ed officials and equipment, marked the field, and performed other 
administrative duties in such a fine way that more interest and 
co-operation by pupils and county people were aroused, which in 
turn made many feel that these programs were definitely county 
programs. As a result, many teachers and former pupils actually 
participated by officiating in game, track, and field activities. 

In 1938-39, there were 30,928 boys and 32,274 white girls who 
participated in the badge test program. All the tests were given 
at the school grounds under the supervision of the classroom 
teachers. In this way, a child found deficient in parts of a test was 
given additional opportunities to complete the test. Three times 
during the year requisitions for the badges were made to the 
county office and a county summary was forwarded to the office 
of the State Department of Education. (See Table 154.) 



Statement prepared by Thomas C. Ferguson, State Supervisor of Physical Education. 



232 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 154 



Participation of County White Pupils in Physical Education Program, 1938-39 



County 


Badge Tests 


Intramural 
Athletics 


Interschool 
Athletics 


Total Number 

Individual 
Participants* 


oy 


Girls 


oys 


Girls 


■n 

oys 


Girls 


"R 

oy 


Girls 


Total Counties, 


















1937-38 


28,605 


30,209 


24,366 


22 , 926 


19,123 


17,871 


38,329 


38,264 


1938-39 


30^928 


32^274 


26,009 


25 027 


21 ^280 


20^897 


40^477 


40 ', 502 


Allegany 


4,622 


4, 545 


2,668 


2, 181 


2,487 


2,417 


5,162 


4,886 


Anne Arundel 


1 710 


1689 


1 ' 632 


1 ' 592 


1 370 


1 236 


2 ,' 576 


2,462 


Baltimore 


5;472 


51486 


4^247 


4^780 


2^236 


2461 


6)255 


6)406 




148 


210 






220 


345 


220 


358 




597 


698 


735 


'7i9 


584 


703 


852 


862 


Carroll 


1,707 


1,752 


2,225 


2,148 


1,245 


1,448 


2,449 


2,466 




733 


926 


846 


775 


909 


919 


1,169 


1,193 


Charles 


352 


342 


425 


402 


160 


234 


530 


584 




845 


923 


612 


597 


637 


692 


1,079 


1,165 




2,177 


2,350 


1,697 


1,471 


1,864 


1,763 


2,969 


3,066 




1,154 


1,187 


550 


478 


625 


685 


1,385 


1,353 


Harford 


1,124 


1,208 


643 


558 


672 


641 


1,315 


1,323 


Howard 


780 


899 


385 


396 


683 


647 


831 


946 


Kent 


255 


402 


130 


128 


453 


447 


513 


512 




2,345 


2,363 


2,384 


2,228 


1,680 


1,535 


3,285 


3,235 


Prince George's 


1,420 


1,342 


606 


560 


336 


273 


1,645 


1,421 




546 


630 


551 


623 


478 


585 


739 


812 




415 


434 


571 


537 


460 


428 


597 


552 




230 


237 


493 


483 


281 


292 


512 


501 


Talbot 


363 


359 


457 


401 


404 


471 


571 


583 




2,528 


2,840 


2,393 


2,301 


2,027 


1,491 


3,611 


3,637 




716 


758 


1,009 


954 


923 


966 


1,360 


1,325 




689 


694 


750 


715 


546 


518 


852 


854 



* Each boy and girl is included only once. 



The intramural athletic program consists of regularly scheduled 
competitive seasonal sports activities, in which all the pupils 
participate at least once each week. The emphasis should first be 
placed on the intramural program with the interschool program 
as an outgrowth. This intramural program takes place on the 
school grounds at a regularly scheduled time, before or after 
school, or during school hours, between natural homogeneous 
groups within the school. The participation of pupils as officials 
develops leadership and citizenship. Closely allied is the play 
program of the elementary school which the teachers organize 
and supervise. In 1938-39 there were 26,009 boys and 25,027 
girls who participated in the intramural program. (See Table 
154.) 

In the past at the county meet each school in the county has 
had one team representing it and a summary score showing the 
standing of each school has been computed. In 1937-38 five 
counties and in 1938-39 nineteen counties did not compute the 
summary scores for schools, but instead permitted participation 
by as many teams or entrants as were eligible in games, track 
and field activities. This policy encourages the many to partici- 
pate, rather than to have the many watch a few participate. 



The Physical Education Program; Baltimore City Summer 233 

Schools 



In 1938-39 there were 21,280 boys and 20,897 girls who took 
part in the interschool program. (See Table 154.) The champi- 
ons for 1938-39 were as follows : 



Activity 
Soccer (Boys) 
Fieldball (Girls) 
Basketball (Boys) 
Basketball (Girls) 
Track and Field 

(Boys and Girls) 



Eastern Shore 
North East 
Rock Hall 
Cambridge 
Cambridge 



Western Shore 
Lackey 
Frederick 
Fort Hill 
Central 



Dorchester County Anne Arundel County 



Regional conferences of the teachers of physical education and 
of other teachers and of county superintendents were held at 
Cumberland, Frederick, and Hyattsville. Dr. N. P. Neilson, 
Executive Secretary of the American Association for Health, 
Physical Education, and Recreation, was the speaker at each of 
these conferences. 

For data on physical education for colored pupils, see pages 
220-222. 

BALTIMORE CITY SUMMER SCHOOLS 

TABLE 155 
Baltimore City Summer Schools, 1938 



Type of 
School 



No. 

of 

Schools 



Total 
Enrollment 



Boys 



Girls 



Net Roll at End of Term 



Total 



Taking 



Review 
Work 



Advance 
Work 



Per Cent of Net 

Roll Recom- 
mended for Pro- 
motion Taking 



Review 
Work 



Advance 
Work 



No. of 
Teachers 



White Schools: 
Secondary: 

Senior 

Junior 

Elementary 

Demonstration . . . 

Total White. 

Colored Schools: 
Secondary: 

Senior 

Junior 

Elementary 

Demonstration . . . 

Total Colored 

All Schools 

1938 

1937 

1936 

1935 

1934 

1932 

1931 

1930 



1,081 
473 
629 
120 



801 
372 
544 
214 



1,747 
765 
849 
304 



1,655 
719 
783 



92 
46 
66 
304 



91.1 
93.6 
93.7 



98.2 
98.5 
98.7 
100.0 



2,303 



80 
148 
650 
118 



1,931 



151 
200 
823 
245 



3,665 



208 
308 
1,311 
330 



3,157 



192 
283 
1,285 



508 



16 
25 
26 
330 



95.2 
93.1 
86.7 



94.5 
100.0 
100.0 

99.4 



3,299 
2,905 
3,400 
4,150 
3,728 

3,644 
4,399 
3,865 



1,419 



3,350 
2,948 
3,028 
3,929 
3,472 

3,263 
4,088 
3,798 



2,157 



5,822 
5,142 
5,544 
7,015 
6,139 

6,081 
7,192 
6.504 



1,760 



4,917 
4,290 
4,963 
6,304 
5,324 

5,393 
6,354 
5,592 



397 



905 
852 
581 
711 
815 

688 
838 
912 



78 



50 



128 
121 
122 
128 
120 

107 
154 
145 



234 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

For eight weeks during the summer of 1938 elementary, junior 
and senior high school instruction was made available in 14 
Baltimore City school buildings. The total enrollment of 6,649 
pupils included 1,004 who were candidates for advanced standing 
and 5,645 who attended to make up subjects in which they had 
failed. The summer schools certified for successful achievement 
694 of the former group and 4,685 of the latter group. (See Table 
155.) 

Senior high schools had the largest summer school enrollment 
of white pupils, while elementary schools had the largest summer 
school enrollment of colored pupils. 

The enrollment at the end of the term taking review work 
was higher by 627 than for 1937, but lower than in any years 
summer schools have been open from 1930 to 1936. On the 
other hand, only in one year, 1930, was the number taking 
advance work higher than it was in 1938. 

The expenditure for 1938 summer school work, $24,550 was 
greater than the amount expended in any year since 1931. It 
will be noted that the number of teachers in the 1938 summer 
schools, 78 white and 50 colored, was exceeded in the years 1930 
and 1931. (See Tables 155 and 156.) 

TABLE 156 



Expenditures for Baltimore City Summer Schools in 1938 



Type of School 


White 


Colored 


Total 


Elementary , . . 




$6,527.77 


$6,529.32 


$13,057.09 






2,765.62 


877.50 


3,643.12 


Senior High . . . 




6,190.70 


1,659.53 


7,850.23 


Total, 


1938 


$15,484.09 


$9,066.35 


$24,550.44 


Total, 


1937 


15,163.40 


7,806.46 


22,969.86 



THE ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM IN BALTIMORE CITY 

In 1938-39 with an average net roll of 9,258, there were 
increases over the preceding year in every phase of the Baltimore 
City education program for white adults. The largest increases 
over the preceding year were found in commercial work, parent 
education, industrial training and in Americanization. (See 
Table 157.) 

With an average net roll of 3,900 colored adults, there were 
larger enrollments in 1938-39 than in the preceding year, except 
for parent education. 

There were 287 white and 97 colored teachers on the average 
employed for the night school classes in 1938-39, an increase of 
35 white and 3 colored teachers over 1937-38. 



Baltimore City Summer and Night Schools 



235 



TABLE 157 
Baltimore City Adult Education 



Enrollment 



Type of Work 


White 


Colored 


Nights in 
Session 


















1939 


1938 


1932 


1939 


1938 


1932 


1938-39 




1,337 


1,016 


1,215 








72 


Academic: 


















318 


199 


583 


1,563 


1,354 


1,461 


72 




3,177 


3,011 


3,181 


1,185 


831 


540 


96* 




3,143 


2,184 


2,704 


322 


269 


350 


82 


Vocational: 
















Industrial 


1,863 


1,656 


2,418 


393 


359 


376 


48 


Home Economics 


537 


468 


736 


459 


406 


576 


48 




2,321 


1,801 




432 


533 






Industrial Training 


1,010 


539 












Average Net Roll 


9,258 


7,160 


7,310 


3,900 


3,109 


2,815 






7,253 


5,576 


5,920 


3,132 


2,467 


2,359 






78.4 


77.9 


80.8 


80.3 


79.4 


83.4 






287 


252 


268 


97 


94 


74 





* Junior high 82 nights. 



There were 329 Baltimore City night school students who 
graduated from high school, a larger number than in any previous 
year, except 1933 and 1935. The number who completed a three- 
or four-year vocational course was 187, which showed lower 
figures only in 1929, 1931, 1936 and 1937. The number completing 
from 2 to 10 units of vocational work, 1,753, was larger than for 
any preceding year, except 1938, while the number who completed 
only one unit of work was larger than in any preceding years, 
except 1931, 1936 and 1937. (See Table 158.) 



TABLE 158 

Number of Baltimore City Night School Students Completing Definite 

Courses or Units 









Completion of 




High 


Vocational 






Year 


School 


3 or 4 Year 








Graduation 


Course 


2-10 Units 


One Unit 


1929 


175 


92 


1,341 


323 


1930 


203 


188 


1,627 


577 


1931 


237 


165 


1,687 


634 


1932 


271 


194 


1,539 


564 


1933 


348 


281 


1,570 


320 


1934 


285 


242 


943 


297 


1935 


339 


332 


1,587 


492 


1936 


289 


176 


1,586 


713 


1937 


274 


153 


1,654 


716 


1938 


266 


293 


2,007 


497 


1939 


329 


187 


1,753 


616 



Expenditures for Baltimore City night schools were $102,884 
in 1938-39, an increase of $21,335 over the preceding year. The 



236 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

expenditure per student on the average net roll was less than 
eight dollars per white adult and six dollars per colored adult. 
(See Table 159.) 

TABLE 159 



Expenditures for Night Schools in Baltimore City, 1938-39 



Type of Work 


Expenditures 


White 


Colored 




$7,495.73 
2,616.54 
138.00 
7,380.38 
16,519.64 
31,414.46 
7,557.00 
6,722.12 






$8,594.26 






2,272.15 
2,257.27 
9,916.40 






Parent Education 






Total 




$79,843.87 


$23,040.08 


1938-39 


$102,883.95 
81,548.61 


1937-38 





EVENING INSTRUCTION IN THE COUNTIES 

Opportunities for evening school classes in 20 counties made 
possible because of increased Federal vocational funds through 
the George-Deen Act included courses in agriculture for white 
adults in three counties and for colored adults in five counties; 
in home economics for white adults in eight counties and for 
colored adults in one of these eight counties, and in two additional 
counties; in industrial education for white adults in sixteen 
counties and for colored adults in one of these counties; and in 
distributive education in five counties. For these classes persons 
over sixteen years of age are considered adults. There were 2,602 
white and 325 colored adults enrolled for the courses which were 
financed from public funds to the extent of $22,987 from Federal 
vocational aid available through the Smith-Hughes and George- 
Deen Funds, to the extent of $3,846 from the counties and $1,687 
from the University of Maryland Bureau of Mines, and from fees 
paid by the students. (See Table 160.) 

All parts of the county adult program showed increased enroll- 
ment over 1938 and increased Federal aid, except for colored 
adults taking vocational, industrial and distributive education. 
Allegany, Washington, Montgomery, and Anne Arundel, were 
the only counties which reported a contribution of county funds 
to help finance the adult education program in 1938-39. 

Allegany, Baltimore and Montgomery Counties employed super- 
visors for the evening instruction. (See note to Table 160.) 



Adult Education in Baltimore City and Counties 



237 



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238 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Each adult in evening school classes in Allegany, Baltimore and 
Washington Counties paid a small fee each semester, the amounts 
paid totaling $1,439, $942 and $329 in the three counties, respec- 
tively. In Allegany the charge v^as $1.50 per semester, in Balti- 
more County $2.00 the first semester and $1.00 the second semes- 
ter, in Washington County the fee v^as $2.50, but for perfect 
attendance $1.00 was refunded. The superintendents report that 
the charge has the elTect of making students more serious and 
regular in attendance. 

According to the State plan for vocational education teachers 
of evening vocational classes are paid for two hours instruction 
a minimum of $4.50 per evening. 

An appropriation of $10,000 included in the State public school 
budgets for the year 1939-40 and also for 1940-41 v^ill make it 
possible to expand the adult education program in the counties 
to meet the needs of those adults who cannot be provided for in 
the existing vocational evening program. 

VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION^ 

The Vocational Rehabilitation Service in Maryland was ten 
years old on June 30, 1939, and a statistical resume of the work 
done during that decade is submitted as a part of this report. 

TABLE 161 



Statistical Summary of Maryland Rehabilitation Program 
October 1, 1929 to June 30, 1939 



Year 


Cases 


Status of Cases Served 
(as of June 30 each year) * 


Total 
Expendi- 
tures all 
Sources 


Receipts 
from 
State 


tRe- 
ported 


Not 
Accepted 


Rehabili- 
tated 


other 
Closures 


Awaiting 
Jobs 
After 
Service 


Being 
Prepared 
for Em- 
ployment 


tl930 


170 


39 


5 


5 


1 


73 


$6,411 


$3,376 


1931 


121 


35 


18 


9 


12 


166 


10,686 


5,391 


1932 


151 


44 


41 


14 


11 


193 


14,446 


7,357 


1933. 


153 


48 


43 


37 


36 


149 


18,127 


9,126 


1934 


302 


64 


73 


23 


43 


145 


x23,908 


9,822 


1935 


405 


149 


101 


88 


69 


328 


x32,438 


11,086 


1936 


347 


121 


101 


73 


63 


361 


x32,890 


11,641 


1937 


355 


202 


97 


124 


68 


305 


x31,550 


10,676 


1938 


293 


154 


97 


64 


74 


306 


33,672 


15,000 


1939 


281 


123 


98 


63 


°59 


°246 


33,322 


15,293 


Total 


2,578 


979 


674 


500 






$237,450 


$98,768 



t "Cases reported" include only persons investigated. Only cases that can be adequately 
served are investigated. 

* With the exception of 1930, some of the cases served in any one year may also be reported 
in one or more previous years. 

t 1930 included only nine months from October 1, 1929 to June 30. 1930. 

° In addition, 120 other cases were active on June 30, 1939 (TOTAL LIVE ROLL— 425). 

X Emergency Federal funds (non-matchable) were available in these four years. 



1 Report prepared by R. C. Thompson, Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation. 



County Evening Schools; Vocational Rehabilitation 239 



While the number of cases served has been limited by the lack 
of available funds and personnel, yet the quality of service has 
been high as judged by the results of follow-up studies made 
of all rehabilitants at periods of one and five years after rehabili- 
tation. (See Table 161.) 

During the year ending June 30, 1939, the Service placed 98 
disabled persons in satisfactory employment after they had been 
prepared through vocational training, or otherv^^ise. In addi- 
tion to this group, 368 others were given some definite service. 
The number of cases was distributed almost equally between 
Baltimore City and the counties. (See Table 162.) 



TABLE 162 

Service Rendered Cases Referred for Vocational Rehabilitation in Maryland 
During Year Ending June 30, 1939 



County 



Total 
Number 
of Cases 



Rehabili- 
tated 



Being 
Followed 
on Jobs 



Training 
Completed 
Awaiting 
Jobs 



Being 
Prepared 
for Em- 
ployment 



Surveyed, 
under 
Advise- 
ment 



Total Counties . 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 

Total State 



238 

38 
10 
28 
2 
6 
8 
5 
4 
7 
20 
16 
15 
4 

ie 

20 

1 



24 
5 
2 

228 
466 



27 



66 
133 



65 

6 
1 
4 
1 
2 
5 
1 
1 
2 
8 
6 
4 
2 

6 

5 



4 
4 
2 

48 

113 



Some of the vocations in which persons were rehabilitated 
during 1938-39 are: 



Accountant (junior) 
Auto Electrical Repair- 
man 
Bacteriologist 
Baker 
Beautician 
Bookkeeper 
Carpenter 
Clerk (office) 



Collector 
Concert Singer 
Dental Mechanic 
Designing Engineer 
Farm Crop Control 

Supervisor 
Interior Decorator 
Musician 
Poultryman 



Radio Operator 

Research Assistant in 
English 

Secretary 

Social Worker 

Watch and Clock Re- 
pairman 

Welder 



240 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Comparison of the program in 1939 with that of the previous 
year shows : 

1. There was one more rehabilitation in 1939, although the average 
weekly wage of the rehabilitants was less. 

2. The number of cases served was somewhat smaller due to the fact 
that the "live roll" has been reduced to the point at which satisfactory 
service can be rendered — ^this is based on our present personnel and 
the availability of funds. 

3. Training was the major service in 75 rehabilitations in 1939 as 
against 57 in 1938. In 1939 school training was used in 60 cases, 
whereas it was given to only 35 rehabilitants in the previous year. 

4. The number of artificial appliances provided in 1939 was 17 compared 
with 25 furnished in 1938. 

5. In 1939 there was an increase in the number of women rehabilitated 
and a corresponding decrease in the number of men: 1939 — 70 men, 
28 women; 1938 — 77 men, 20 women. 

6. Service closures were 63 in 1939, an increase of 20 over 1938. 

7. On June 30, 1939, there were more persons in training and fewer 
awaiting jobs than at the same time in 1938. 

Effective vocational rehabilitation service requires the co- 
operation of every agency that deals with disabled persons, and 
for that reason the Maryland program maintains active relation- 
ships with such groups. During the past year, very effective aid 
was given by the Services for Crippled Children of the State 
Department of Health, the Maryland League for Crippled Chil- 
dren, The State Employment Service, The State Industrial Ac- 
cident Commission, and various hospitals and welfare agencies. 

FINANCING THE MARYLAND PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM 

The county boards of education spent from all sources — 
county, State and Federal funds — $10,216,000 for current opera- 
tion of public schools in 1939, an increase of $322,000 over the 
amount spent in the previous year. Looking back to the period 
beginning in 1920 there was a steady increase in expenditures 
each year to 1932, after which there was a decline to 1934 due 
to the salary cuts made necessary by the depression, since which 
year the upward climb has continued. An increasing enrollment, 
especially in the high school years which are more expensive than 
the elementary grades, a better trained teaching staff eligible to 
certificates of higher grade commanding the higher salaries 
provided for in the salary schedule enacted by the 1922 legislature, 
a more stable teaching staff with increasing years of experience 
therefore qualifying for experience increments, a longer term 
for the colored schools especially in the early years of the period, 
increasing provision for vocational classes and special classes 
for handicapped children which must be taught in smaller groups 
than the regular classes, increased provision for transportation 
of pupils at public expense are some of the factors which explain 
the higher costs over the period. (See Table 163 and Chart 36.) 



Vocational Rehabilitation ; Financing Maryland's Schools 241 



CHART 36 

Total School Current Expenses and Total State Aid in 23 Counties 
and Baltimore City*, 1919 to 1939 



L Ions 






















ore < 














\ 

\ 










-- 


/ 

/ ■ 




V 


















-- 


/ 

/ 

1 

■ - <l'^<o 
ij 


7 




















-■ 




























re A«o - 


t- ^3 Co 


,WTIES 




WTE A. 


d-Bal 





















1920 192i 1924- 192.6 1928 1930 1934 i93b t93« l94o 

* Includes expenditures from City funds for training teachers in City training school (s), 
but excludes amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Funds for teachers. 



State aid for county schools has grown from $1,174,000 in 1920 
to $4,300,000 in 1939, showing definite increases in most of the 
biennial budget periods, except that the amounts from 1926 to 
1930 were rather stationary. The establishment of the Equali- 
zation Fund in the 1923 budget and the provision of the $1,500,- 
000 fund for reduction of county taxation in the 1934 budget 
explain the large increases evident in the State aid in those 
particular years. The increases in 1938 and 1939 are due chiefly 
to the eligibility of five additional counties to share in the Equali- 
zation Fund following upon the complete restoration of salary 
cuts which had been in effect from 1934 to 1937 and the continu- 
ance of the point of equalization at 47 cents resulting from the 
1933 legislation. (See Table 163 and Chart 36.) 

Federal aid for county schools increased from $12,000 in 1920 to 
$166,000 in 1939, due chiefly to the increase in the number of 
teachers of agriculture, vocational home economics, trades and 



242 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 163 

School Current Expenses from State, Federal, and Local Funds and Capital 
Outlay by Boards of Education in the Counties and Baltimore City, 1920-1939 



Year 
Ending 
July 31 


Current Expense Disbursements 


Capital 
Outlay 


Total 


From State 
Funds 


From Federal 
Funds 


From Local 
Funds 




Total Counties 


1920 


$3,703,153 


$1,174,270 


$11,923 


$2,516,960 


$485,601 


1921 


5,043,923 


1,537,621 


17,073 


3,489,229 


929,024 


1922 


5,291,124 


1,527,627 


t33,853 


3,729,644 


1,121,554 


1923 


5,964,456 


2,005,335 


t33,710 


3,925,411 


1,475,269 


1924 


6,475,803 


2,041,155 


t43,244 


4,391,404 


949,720 


1925 


6,743,015 


2,130,518 


143,252 


4,569,245 


2,527,823 


1926 


7,143,150 


2,212,857 


t48,010 


4,882,283 


2,602,745 


1927 


7,517,729 


2,291,235 


148,965 


5,177,529 


1,023,362 


1928 


7,787,298 


x°2,207,335 


t51,910 


5,528,053 


1,532,718 


1929 


8,164,657 


x°2,279,589 


t54,425 


5,830,643 


1,773,070 


1930 


8,456,414 


x2, 299, 380 


t69,779 


6,087,255 


2,450,144 


1931 


8,852,073 


2,323,767 


t78,755 


6,449,551 


2,172,088 


1932 


8,892,181 


2,661,382 


t77,470 


6,153,329 


1,650,065 


1933 


8,485,146 


2,531,668 


t78,343 


5,875,135 


688,497 


1934 


8,010,425 


3,622,840 


t67,903 


4,319,682 


1,132,433 


1935 


8,189,909 


3,665,763 


t75,727 


4,448,419 


1,590,879 


1936 


8,715,542 


3,580,265 


t84,854 


5,050,423 


2,000,321 


1937 


9,082,523 


3,583,329 


t92,553 


5,406,641 


2,531,071 


1938 


9,893,912 


4,219,147 


tl44,854 


5,529,911 


1,576,434 


1939 


10,216,150 


4,300,033 


tl66,016 


5,750,101 


2,845,537 



♦Baltimore City 



1920 


$3,706,642 


$704,771 


$8,516 


$2,993,355 


$60,741 


1921 


5,394,656 


1,023,597 


8,945 


4,362,114 


1,267,636 


1922 


6,594,168 


1,015,034 


11,939 


5,567,195 


1,417,569 


1923 


6,799,794 


1,052,845 


13,256 


5,733,693 


3,301,086 


1924 


6,794,048 


1,046,561 


14,551 


5,732,936 


5,336,889 


1925 


7,237,993 


1,024,179 


18,301 


6,195,513 


3,224,734 


1926 


7,480,170 


1,034,372 


22,522 


6,423,276 


3,484,767 


1927 


7,878,719 


1,066,385 


20,112 


6,792,222 


4,200,038 


1928 


8,360,391 


x999,753 


17,240 


7,343,398 


1,897,871 


1929 


8,767,395 


xl, 017, 153 


20,338 


7,729,904 


633 , 632 


1930 


9,193,068 


976,083 


18,980 


8,198,005 


1,508,678 


1931 


9,666,385 


932,251 


13,773 


8,720,361 


3,658,046 


1932 


9,415,054 


974,431 


11,131 


8,429,492 


2,678,922 


1933 


8,388,125 


1,072,738 


10,663 


7,304,724 


1,268,159 


1934 


7,992,222 


948,586 


10,081 


7,033,555 


1,087,351 


1935 


8,502,074 


954,383 


25,913 


7,521,778 


642,191 


1936 


8,744,298 


946,396 


26,363 


7,771,539 


223,669 


1937 


9,031,032 


943,073 


22,536 


8,065,423 


1,156,748 


1938 


9,347,234 


941,150 


83,737 


8,322,347 


759,130 


1939 


9,747,952 


950,005 


55,923 


8,742,024 


30,785 



*Entire State 



$7,409,795 
10,438,579 
11,885,292 
12,764,250 
13,269,851 
13,981,008 
14,623,320 
15,396,448 
16,147,689 
16,932,052 
17,649,482 
18,518,458 
18,307,235 
16,873,271 
16,002,647 
16,691,983 
17,459,840 
18,113,555 
19,241,146 
19,964,102 



$1,887,915 
2,561,218 
2,542,661 
3,058,180 
3,087,716 
3,154,697 
3,247,229 
3,357,620 
x3, 207, 088 
x3, 296, 742 
x3, 275, 463 
3,256,018 
3,635,813 
3,604,406 
4,571,426 
4,620,146 
4,526,661 
4,526,402 
5,160,297 
5,250,038 



$11,565 
26,018 
45,792 
46,966 
57,795 
61,553 
70,532 
69,077 
69,150 
74,763 
88,759 
92 , 528 
88,601 
89,006 
77,984 
101,640 
111,217 
115,089 
228,591 
221,939 



$5,510,315 
7,851,343 
9,296,839 
9,659,104 
10,124,340 
10,764,758 
11,305,559 
11,969,751 
12,871,451 
13,560,547 
14,285,260 
15,169,912 
14,582,821 
13,179,859 
11,353,237 
11,970,197 
12,821,962 
13,472,064 
13,852,258 
14,492,125 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training of teachers in City traininyr school (s), 
but excludes amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Fund. 

t Includes amounts received from the Federal Government towards salaries and expenses 
at Indian Head. 

X Excludes receipts from liquidation of Free School Fund. 

" Excludes $6,500 to be used by Charles County for school building purposes. 



Financing Maryland's Public School System 



243 



industries, made possible by the expansion of the program under 
the Smith-Hughes Act and the availability of funds from the 
George-Deen Act for the first time in 1938. As a result the 
program of evening work in the counties was enlarged in 1938 
and 1939. Federal aid for the school at Indian Head is also 
included for 1922 and the years following. (See Table 163 and 
Chart 36.) 

The county levy and other county sources increased their 
contributions to the current expenses for public schools by $220,- 
000 in 1939 over 1938. These county sources of school funds 
were $2,517,000 in 1920 and gained each year until they reached 
$6,450,000 in 1931, after which they decreased to a low point 
of $4,320,000 in 1934, since which time they have grown to 
$5,750,000. The great decrease in 1934 came about because the 
county levy required for participation in the State Equalization 
Fund was reduced from 67 cents to 47 cents, salaries were cut 
by from 10 to 15 per cent and a fund of $1,500,000 for tax reduc- 
tion in the counties was made available by the State. Restora- 
tion of salary cuts, provision of salary increases, provision of 
teachers needed for increased enrollment, denied in the period 
from 1932 to 1935, and decrease of the tax reduction fund from 
$1,500,000 to $1,250,000, account for the increases in the county 
levy in 1936, 1937, 1938, and 1939. (See Table 163.) 

Capital outlay for schools which totaled $2,846,000 in the 
counties in 1939 included Federal aid available through the Public 
Works Administration. (See Table 163.) 

The Baltimore City total current expenses for public schools 
closely parallel those for the county schools, although from 1921 
to 1932 the current expenses of schools in the City were above 
those in the counties. State and Federal aid for the City schools 
were lower over the entire period than they were for the county 
schools, necessitating higher levies from the City than from the 
counties. Of the $9,748,000 spent to operate the City schools in 
1939, $950,000 came from the State, $56,000 came from Federal 
vocational funds, and $8,742,000 from City levy. Capital outlay 
for the City schools totaled less than $31,000 in 1939, as funds 
from the bond issue approved in May, 1939, were not yet available. 
The City figures do not include City and State contributions to 
the Retirement System on account of teachers. (See Table 163 
and Chart 36.) 

For the entire State, operating costs for the public schools 
aggregated $19,964,000 in 1939, of which $5,250,000 came from 
State funds, $222,000 from Federal funds and $14,492,000 from 
local levies. These figures exclude State and City aid to the 



244 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



retirement systems on account of teachers. The capital outlay 
for public schools in the entire State totaled $2,876,000. (See 
Table 163.) 



INCREASE IN DAY SCHOOL PUPILS, 1920 to 1939 

There were 55,183 more county and 28,771 more City children 
attending day public schools in 1939 than there were in 1920, 
an increase of 55.3 per cent for the county and 38.1 per cent 
for the City attendance over the period. As explained before, 
a large part of this increase is in high school enrollment and 
in Baltimore City also in vocational school enrollment. (See 
Table 164.) 



TABLE 164 



Day School Enrollment and Attendance in Elementary and Secondary Schools 
of Counties and Baltimore City, 1920 to 1939 



School Year 
Ending June 30 


23 Counties 


Baltimore City 


Entire State 


En- 
rollment 


At- 
tendance 


En- 
rollment 


At- 
tendance 


En- 
rollment 


At- 
tendance 


1920 


*145,045 


99,812 


*96,573 


75,500 


*241,618 


175,312 


1921 


*149,045 


108,178 


*100,092 


81,570 


*249,137 


189,748 


1922 


*147,409 


114,190 


*101,480 


84,208 


*248,889 


198,398 


1923 


152,474 


115,743 


104,072 


86,124 


256,546 


201,867 


1924 


151,538 


117,222 


104,764 


86,540 


256,302 


203,762 


1925 


153,636 


121,665 


107,133 


89,467 


260,769 


211,132 


1926 


154,969 


123,260 


108,280 


90,844 


263,249 


214,104 


1927 


156,788 


127,018 


111,029 


91,925 


267,817 


218,943 


1928 


158,368 


131,439 


112,532 


94,230 


270,900 


225,669 




160,217 


131,923 


113,315 


94,731 


273,532 


226,654 


1930 


162,209 


137,481 


115,250 


98,074 


277,459 


235,555 


1931 


165,314 


142,397 


116,203 


101,064 


281,517 


243,461 


1932 


168,964 


145,676 


119,205 


103,722 


288,169 


249,398 


1933 


172,745 


150,301 


121,374 


105,627 


294,119 


255,928 


1934 


172,109 


147,239 


121,569 


104,987 


293,678 


252,226 


1935 


172,409 


148,174 


123,068 


106,443 


295,477 


254,617 


1936 


172,921 


148,398 


125,236 


105,903 


298,157 


254,301 


1937 


173,642 


149,318 


123,748 


104,243 


297,390 


253,561 


1938 


172,518 


151,942 


121,168 


104,916 


293,686 


256,858 


1939 


174,835 


154,995 


121,710 


104,271 


296,545 


259,266 


Increase, 1920-1939 




55,183 




28,771 




83,954 


Per Cent of Increase 




55.3 


.... 


38.1 




47.9 



* Duplicates not excluded as in later years. 



Of the $19,964,000 for 1939 school current expenses, the 
county share was 51.2 per cent, although the counties had 67.4 
per cent of the day public school pupils in the State. (See Table 
163.) The greater expenditure in Baltimore City is due to 
higher salary schedules for teachers and janitors, more specialized 
provision for occupational and vocational education and for 
handicapped pupils, provisions for kindergartens and summer 
schools, specialized provisions for individual and group testing 
programs and educational guidance and a comprehensive adult 



Increase in Pupils ; % of Aid from State and Federal Funds 245 

education program. On the other hand, the counties, because 
of the territory to be covered, had to have many more schools 
and teachers than Baltimore City, requiring many small classes 
in one- and two-teacher schools and small high schools, and had 
to provide transportation to consolidated schools for many pupils 
living too far to walk to school. (See Tables 163 and 164.) 



PER CENT OF AID FROM STATE AND FEDERAL FUNDS 

Of the 1939 county school current expenses, 42.1 per cent came 
from the State, including 11.4 per cent from the Equalization 
Fund; 1.6 per cent came from Federal funds, leaving 56.3 per 
cent to be provided from the county levy and other county sources. 
State aid ranged from 19.9 per cent of the current expenses in 
the wealthiest county to over 70 per cent in two of the poorest 
counties. The Federal aid ranged from 8.1 per cent in Charles 
County which received Federal funds toward the expense of the 
public schools on the Government reservation at Indian Head, 
and over 2 per cent in seven counties with a large proportion of 
high school pupils taking vocational work to less than one per 
cent in six counties. Support of school current expenses from the 
county levy and other county sources was as low as 25 per cent 
in a financially poor county and as high as 78.5 per cent in a 
financially able county. (See Table 165 and Chart 37.) 

Nineteen counties shared in the State Equalization Fund as a 
result of salary restoration combined with 47 cents as the point 
for equalization. As little as 7 per cent of the total current 
expenses came from the State Equalization Fund in a county of 
average wealth which has an eight grade elementary system and 
a salary schedule in excess of the minimum, while at the opposite 
extreme over 42 per cent of the total cost of operating schools 
came from the State Equalization Fund in a financially poor 
county having only white teachers, with salaries paid in accord- 
ance with the State minimum schedule and with an elementary 
course of seven grades. The Equalization Fund is that item in 
the State aid program which takes into consideration financial 
ability to carry the minimum State program with various types 
of State aid other than the Equalization Fund and a 47-cent levy 
on the county assessable basis taxable at the full rate for county 
purposes. (See Table 165 and Chart 37.) 

As a result of the enactment of a new State minimum salary 
schedule for county teachers, the county levy required to partici- 
pate in the minimum program was increased from 47 to 51 cents 
by the 1939 legislature to take eftect in the fall of 1939. Since 
many counties were paying more than the former minimum 
schedule and were levying more than 47 cents, an increase of 
four cents was only required in those counties levying only the 
required minimum. 



246 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 37 

PER CEIT OF CURRE'JT EXPENDITURES FOR YEAP ENDING JULY 31, 1939 



County 



County Average 



Received from 



Baltimore City 



State 



I State, Excluding Equalization Fund 
] Equalization Fund 
3 Federal Aid 



V/f/Z/A County Levy and Other Coxinty Sources 




^mMMMMM 



wm/mmm 



w/mmm/m 



_ \m/////m/////////////, 



wM//mm/m///Mm. 



w//m//////////mM///m/m//> 

W/////////M 



y///)/m////////////////mm^^ 
V////////////M////// ////////////////m^^^^^^ 




Toward the Baltimore City school current expenses, excluding 
State and City aid to the retirement system on account of 
teachers, the State contributed 9.8 per cent, the local levy 89.6 
per cent, and the Federal government .6 of one per cent. 

For the State as a whole, 26.3 per cent of the school current 
expenses came from State aid, 1.1 per cent from Federal funds, 
and 72.6 per cent from the county and City levy and other local 
sources. (See Table 165 and Chart 37.) 



Per Cent of School Funds from State, Federal and County 247 

Sources 



TABLE 165 



Per Cent of Current Expense Disbursements Received from State and Federal 
Funds for School Purposes for Year Ending July 31, 1939 



County 




Amount Received for Cur- 
rent Expenses from 


Per Cent of Current Expense 
Disbursements Received from 


tTotal 
Disburse- 
ments 

for 
Current 
Expenses 


1 oLd te 
Aid 


*tFed- 
Aid 


y bounty 
Levy and 
Other 
County 
Sources 


State Aid 
Excluding 
Equalization 
Fund 


State 
Equalization 
Fund 


State Aid 


Federal Aid 


County Levy 
and Other 
Sources 


Total Counties . 


$10,216,150 


$4,300,033 


$166,016 


$5,750,101 


30.7 


11.4 


42.1 


1.6 


56.3 


Charles 


209,898 


140,090 


$16,996 


52,812 


34.7 


32.0 


66.7 


8.1 


25.2 


Somerset 


212,407 


153,888 


1,020 


57,499 


40.6 


31.8 


72.4 


.5 


27.1 


Calvert 


125,552 


87 958 


2 823 


34 771 


33.8 


36.3 


70.1 


2.2 


27.7 


Garrett 


332,718 


230^600 


8^772 


93*346 


26.7 


42.6 


69.3 


2.6 


28.1 


St. Mary's 


143,167 


98 801 


2 668 


41 698 


41.1 


27.9 


69.0 


1.9 


29.1 


Caroline 


207,531 


129 ',668 


6^628 


71 ',235 


35.3 


27.2 


62.5 


3.2 


34.3 


Worcester 


240,290 


133,216 


4,219 


102,855 


36.8 


18.6 


55.4 


1.8 


42.8 


Dorchester. . . . 


284,057 


158,498 


2,799 


122,760 


35.6 


20.2 


55.8 


1.0 


43.2 


Carroll 


448,311 


248,782 


5,435 


194,094 


31.2 


24.3 


55.5 


1.2 


43.3 


Queen Anne's. . 


185,572 


94,027 


5,142 


86,403 


33.6 


17.0 


50.6 


2.8 


46.6 


Howard 


193,487 


94,136 


4,450 


94,901 


35.3 


13.4 


48.7 


2.3 


49.0 


Wicorrdco 


330,909 


166,360 


1,280 


163,269 


35.7 


14.6 


50.3 


.4 


49.3 


Kent 


170,661 


80,536 


1,425 


88,700 


34.5 


12.7 


47.2 


« 


52.0 


Talbot 


210,490 


96,616 


3,316 


110,558 


34.6 


11.3 


45.9 


lie 


52.5 


Anne Arundel . . 


635,183 


278,912 


5,530 


350,741 


29.6 


14.3 


43.9 


.9 


55.2 


Prince George's 


856,969 


359,484 


14,580 


482,905 


29.8 


12.1 


41.9 


1.7 


56.4 


Frederick 


585,775 


239,583 


5,454 


340,738 


32.9 


8.0 


40.9 


.9 


58.2 


Allegany 


976,795 


373,893 


17,621 


585,281 


29.0 


9.3 


38.3 


1.8 


59.9 


Washington 


760,223 


283,698 


15,627 


460,898 


30.4 


6.9 


37.3 


2.1 


60.6 


Harford 


373,654 


129,039 


9,822 


234,793 


34.6 




34.6 


2.6 


62.8 


Cecil 


317,490 


104,636 


2,801 


210,053 


32.9 




32.9 


.9 


66.2 


Baltimore 


1,351,598 


406,443 


10,640 


934,515 


30.1 




30.1 


.8 


69.1 


Montgomery. . . 


1,063,413 


211,169 


16,968 


835,276 


19.9 




19.9 


1.6 


78.5 


Baltimore City . 


°9, 726, 368 


°950,005 


55,923 


°8, 720, 440 


9.8 




9.8 


.6 


89.6 


State 


19,942,518 


5,250,038 


221,939 


14,470,541 


20.5 


5.8 


26.3 


1.1 


72.6 



t Excludes estimated State, Federal, and County funds for public school health services 
expended by County and City health offices. 

* Includes Federal Aid for 1938-39 received after July 31, 1939. 

% Includes $14,090 received from the Federal Government toward salaries and expenses at 
Indian Head. 

° Excludes $801,737 for teachers in Baltimore City Retirement System, of which $467,759 
was paid by the State. 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE 1939 SCHOOL TAX DOLLAR 

In the counties as a group, of every dollar devoted to expenses 
of school children, including estimated expenditures on health 
of school children by county health offices, 66 cents were used for 
salaries of teachers and principals, 14.2 cents for transportation, 
libraries and health, 7 cents for heating and cleaning buildings, 
3.9 cents for books, materials, clerical service in schools and 
other costs of instruction, 3.2 cents for repairs and replacements, 
2.9 cents for administration, 1.8 cents for supervision, and 1 cent 
for fixed charges and tuition to adjoining counties. (See Table 
166 and Chart 38.) 



248 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 166 



Per Cent Distribution of School Expenditures for Year Ending July 31, 1939 



ATTTMTV 


Per Cent of Total Current Expense Funds Used for 


Per Cent of 
Expenditures 
for Current 
Expenses and 
Capital Out- 
lay Used for 
Capital 
Uutlay 


General Control 


Supervision 


Salaries of 
Teachers 


Books, Materials, 
and Other Costs 
of Instruction 


Operation 


Maintenance 


Auxiliary Agencies* 


Fixed Charges and 
Payments to Ad- 
joining Counties 


County Average, 1938 . . 


2.8 


1.8 


65.7 


4.1 


7.0 


3.4 


13.9 


1.3 


13.5 


1939. . 


2.9 


1.8 


66.0 


3.9 


7.0 


3.2 


14.2 


1.0 


21.5 


Allegany 


2 3 


1 . 6 


67.0 


5 1 


8.6 


3.3 


11.4 


,7 


34.6 


Anne Arundel 


2.'7 


l!4 


65.6 


3^5 


7.'0 


2^2 


16. '4 


l!2 


4.3 




2.6 


1.8 


69.3 


3.1 


7.1 


2.6 


11.7 


1.8 


7.3 


Calvert 


5.9 


3.3 


50.8 


2.7 


5.3 


1.8 


29.5 


.7 


8.9 


Caroline 


4.3 


1.5 


62.9 


3.1 


5.0 


1.5 


20.8 


.9 


45.4 


Carroll 


2.6 


2.0 


62.5 


4.1 


5.2 


2.6 


19.7 


1.3 


7.0 


Cecil 


2.8 


1.4 


67.3 


6.2 


6.2 


2.3 


12.6 


1.2 


49.0 




3.0 


2.0 


54.1 


3.6 


7.1 


4.6 


24.2 


1.4 


9.7 


Dorchester 


3.3 


1.4 


62.7 


2.5 


6.2 


3.5 


19.3 


1.1 


3.0 




2.5 


1.7 


66.7 


3.9 


5.9 


1.0 


17.3 


1.0 


25. 5 




3.9 


1.6 


59.7 


3.1 


4.3 


3.5 


22.0 


1.9 


17!7 


Harford 


2.6 


1.9 


73.4 


3.6 


6.6 


3.4 


7.7 


.8 


13. 5 


Howard 


4.4 


1.8 


60.9 


4.1 


6.5 


2.6 


17.4 


2.3 


55.9 


Kent 


4.5 


2.5 


59.2 


2.7 


8.6 


2.7 


19.2 


.6 


.5 




2.1 


1.9 


68.6 


4.9 


9.3 


3.4 


9.3 


.5 


20 . 


Prince George's 


2.3 


1.5 


68.9 


5.0 


7.2 


7.5 


6.8 


.8 


32.3 




4.8 


1.8 


59.1 


3.1 


6.0 


2.6 


21.7 


.9 


6.3 


St. Mary's 


5.3 


2.7 


53.2 


3.1 


3.9 


2.1 


29.3 


.4 


1.3 




4.0 


1.8 


62.1 


3.3 


6.2 


2.8 


19.1 


.7 


.3 


Talbot 


4.5 


2.3 


61.5 


3.3 


6.6 


2.3 


18.1 


1.4 


2.2 




2.0 


1.8 


74.2 


3.5 


6.4 


2.4 


9.0 


.7 


21.8 




3.8 


1.7 


61.4 


3.8 


7.7 


4.1 


16.5 


1.0 


21.2 


Worcester 


3.8 


1.7 


59.4 


2.5 


7.0 


3.9 


20.6 


1.1 


5.6 


Baltimore City 


3.4 


1.7 


74.8 


3.2 


10.0 


3.4 


3.3 


t.2 


.3 


State 


3.1 


1.7 


70.3 


3.6 


8.5 


3.3 


8.9 


t.6 


12.5 



* Auxiliary agencies include estimated expenditures by health offices in counties and Bal- 
timore City for services rendered to school children. 

t Baltimore City expenditures for the Retirement System are excluded. 



If current expenditures of the county school boards, excluding 
transportation, are considered, the percentages run as follows: 
for salaries of teachers and principals 76.2 cents, for cleaning 
and heating buildings 8.1 cents, for books, materials, clerical 
service in schools and other costs of instruction 4.5 cents, for 
repairs and replacements 3.7 cents, for administration 3.4 cents, 
for supervision 2 cents, for fixed charges and tuition to adjoining 
counties 1.2, for libraries, health and community activities .9 
of one cent. The requirement that counties sharing in the 
Equalization Fund spend at least 24 per cent of current expenses 
excluding ti'ansportation, for purposes other than teachers' 
salaries is therefore very close to average practice in the 23 
counties for the year 1939. 



Distribution of the 1939 School Tax Dollar 



249 



CHART 38 

How the Tax Dollar for School Current Expenses was Used in 1938-39 
in the Maryland Counties 




* Fixed charges and payments to adjoining counties. 



In general, percentages for teachers' salaries were highest 
in the counties which had a low percentage for auxiliary agencies 
and vice versa. A population concentrated in large centers, a 
large proportion of teachers in one-teacher schools, a policy of 
charging pupils for high school transportation are all factors 
tending to decrease the percentage of public expenditures for 
transportation and increase those for salaries of teachers, while 
the reverse of these conditions usually brings high percentages 
of children transported and increases the per cent of the budget 
used for transportation and reduces the per cent for salaries. 
(See Table 166.) 

The small counties tended to have high percentages devoted 
to administration and supervision, while the large counties 
needed only a small percentage of their funds for these purposes. 
(See Table 166.) 



250 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The accessibility and cheapness of fuel and the use of pupils 
and teachers for janitorial work instead of employing outside 
janitorial help necessary in the larger schools tend to affect 
the per cent of funds needed for operation of schools. (See 
Table 166.) 

The availability of labor through the Works Progress Adminis- 
tration had a relation to the expenditures required for mainte- 
nance in some of the counties and in Baltimore City. (See Table 
166 and Table 174, page 260.) 

Payments to adjoining counties or states for pupils attending 
their schools did not require over 1.8 per cent of the current 
expense budget, except in three counties which had a number of 
residents attending school in adjoining counties or states or in 
Baltimore City. (See Table 166 and Table 185, pages 275-276.) 

If the school current expenses and capital outlay are combined, 
the per cent of this combination devoted to capital outlay aver- 
aged 21.5 per cent for the 23 counties, but the range was con- 
siderable, viz., from less than one per cent to nearly 56 per cent. 
Most of the counties which had a large school capital outlay 
received aid from the Federal Public Works Administration. 
(See Table 166.) 

AVERAGE COST PER DAY SCHOOL PUPIL 

It cost on the average $61.84 to provide for the education and 
health service of a county white and colored elementary and 
high school pupil belonging in the day schools in 1939. The 
cost in 1939 included an estimate of $1.15 for health service 
given children through the county health offices. These per 
pupil costs, however, exclude expenditures for home teachers of 
handicapped children, payments to adjoining counties and states 
and cost of evening and adult classes. Also pupils in the ele- 
mentary schools at the State teachers colleges are not considered 
with the number belonging for the counties in which these 
schools are located, since the cost of their instruction is pro- 
vided for by the State and charged against these State insti- 
tutions. (See Table 167.) 

The increase of 72 cents in average cost per pupil in 1939 over 
1938 is explained in part by the fact that the increase in school 
population occurred in the high schools, the more expensive part of 
the school system, in part by increases in some counties in salaries 
of colored teachers, and in part by improvement in transportation 
facilities, and by various other changes in the program. 

The cost per day school pupil varied among the counties from 
$50.02 to $80.10, and all except five counties showed an increase 
from 1938 to 1939. (See Table 167.) 



Average Cost per Day School Pupil 



251 



TABLE 167 



Cost Per Day School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses" for Years 
1936, 1937, 1938 and 1939 



UOUNTY 


tl936 


tl937 


tl938 


tl939 


Increase 

1 QQQ 

over lyoo 


n * A 


$53 


71 


$56 


29 


$61 


12 


$61 


o4 


t 79 




67 


83 


72 


29 


80 


47 


on 
oU 


10 


* 37 


59 


34 


62 


83 


70 


39 


72 


37 


1 QS 


Cecil 


57 


30 


59 


93 


67 


00 


70 


89 


3 89 




58 


92 


61 


79 


71 


35 


69 


67 


. Do 


Kent 


59 


78 


59 


06 


65 


13 


68 


96 


3 83 




55 


97 


58 


82 


64 


70 


67 


56 


2 86 


r!arrnll 


59 


43 


60 


51 


66 


51 


67 


48 


97 


St. Mary's 


48 


18 


53 


87 


63 


34 


64 


14 


!80 




58 


29 


60 


09 


63 


13 


62 


86 


*.27 




55 


73 


55 


40 


61 


22 


61 


55 


.33 




47 


94 


53 


24 


59 


21 


61 


21 


2.00 


Calvert 


51 


39 


52 


29 


56 


92 


61 


07 


4.15 




53 


23 


54 


90 


58 


30 


60 


99 


2.69 


Charles 


50 


76 


53 


83 


58 


36 


60 


55 


2.19 


Worcester 


49 


44 


50 


95 


56 


35 


60 


15 


3.80 


Frederick 


53 


16 


54 


68 


58 


46 


58 


97 


.51 


Baltimore 


53 


31 


57 


14 


57 


98 


58 


76 


.78 


Dorchester 


49 


80 


51 


65 


58 


29 


58 


50 


.21 


Washington 


47 


85 


49 


89 


57 


03 


57 


38 


.35 




48 


55 


50 


98 


56 


62 


57 


18 


.56 


Anne Arundel 


50 


05 


53 


65 


57 


07 


56 


82 


*.25 


Prince George's 


48 


34 


50 


07 


54 


74 


54 


06 


*.68 




45 


66 


47 


11 


50 


26 


52 


02 


1.76 



t In making this calculation salaries and expenses for home teachers of handicapped chil- 
dren, expenditures for tuition to adjoining counties and states, and for evening schools and 
adult classes have been excluded and number belonging to elementary schools at the State 
teachers colleges has not been included. 

° Includes estimated expenditures by county health offices for services rendered to school 
children. 

* Decrease. 



The proportion of high school pupils, the proportion of colored 
pupils, the length of session in colored schools, the proportion 
of pupils in small one-teacher schools, the ratio of pupils to teach- 
ers, the enrichment of the high school curriculum, the proportion 
of pupils transported to school, the length of transportation 
route and type of vehicle used, the number and variety of books 
and materials provided, and the salary schedule are some of the 
factors v^hich affect the total average cost per pupil, and vary 
greatly from county to county. (See Table 167.) 



Cost per Pupil for General Control 

In 1939 it cost on the average $1.80 per pupil for general control 
which covers administration or management to make it possible 
for teachers to instruct children under good conditions. The 
cost per pupil for general control in 1939 was an increase of four 
cents over that in 1938, but was lower than the corresponding 
amount spent in any year from 1927 to 1932, inclusive. (See 
Table 168.) 

The counties varied in cost of general control per pupil from 
$1.17 to $3.61. In six of the largest counties the cost per pupil 



252 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 168 



Cost Per Pupil Belonging for General Control 











Increase 












Increase 










1939 












1939 


County 


1937 


1938 


1939 


Over 


County 


1937 


1938 


1939 


Over 










1938 












1938 


County Average . 


$1.69 


$1.76 


$1.80 


$.04 




$1 


72 


$2.02 


$1 .92 


*$. 10 














1 


71 


1.78 


1.84 


.06 




3 11 


3 08 


3 61 


53 




2 


04 


1 93 


1 . 75 


*. 18 


Queen Anne's. . . . 


3'.3S 


3 ".39 


3!48 


!09 


Montgomery 


1 


76 


l!80 


l!69 


*!ii 


St. Mary's 


3.20 


3.34 


3.40 


.06 


Harford 


1 


48 


1.70 


1.60 


*.10 


Kent 


2.70 


3.08 


3.09 


.01 


Anne Arundel . . . 


1 


60 


1.44 


1.55 


.11 


Talbot 


2.72 


3.02 


3.04 


.02 




1 


53 


1.55 


1.54 


*.01 




2.38 


2.63 


2.75 


.12 




1 


23 


1.31 


1.49 


.18 


Howard 


2.32 


2.46 


2.74 


.28 


Allegany 


1 


27 


1.45 


1.43 


*.02 


Caroline 


2.31 


2.42 


2.68 


.26 


Prince George's. 


1 


23 


1.19 


1.26 


.07 




1.83 


2.16 


2.27 


.11 




1 


04 


1.08 


1.17 


.09 




2.06 


2.26 


2.19 


*.07 








1.89 


2.06 


2.09 


.03 


Baltimore City . . 


2 


75 


2.70 


2.90 


.20 


Cecil 


1.73 


1.87 


2.01 


.14 






















State 


2 


13 


2.15 


2.24 


.09 



Decrease. 



for general control was $1.55 or less, while in six of the smallest 
counties it was over three dollars. All of the administrative 
functions must be performed whether a county be large or small 
and this cost per pupil is therefore necessarily larger in the 
counties with a small school population. (See Table 168.) 

There were seven counties which had decreases from 1938 to 
1939 ranging from 1 to 18 cents in cost per pupil for general 
control. In one of these counties the decrease was due to increase 
in enrollment. Increases in cost per pupil for general control 
were as low as one cent and as high as 53 cents. 

Some of the causes of increases in cost per pupil for general 
control were appointment of a full-time instead of a part-time 
attendance officer, purchase of a new car for the superintendent, 
increases in salary for the administrative and clerical staff, 
increases in traveling expenses, increase in office and legal ex- 
penses, and decrease in enrollment. 

The cost per pupil for general control in Baltimore City was 
$2.90, an increase of 20 cents over 1938, due in part to increased 
expenditures and in part to decreased enrollment. (See Table 
168.) 

Comparative Cost Per White Elementary and High School Pupil 

Excluding the cost of general control, the current cost of 
instructing a county white high school pupil in 1939 was $89.94, 
while that for a county white elementary pupil was $54.95, the 
cost for the high school pupil being 1.64 times that for the white 
elementary pupil. This was a decrease under 1938 of 93 cents 
for each white high school pupil and an increase of nine cents 
for each white elementary school pupil. (See Table 169 and Chart 
39.) 



Cost per Pupil for General Control and in White Elementary 253 
AND High Schools 

CHART 39 



1939 Cost Excluding General Control Per County White Pupil Belonging 
in Elementary Schools, $54.95 in High Schools, $89.91 




a Supervision. 

b Books, Materials and Other Costs of Instruction. 



The 1939 salary cost per county white elementary school pupil 
was $36.92, while that of a county white high school pupil was 
$66.21. This was an increase of nine cents per elementary and 
a decrease of 17 cents per high school pupil when 1939 is compared 
with 1938. The excess salary cost per high school pupil is due 
to the higher basic salary schedule for high school teachers, who 
until very recently have been required to spend one or two more 
years in professional preparation than were considered necessary 
for elementary school teachers, to the fact that the ratio of pupils 
to teachers in high school is lower than in elementary school, and 
to inclusion of high school supervisory costs with teachers' 
salaries in the four counties which employ supervisors, while in 
elementary schools supervision is reported as a separate item. 
(See Chart 39.) 

Auxiliary agencies, including transportation, libraries and 
health service, cost the public $9.03 for each county white ele- 
mentary pupil and $9.27 for each white high school pupil. This 
was an increase over 1938 of 30 cents for each white elementary 
and a decrease of 29 cents for each white high school pupil. The 
amount per white elementary pupil includes an estimate of ex- 
penditures on health services for school children by the county 
health offices. Since most of the communicable diseases are prev- 
alent in the elementary schools, and examinations of school 
children are usually made in grades 1, 3, and 7, none of these esti- 
mated costs were charged against the high school pupils. Since 



254 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



the number of high schools available is smaller than the number 
of elementary schools, there is a larger proportion of high school 
pupils for whom transportation must be provided and the distance 
these high school pupils must travel is greater than for the average 
elementary school pupil. This is offset partially by the fact that 
in three counties each high school pupil transported paid a part 
of the cost of transportation and the amount paid by the pupil 
is not included in the cost shov^n. High school pupils need to use 
library books to a greater extent than elementary pupils. (See 
Chart 39.) 

TABLE 169 



Cost Per Day School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses by Types of 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1939 



County 


Cost Per 

Pupil 
Belonging 
for 
General 
Control 


Cost, Excluding General Control, Per Day School Pupil in 


White 
High 
Schools 


White *Elementary Schools 


Colored Schools 


JOne- 
Teacher 
Schools 


JTwo- 
Teacher 
Schools 


JGraded 
Schools 


All 
Elemen- 
tary 
Schools 


High 
Schools 


*Elemen- 
tary 
Schools 


County Average 


















1938 


$1.76 


$90.87 


$63.33 


$56.83 


$52.48 


$54.86 


°$58.54 


$31.76 


1939 


1 .80 


89.94 


63.43 


57.69 


52.61 


54.95 


°65.68 


34.67 


Allegany 


1.43 


76.12 


58.44 


46.19 


55.42 


55.88 


118.20 


52.43 


Anne Arundel 


1.55 


84.17 


135.67 


63.83 


52.91 


54.61 


61.47 


30.33 




1.54 


75.14 




50.79 


61.67 


52.82 


°133.98 


44.90 


Calvert 


3.61 


141.14 


93! 29 


71.24 


66.04 


70.79 


85.77 


26.11 


Caroline 


2.68 


96.84 




60.26 


48.02 


50.33 


66.34 


36.24 


Carroll 


1.75 


95.91 


67;36 


62.25 


52.72 


55.06 


75.38 


37.52 


Cecil 


2.01 


96.21 


62.26 


58.61 


52.22 


56.16 


99.79 


63.56 


Charles 


1.84 


115.55 


50.52 


59.41 


61.63 


63.02 


64.89 


27.65 


Dorchester 


1.92 


92.13 


68.21 


66.78 


49.05 


55.13 


53.70 


30.15 




1.49 


78.56 


61.15 


55.52 


49.64 


51.77 


64.16 


38.95 


Garrett 


2.75 


97.66 


64.16 


46.30 


54.36 


57.44 








1.60 


85.43 


56.22 


58.16 


49.92 


53.59 


48^65 


56.06 


Howard 


2.74 


95.04 


57.07 


41.93 


52.74 


53.66 


64.01 


29.13 


Kent 


3.09 


103.72 


72.08 


73.41 


54.24 


64.27 


55.90 


41.88 




1.69 


118.79 


87.80 


82.13 


67.14 


69.59 


79.80 


55.52 


Prince George's . . . 


1.26 


84.99 


56.30 


56.16 


45.70 


47.68 


64.98 


29.60 


Queen Anne's 


3.48 


118.77 


64.42 


63.58 


58.27 


61.48 


80.46 


42.71 


St. Mary's 


3.40 


108.42 


69.99 


69.37 


82.73 


75.70 


44.22 


30.62 


Somerset 


2.09 


90.77 


60.08 


60.52 


48.51 


51.89 


40.29 


26.15 


Talbot 


3.04 


107.53 


77.39 


56.36 


54.57 


59.08 


65.97 


36.54 


Washington 


1.17 


86.71 


59.08 


49.02 


46.05 


48.49 


109.92 


45.40 


Wicomico 


2.19 


90.01 


59.53 


74.00 


49.41 


52.72 


45.85 


27.56 


Worcester 


2.27 


110.04 


63.17 


73.96 


52.99 


57.21 


46.22 


26.32 


Baltimore City. . . . 


2.90 


117.94 








80.00 


°107.28 


65.72 














72.53 




61.53 














139.19 




129.62 


Junior High .... 












96.51 




79.27 


Senior High 




117!94 










°107!28 




Total State 


$2.24 


$97.83 








1$60.79 


$77.74 


t$48.08 



* Includes estimated expenditures by county health officers on services rendered to school 
children. 

° Average tuition payment to Baltimore City for 197 Baltimore County pupils attending 
Baltimore City junior and senior high schools, excluded from Baltimore City, shown above 
separately for Baltimore County. 

t Elementary schools only. 

t Exclusive of cost of supervision. 



Cost per Pupil in Various Types of Schools; Federal Aid 255 



The 1939 cost of janitors, fuel and repairs was $5.91 per county 
white elementary pupil as against $9.59 per county white high 
school pupil, a decrease of 23 cents per elementary, and an increase 
of 2 cents per white high school pupil compared with 1938. (See 
Chart 39.) 

Books, materials and other costs of instruction required $1.78 
per county white elementary school pupil and $4.87 per county 
white high school pupil in 1939, a decrease of 6 cents for each 
elementary pupil and 49 cents for each high school pupil when 
compared with 1938. The difference between the costs in the 
two types of schools is due to the fact that the older, more mature 
pupils need more, larger, and more expensive books than the 
elementary school pupils. (See Chart 39.) 

The comparative cost per pupil in white high, white one- 
teacher, two-teacher, graded, and all white elementary as well 
as colored high and colored elementary schools for each county is 
shown in Table 169. These costs are analyzed in detail for the 
counties for white elementary schools on pages 57 to 64, for 
white high schools on pages 148 to 157, and for colored schools 
on pages 207 to 209. 

FEDERAL AID TO VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 

The allotment to Maryland for 1938-39 from the Federal 
Government for vocational education under the Smith-Hughes 
and George-Deen Acts was $254,047, less by $1,000 than the 
amount for the preceding year. The provisions of the laws 
required expenditures of the funds as shown in Table 170. 

TABLE 170 



Federal Vocational Funds Allotted to and Expended in Maryland, 1938-39 



Purpose 


1939 
Allotment 


1939 
Expenditures 


Unexpended 
Balance 


Agriculture 

Trade and Industry 

Home Economics 

Teacher Training and Supervision 

Education for Distributive Occupations. . . . 

Total 


$66,003.56 
94,554.33 

*52,854.56 
25,572.30 
15,061.81 


t$56,168.82 
93,075.76 
*52,854.56 
°23,870.75 
7,008.50 


$9,834.74 
1,478.57 

1, 701^55 
8,053.31 


$254,046.56 


$232,978.39 


$21,068.17 



* Of this amount $5,949.93 was transferred from Smith-Hughes funds for trade and 
industry. 

t Includes $800 toward the salary of the State supervisor of agriculture excluded under 
teacher training arid supervis'on. 

° Excludes $800 toward the salary of the State supervisor of agriculture included under 
agriculture. 

Portions of the Smith-Hughes funds could be used only for 
salaries of teachers of agriculture, and of part-time industrial 
education, and of the George-Deen funds for education for 
distributive occupations. Since the programs for all of these 



256 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



types of work were not sufficiently developed in Maryland to 
take advantage of the entire amount available from Federal funds, 
there were unexpended balances which totaled $21,068. The 
expenditures from Federal funds totaled $232,978. (See Tables 
170 to 173.) 



TABLE 171 

Federal Vocational Funds Expended by Subject and Type of School in 1938-39 



Type of School 


Subject 


Total 


Agriculture 


Home 
Economics 


Industrial 
Education 


Distributive 
Education 


County Day 

White 

Colored 

County Evening 

White 

Colored 

Baltimore City 

Day 

Evening 

Total 


$46,832.67 
7,242.65 

442 . 50 
576.00 

275.00 


$40,143.31 
6,843.75 

5,344.50 
523.00 


$25,488.79 
4,074.49 

14,333.65 
279.00 

31,854.93 
17,044.90 


1,488.50 
5,526!66 


$112,4fi4.77 
18.160.89 

21,609.15 
1,378.00 

32.129.93 
22,564.90 


t$55,368.82 


$52,854.56 


$93,075.76 


$7,008.50 


t$208,307.64 



t Excludes $800 toward the salary of the State supervisor of agriculture paid from agri- 
cultural funds. 



Every dollar of Smith-Hughes Federal funds expended for 
vocational education is matched by a dollar of State, county or 
City funds, or both jointly. Every dollar of George-Deen Federal 
funds expended for teacher training is matched by a dollar of 
State money, but George-Deen funds expended for purposes 
other than teacher-training are matched by at least fifty cents 
of State, county or City money, or both jointly. For some of the 
programs organized since 1936-37 Federal funds to the extent of 
100 and 66 2, 3 per cent were provided. 

In the program of training of teachers, supervision and admin- 
istration of vocational education, both Smith-Hughes and George- 
Deen funds are available. Smith-Hughes funds can be used 
07ilij for salaries of teachers of agriculture, trade and industrial, 
and home economics subjects, while George-Deen funds are avail- 
able to reimburse both salaries and traveling expenses of teachers 
and supervisors. 

Of $153,613 Federal funds spent in the counties, $112,465 were 
used for day schools for white high school pupils, $18,161 for 
day schools for colored high school pupils, $21,609 for county 
evening schools for white adults, and $1,378 for those for colored 
adults. (See Table 171.) 



Federal Aid for Vocational Education 



257 



For detailed figures by counties for white day schools see Table 
101, page 149, for colored day schools see Table 142, pages 211-2, 
and for evening school work see Table 160, pages 236-8. 

The Federally Aided Program in Baltimore City 

Of $54,695 distributed to Baltimore City in 1938-39 from 
Federal funds, $31,855 was for salaries of teachers in day voca- 
tional schools, $17,045 was for part-time and evening industrial 
work, $5,520 was for distributive education and $275 was for 
agriculture, the latter a new venture for colored boys in Baltimore 
City. Because of the expansion of the county program the total 
Federal aid to Baltimore City in 1939 was $6,505 less than for 
the preceding year. 

TABLE 172 



Federal Aid for Vocational Education in Baltimore City Schools, 
for School Year Ending July 31, 1939 







Enrollment 


Amount of 


Type of School 


Total 






Federal Aid 




Federal 






per Pupil 




Funds 


Boys 


Giris 


Enrolled 




$31,854.93 


1,514 


565 


$15.32 


Part-time and Evening Industrial 


17,044.90 


1,844 


462 


7.39 




5,520.00 


374 


76 


12.27 




275.00 


49 




5.61 


Total 


$54,694.83 


3,781 


1,103 


$11.20 



The following brief history of the development of the vocation- 
al program has been taken from the Baltimore City report for 
1938-39:* 

Baltimore has always taken a great interest in practical arts education. 
For more than 100 years courses in mechanical drafting have been offered 
under semi-public auspices. In 1884, the Baltimore Manual Training School 
was established to provide technical and mechanical training for boys. In 
September, 1918, soon after the passage of the Smith-Hughes Act, the Boys 
Vocational School was organized. New courses were added gradually and the 
enrollment grew rather rapidly during the next few years. Later it became 
apparent that the majority of the boys who entered the school were not ade- 
quately prepared to do full-fledged trade work. Changes in entrance require- 
ments were therefore necessary, eliminating thereby a large number of boys 
who greatly needed a kind of education quite different from that of the 
traditional school. Accordingly, to fill this need, a program of occupational 
shopwork was organized in 1927 on a level lower than that required for skilled 
trade courses. Later, in 1935, the first of two schools for boys was established 
to offer general vocational training of a higher order in skills that might be 
applied in various industrial operations. 

A new direction has been given to the development of vocational education 
in Baltimore by the George-Deen Act which became effective July 1, 1937. 



* See pages 107-110, 112-114, 110th Annual Report of the Board of School Commissioners 
of Baltimore City. 



258 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

This Act provides additional Federal aid for trade and industrial education 
and for the development of distributive education, which is the training of 
persons preparing for or engaged in the distribution of products or in the sale 
of a service. Through the funds made available by the new Act, the Division 
of Vocational Education, was able in 1938-39 to offer training for workers 
engaged in retail baking, restaurant and tearoom service, ice delivery and 
refrigeration, the grocery, and the chemical industry, none of whom were 
included in any previous training program. Classes in industrial arithmetic, 
principles of personnel management, industrial accounting, related instruction 
for apprentices (Trade Mathematics, Trade Drawing, Trade Science, and 
Blueprint Reading) , waitress training, applied chemistry, and salesmanship 
were organized for the training of employees. In co-operation with the air- 
craft industry 17 classes were organized in the fundamentals of projection 
drawings and the reading of working drawings typical of that industry. 

To develop within Baltimore industry a group of men capable of properly 
handling foremanship training classes, a series of ten leadership training 
conferences was planned and held in the spring. The conferences were well 
attended by men in executive positions from the ten participating factories 
and organizations. So successful were these conferences that another series 
is planned for next year. These training conferences and classes filled a need 
hitherto untouched by public education. More requests were received for this 
new service than the vocational division could provide with the funds avail- 
able. 

The training in the work of the graphic arts industries given at the Ottmar 
Mergenthaler School of Printing is practical and thorough, and the school- 
printed product turned out by the students is comparable with that of the best 
print shops. A course in printing and advertising design started in a limited 
way in 1939 offers an opportunity for boys with art talent and adequate 
mental ability to prepare for employment as designers and layout men in the 
printing, lithographic, folding box, photo-engraving, and advertising fields. 

The Colored Vocational School has improved its courses of study to parallel 
the changes which have taken place in trades and in the social and economic 
life of the community, and has introduced more efficient teaching methods. 
One of the major problems which the school faces, however, is the selection of 
pupils who have both the desire and the aptitude for vocational training and 
the rejection of those who have neither the desire nor the aptitude. The Divi- 
sion of Aptitude Testing aided by a member of the faculty is slowly but 
effectively furnishing data that will be of material assistance in predicting 
rather accurately the success of pupils in vocational specialization. The 
recently added course. Landscape Gardening and Floriculture, gives promise 
of becoming one of the most attractive and profitable courses in the school. 
It may even inaugurate a movement of neighborhood and yard beautification 
that will be a distinct contribution to the community. 

occupational home economics 

The home economics program in the occupational classes provides an 
intensive two- or three-year training in the homemaking subjects for girls 
who will possibly leave school before completing the equivalent of the junior 
high school. It aims to help them meet and solve adequately many of the 
problems of life. Adaptable to the needs of individual students, the course 
may include sufficient training in foods, clothing, and home management for 
wage-earning positions. Through the child study unit and through special 
training and experience offered in the practice house and the prekindergarten 
center for a period of nine weeks, there is specific training for parenthood 
and for a satisfying home life. 



Baltimore City's Vocational Program; Administration and 259 
Supervision of Vocational Education 

A practice house program started for colored students was well adapted 
to an intensive unit of homemaking training similar to that which is offered 
the girls in the white occupational schools. Under the direction of one full- 
time teacher, 46 girls selected from the four occupational centers have nine 
weeks' intensive training in homemaking at the new center. The pupils have 
practice in applying their learnings in a normal setting by planning the meals, 
answering the telephone, receiving the guests, doing the family laundry, and 
carrying out all the other household duties that any homemaker is obliged to 
perform. 

State Administration and Supervision of Vocational Education 

The administration and supervision of vocational education 
and guidance was financed by State funds to a total of $11,520 
and by Federal funds aggregating $10,697. Guidance became 
a part of the State program with the appointment of a State 
Supervisor early in 1938 and for the year 1938-39 his salary and 
expenses were financed jointly from State and Federal funds. 
It was due to the initiative of the State Director of Vocational 
Education that approval of Federal aid for State supervision of a 
guidance program was obtained. The director of vocational 
education also acts as supervisor of trade and industrial education 
and with the State supervisor of home economics gives full time 
to the work. The State supervisor of agriculture devoted one- 
third of his time to the supervision of agricultural work in the 
counties, one-half of his time to teacher training in agriculture 
at the University of Maryland, and one-sixth of his time to 
administration at the University. The University of Maryland 
matched the Federal appropriation for teacher training in agri- 
culture, trades and industries, and home economics. (See Table 
173.) 

TABLE 173 



Expenditures for Administration, Supervision and Teacher Training in 
Vocational Education, Year Ending June 30, 1939 



Purpose 


Administration 
AND Supervision 


Teacher-Training 


Total 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


University 
of Md. 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


State and 
University 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 




*$1,203.65 
4.322.58 
3,163.58 
t2,830.19 


*$1,203.62 
3,574.36 
3,088.59 
t2,830.19 


S3, 360. 54 
7,943.63 
2,669.81 


$3,360.54 
7.943.65 
2,669.79 


*$4,564.19 
12,266.21 
5,833.39 
t2,830.19 


*$4,564.16 
11,518.01 
5,758.38 
t2,830.19 


Trades and Industries 

Home Economics 

Guidance 


Total 


*$11,520.00 


*$10,696.76 


$13,973.98 


$13,973,98 


♦$25,493.98 *$24, 670. 74 





* Includes $800 charged to the agriculture fund. 

t This amount was distributed as follows in the annual financial report of the State 
Board for Vocational Education to the U. S. Office of Education : 

Agriculture, $754.73 ; Trades and Industries $754.71 ; Home Economics $754.71 ; Distribu- 
tive Education $566.04. 



260 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



WORK RELIEF PROJECTS BENEFITING SCHOOLS 

Nine counties reported the estimated value of Federal aid 
for work relief projects affecting school grounds and buildings 
as $107,483 for 1938-39. This amount does not include $42,907 
expended for cataloguing and reconditioning library and text- 
books, which project in eight counties was sponsored by the Mary- 
land Public Library Advisory Commission, nor does it include 
$53,174 spent at the Commission office for organizing, catalogu- 
ing and repairing books for the Commission, county schools and 
county libraries. (See Table 174 and pages 62-63 and 156.) 

TABLE 174 



Work Relief Projects Benefiting Schools: Number of Schools Benefited; Type 
of Project; Estimated Value of Federal Aid— for School Year 1938-39 



County 


No. of 
Schools 
Benefited 






11 spuno. 


Alterations || 


ding 1 




M 




i'ield II 


uilding 1 


e 




Gymnasium and 
Auditorium 


Gymnasium Seats || 


be 


is stations | 


Estimated 
Value of 




White 


Colored 


Grading 


Painting 


School Gr 


New Buil 


Repairs 


Walks an 
Drivewa 


Additions 


Athletic I 


Razing Bi 


Renovatii 


1 Cafeteria 


1 Landscap 


School Bi: 


Federal 
Aid 


All Counties 


91 


11 


































$107,483 

9,504 
10,200 
27,168 
12,200 
342 




11 


1 


X 


X 


X 














X 


X 






X 






Caroline 


5 


3 


X 


X 






X 


X 










X 












Cecil 


1 


1 


X 




X 












X 












X 




Dorchester 


11 


5 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Frederick 


1 
















X 




















Garrett 


49 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




















X 


2,089 
24,675 
8,191 




4 




X 






X 






X 




X 


X 
















7 


i 


X 






















X 










Worcester 


2 


















X 










X 








13,114 









































The work relief projects reported by superintendents of schools 
included grading, walks and driveways, painting, improvement 
of school grounds, repairs, alterations, new buildings, additions, 
athletic fields, gymnasium, auditorium, cafeteria, razing build- 
ings, gymnasium seats, landscaping, and bus stations. (See 
Table 174.) 

The Works Progress Administration allotted to the Baltimore 
City Department of Education $286,273 for reconditioning, re- 
habilitating and improving school buildings, grounds, and equip- 
ment, of which $207,273 was expended and made available ; and 
$73,023 for bettering school administration of which $55,970 was 
expended. The City Department of Education contributed $61,- 
380 in supervision and materials, by assigning regular adminis- 
trative and technical personnel, and shop workmen as foremen 
and sub-foremen. 



W.P.A. School Projects; Transportation of Pupils at Public 261 

Expense 

TRANSPORTATION OF MARYLAND COUNTY PUPILS 

In 1938-39 the counties transported 61,753 pupils to school at 
an expenditure to the public of $1,202,784. This was an increase 
of 5,485 in the number transported and $81,286 in cost over cor- 
responding figures for 1938. The gradual growth of the program 
of transporting pupils to school at public expense since 1910, 
when four counties spent $5,210, to the program in 1939 is 
shown in Table 175. The number of pupils transported at public 
expense first reported as 4,344 in 1923 grew to over fourteen 
times this number in 1939. The average cost to the public per 
pupil transported decreased from $30.59 in 1923 to $19.50 in 
1939. Except for slight increases in 1926, 1937, and 1938, there 
has been a decrease each year in the cost per pupil transported 
at public expense, and this has been accomplished in the later 
years partly by the use of larger busses more carefully routed, 
but at the same time the type of bus used with respect to safety, 
arrangement, weight, etc., has been much improved in most of 
the counties. (See Table 175 and Charts 40 and 41.) 

TABLE 175 



Maryland County Expenditures for Transporting Pupils to School 1910-1939 



Year 


Public 
Expenditures for 
Transportation 


Number of 
Counties 


Number of 

Pupils 
Transported 


tCost to 
Public per 

Pupil 
Transported 


1910 


$5,210 


4 






1915 


17,270 


10 






1920 


64,734 


18 






1921 


84,870 


18 






1922 


90,011 


18 






1923 


132,591 


20 


4^344 


$36! 59 


1924 


188,516 


21 


6,499 


29.01 


1925 


242,041 


22 


8,618 


28.09 


1926 


312,495 


22 


10,567 


29.57 


1927 


373,168 


23 


*13,385 


t27.92 


1928 


436,583 


23 


*15,907 


t27.49 


1929 


512,385 


23 


*18,928 


t27.12 


1930 


603,148 


23 


*22,814 


t26.51 


1931 


744,400 


23 


*29,006 


t25.71 


1932 


834,679 


23 


*35,019 


t23.88 


1933 


858,274 


23 


*40,308 


t21.33 


1934 


863,549 


23 


*42,241 


120.47 


1935 


892,422 


23 


*44,576 


t20.04 


1936 


952,598 


23 


*49,051 


tl9.48 


1937 


1,019,872 


23 


*52,248 


tl9.55 


1938 


1,121,498 


23 


*56,268 


tl9.96 


1939 


1,202,784 


23 


*61,753 


tl9.50 



* Includes number of pupils transported to Bowie Normal School or Teachers College at 
State expense. 

t Pupils transported at State expense to Bowie Noi-mal School or Teachers College ex_ 
eluded in obtaining cost per pupil transported. 



The transportation program has been increased considerably 
for both white and colored county pupils. In 1923, there were 
4,328 white county pupils in 20 counties transported to school 



262 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 40 

Number of Maryland County Pupils Transported to School at Public Expense 
and Expenditures Therefor, 1923 to 1939 



1.3OO.0OO 




mi 



\91S 



mz 



M55 



19 J5 



at an expense to the public of $129,738, while for the year 1939, 
the number transported was 54,348, in the 23 counties, and the 
public expense was nearly $1,067,000. Only 5 counties furnished 
transportation to 133 county colored pupils in 1923 at a cost of 
$2,853. By 1929, 9 counties were transporting 270 colored pupils 
at a cost of over $5,900. During the school year 1938-39 every 
county having colored pupils provided transportation for some 
of them, the total number transported being 7,405 and the total 
cost to the public for their transportation being nearly $136,000. 
(See Table 176.) 



Increase in Pupils Transported and Cost of Transportation ; 263 
Decrease in Cost per Pupil Transported 



CHART 41 

Cost per Maryland County Pupil Transported at Public Expense, 1923-1939 

i iO I 1 1 1 1 J 1 , r-n 

IS - 




isr . 
10 - 



Ol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ; — I I 

»23 WIS mi «23 mi ms mi lais 

Since consolidation of elementary schools has not progressed 
as rapidly for colored as for white pupils, the per cent of all 
county colored elementary pupils transported in 1938-39 was 
18 as against 36 per cent for white elementary pupils. However, 
the per cent of county high school pupils transported wholly or in 
part at public expense was 70 for colored pupils, as against 45 
for white pupils. In no county are there more than three high 
schools for colored pupils; therefore a larger proportion of 
colored than of white high sdhool pupils have to be transported 
and travel longer distances. 

In 1938-39 Baltimore City transported to school at public 
expense 633 children, of whom 430 were physically handicapped. 
These children were transported in 12 busses at a cost of $26,980, 
which averaged $42.60 per pupil transported. There were 523 
white and 110 colored pupils transported to elementary, voca- 
tional, junior, and senior high schools. 

Of the 61,753 county pupils transported at public expense in 
1939, there were 42,348 carried to elementary and 19,405 to 
high schools. This was an increase of 3,619 elementary and 
1,866 high school pupils over the number transported in 1938. 
(See Table 176.) 



264 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 176 



County Pupils Transported to Public School at Public Expense 1923-1939 



Year 


Pupils Transported to School at Public Expense 


Public 
Expenditures For 
Transportation of 


Number Transported 


Per Cent Transported 


Elementary- 


High 


Elementary 


High 


White 
Pupils 


Colored 
Pupils 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


1923 


3,485 


133 


843 





3 


1 


6 





$129,738 


$2,853 


1924 


4,682 


133 


1,701 





5 


1 


11 





185,263 


3,253 


1925. . 


6,269 


144 


2,197 


1 


6 


1 


13 





238,094 


3,947 


1926 


7,613 


105 


2,835 


14 


8 





15 


2 


308,596 


3,899 


1927 


9,778 


tl40 


3,424 


15 10 


1 


17 


1 


368,089 


5,079 


1928 


11,774 


t201 


3,870 


20 


11 


1 


18 


2 


431,065 


5,517 


1929 


14,028 


t247 


4,632 


*23 


14 


1 


20 


2 


506,478 


*5,907 


1930 


16,670 


t310 


5,660 


*174 


16 


1 


23 


9 


594,473 


*8,675 


1931 


20,593 


t493 


7,746 


*215 


20 


2 


29 


10 


726,747 


*17,633 


1932 


24,787 


t724 


9,019 


*477 


23 


3 


32 


19 


807,373 


*27,305 


1933 


28,741 


t847 


10,157 


502 


27 


3 


34 


19 


828,067 


30,207 


1934 


29,969 


tl,051 


10,581 


740 


28 


4 


35 


27 


826,817 


36,732 


1935 


31,147 


tl,096 


11,517 


1,035 


29 


4 


37 


35 


836,355 


44,781 


1936 


32,676 


tl,389 


13,191 


°1,795 


31 


6 


41 


51 


890,325 


62,272 


1937 


34,076 


tl,807 


13,970 


°2,395 


32 


8 


42 


59 


944 , 922 


74,951 


1938 


35,980 


t2,749 


14,556 


°2,983 


34 


12 


43 


68 


1,013,356 


108,142 


1939 


38,201 


t4,147 


16,147 


°3,258 


36 


18 


45 


70 


1,066,880 


135,904 


Increase 




















1923-1939. 


34,716 


4,014 


15,304 


3,258 


33 


17 


39 


70 


937,142 


133,051 



t Includes county pupils transported to elementary school at Bowie State Teachers College 
at expense of State. 

* Includes Rosenwald aid toward transportation of pupils. 

° Includes county pupils toward whose transportation costs to Baltimore City high schools 
Baltimore County contributed. There were 158 in 1939. 



Maryland County Pupils Transported to School in 1939 at Public Expense 





Pupils Transported 


Public Expenditures for Transportation 


County 


















To Ele- 


To 




To Ele- 


To 




Total 


mentary 


High 


Total 


mentary 


High 






School 


School 




School 


School 


Total Counties 


161,753 


142,348 


19,405 


$1,202,784 


$829,739 


t$373,045 


Baltimore 


°8,562 


5,858 


°2,704 


J132,608 


103,416 


t29,192 




4,336 


3,093 


1,243 


93,045 


65,147 


27,898 




t4,923 


t3,205 


1,718 


85,450 


55,145 


30,305 




4,251 


3,044 


1,207 


82,150 


57,524 


24,626 


Montgomery 


4,898 


3,802 


1,096 


i75,336 


67,662 


i7,674 


Allegany 


4,036 


3,013 


1,023 


72,253 


54,390 


17,863 


Garrett 


2,104 


1,313 


791 


65,530 


41,296 


24,234 




2,811 


2,035 


776 


52,918 


36,168 


16.750 


Dorchester 


1,852 


1,199 


653 


46,395 


29,373 


17,022 


Prince George's 


t3,201 


tl,915 


1,286 


46,341 


26,219 


20,122 


Charles 


1,762 


1,052 


710 


43,396 


25,114 


18,282 




2,015 


1,429 


586 


42,947 


28,923 


14,024 


Wicomico 


2,203 


1,419 


784 


42,879 


27,983 


14,896 




2,232 


1,598 


634 


38,492 


27,547 


10,945 




1,372 


762 


610 


37,276 


19,129 


18,147 




1,803 


1,192 


611 


34,861 


21,238 


13,623 


Queen Anne's 


1,343 


920 


423 


33,776 


22,258 


11,518 


Cecil 


1,718 


1,036 


682 


33,133 


20,345 


12,788 


Talbot 


1,330 


863 


467 


33,069 


22,141 


10,928 


Calvert 


1,159 


816 


343 


32,728 


20,268 


12,460 


Howard 


1,473 


935 


538 


28,878 


18,762 


10,116 


Kent 


1,213 


758 


455 


26,465 


16,949 


9,516 




1,156 


1,091 


65 


t22,858 


22,742 


me 



t Includes 102 pupils, 28 from Anne Arundel and 74 from Prince George's, transported to 
the elementary school at Bowie State Teachers College. 

t Supplemented by payments by parents of high school pupils in Baltimore, Montgomery 
and Harford Counties. 



Transportation of White and Colored Pupils; Cost per Pupil 265 
Transported 



Every county transported more pupils at public expense in 1939 
than in 1938, and every county, except Montgomery, spent more 
for transporting pupils to school in 1939 than in 1938 due to in- 
crease in number of pupils carried and improvement in bus 
equipment. (See Table 176.) 

Cost to Public per County Pupil Transported 

The range among the counties in cost per pupil transported was 
from under $15 to over $31. All, except seven counties had a lower 
cost per pupil transported in 1939 than in 1938. 

TABLE 177 



Cost Per Maryland County Pupil Transported to School at Public Expense, 
for Year Ending July 31, 1939 



County 


Average 
Cost to 
Public per 

Pupil 
Transported 


White 


Colored 


Elemen- 
tary 


High 


Elemen- 
tary 


High 




t$19.50 


$19.96 


$18.85 


t$16 


58 


$21.10 


Garrett 


31.15 


31.45 


30 


64 








Calvert 


28.24 


29.84 


40 


33 


10 


49 


36! 66 


St. Mary's 


27.17 


33.56 


36 


56 


9 


79 


16.97 


Queen Anne's 


25.15 


25.01 


25 


28 


19 


33 


34.85 




25.05 


25.22 


27 


00 


21 


21 


23.40 


Talbot 


24.86 


28.56 


26 


25 


16 


94 


16.40 




24.63 


24.51 


27 


21 


17 


98 


23.54 


Kent 


21.82 


22.31 


20 


66 


22 


54 


21.47 




21.61 


21.20 


°22 


24 


19 


26 


30.31 


Worcester 


21.31 


21.60 


26 


67 


15 


54 


15.81 


Harford 


*19.77 


21.32 


*1 


79 


14 


33 






19.61 


19.71 


18 


43 


27 


65 


27! 66 




19.46 


21.25 


20 


73 


13 


00 


15.55 




19.33 


19.50 


26 


26 


10 


99 


15.25 


Carroll 


19.32 


18.91 


20 


25 


18 


73 


22.84 


Cecil 


19.29 


18.47 


17 


53 


32 


71 


28.90 




18.59 


17.37 


20 


14 


45 


51 


95.00 


Allegany 


17.90 


18.05 


17 


49 


16 


43 


15.60 




17.46 


17.41 


15 


38 


14 


55 


32.96 


Caroline 


17.25 


17.27 


17 


27 


17 


15 


17.24 


Baltimore 


*15.49 


17.80 


*10 


32 


15 


65 


t*18.49 


Montgomery 


*15.38 


17.94 


*5 


99 


16.67 


*10.47 


Prince George's 


n4.79 


14.19 


13 


28 


n 


35 


21.49 



* Supplemented by payments by parents of high school pupils in Harford, Baltimore and 
Montgomery Counties. 

t Cost to Baltimore County per pupil transported to Baltimore City junior and junior- 
senior high schools. 

t Cost to Prince George's County for transporting 74 pupils to the Demonstration School 
at Bowie Sfate Teachers College excluded in computing average cost per pupil transported. 

° Includes reduction of 14 cents because of inclusion of payment of $6.70 for 37 W^ashing- 
ton County pupils transported to a Frederick County high school at expense of Washington 
County. 

The average cost per county white elementary pupil trans- 
ported was $19.96 with a range in cost for the 23 counties from 
$14 to $34. The variation in cost per colored elementary pupil 
transported in twenty-one counties was from $10 to $46. (See 
Table 177.) 

In the twenty counties which pay the entire cost of high school 
transportation, the range in cost per white high school pupil 



266 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



transported was from $13 to $40, and per colored high school 
pupil transported from $15 to $95, the latter county having only 
6 pupils transported. 

Three counties w^hich required each high school pupil to con- 
tribute at least $15 and $20 toward the expense of his trans- 
portation, expended from county funds $1.79 (Harford), $5.99 
(Montgomery) and $10.32 (Baltimore) per white high school 
pupil transported, while Montgomery spent $10.47 and Balti- 
more County $18.49 per colored pupil transported to high school. 

Road conditions, the distance pupils have to be carried, the 
size and type of vehicle used, the contract price for busses, are 
some factors which would have to be considered in making com- 
parisons of cost per pupil transported among the individual coun- 
ties. (See Table 177.) 



TABLE 178 



Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Pupils Transported to School at 
Public Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1939 



COUNTT 


White 


Colored 


Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Average: 


















1937 


34,076 


31.9 


13,970 


41.8 


1,807 


7.3 


2.395 


58.5 


1938 


35,980 


33.9 


14,556 


42.9 


2,749 


11.4 


2,983 


67.2 


1939 


38,201 


35.9 


16,147 


44.7 


*t4,147 


17.7 


t3.258 


69.8 




1,174 


61.4 


478 


62.3 


424 


65.7 


156 


83.9 


Carroll 


2,893 


62.4 


1,135 


64.8 


151 


46.9 


72 


72.7 


St. Mary's 


491 


59.6 


398 


99.3 


271 


29.4 


212 


94.6 


Queen Anne's 


788 


57.2 


337 


67.3 


132 


23.0 


86 


83.5 


Calvert 


605 


74.7 


201 


96.6 


211 


19.9 


142 


97.3 




1,109 
949 


58.8 


438 


55.8 


320 


26.8 


148 


55.2 


Charles 


67.1 


428 


73.9 


103 


7.5 


282 


89.2 


Kent 


602 


46.3 


310 


62.6 


156 


24.6 


145 


80.6 




893 


45.0 


516 


77.5 


42 


7.4 


22 


37.9 




1,313 


35.6 


791 


68.1 










Anne Arundel 


3,114 


52.0 


1,497 


65.3 


'*9i 


3!2 


'22i 


56!3 


Frederick 


2,876 


42.2 


1,129 


47.0 


217 


28.1 


114 


56.4 




956 


49.8 


391 


52.4 


236 


17.9 


220 


74.8 


Talbot 


647 


40.9 


332 


49.1 


216 


27.3 


135 


68.2 


Cecil 


951 


32.4 


609 


48.7 


85 


25.4 


73 


74.5 


Dorchester 


983 


37.7 


483 


49.6 


216 


17.8 


170 


64.4 


Baltimore 


5,464 


33.3 


2,546 


49.5 


394 


21.4 


n58 


84.9 


Montgomery 


3,364 


37.7 


848 


30.1 


438 


25.9 


248 


88.6 




1,156 


34.8 


522 


41.4 


263 


20.7 


262 


70.2 




3,009 


25.2 


1,008 


26.1 


4 


1.8 


15 


15.5 


Washington 


2,006 


18.7 


770 


29.9 


29 


12.2 


6 


10.5 


Prince George's 


1,841 


19.0 


915 


27.7 


t74 


2.6 


371 


81.7 


Harford 


1,017 


26.7 


65 


4.3 


74 


9.6 







* Includes 28 pupils transported to the Training School at Bowie State Teachers College 
at State expense. 

t Includes 74 pupils transported to the Training School at Bowie State Teachers College 
at State expense. 

t Includes pupils transported to Baltimore City junior and junior-t-enior high schools at 
county expense. 



Per Cent of Pupils Transported; No. of Schools to Which 267 
Transportation Was Provided 



Per Cent of County Pupils Transported 

As few as 19 per cent of the white elementary pupils were 
transported at public expense in two counties and as many as 
75 per cent in another county. The extremes for white high 
school pupils were 4 per cent in a county which bears very little 
of the cost of transporting high school pupils and 99 per cent 
in a sparsely populated county in which practically all pupils are 
transported to the two consolidated high schools. For colored 
elementary pupils the extremes were 2 and 66 per cent of the 
pupils transported at public expense. One county spent no public 
funds for transporting colored high school pupils whereas as 
many as 97 per cent of the pupils in another county were trans- 
ported at public expense. Of the twenty-one counties which 
paid for transporting colored high school pupils 15 had one high 
school, 3 had two, and 2 had three high schools, and one county 
paid in part for the transportation of its residents to Baltimore 
City hi^h schools. (See Table 178.) 



TABLE 179 

Number of County Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided at Public 
Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1939 







White 




White 


Schools 








Schools 


With Elementary 












Grades Only 








Total 


County 








Having 


Having 


Colored 


Number 










Both High 


High 


Schools 


of 




One- 


Two- 




and Ele- 


School 




Different 




Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


mentary 


Pupils 




Schools 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Grades 


Only 






Total Counties 


54 


72 


162 


117 


29 


120 


554 


Allegany 


2 


2 


14 


11 




1 


30 


Anne Arundel 




2 


19 


2 


'4 


3 


30 


Baltimore 




3 


20 


*8 




10 


42 


Calvert 




1 


3 


1 




4 


10 


Caroline 




2 


3 


5 




5 


15 


Carroll 




4 


6 


8 




5 


24 


Cecil 


'4 


3 


1 


6 




6 


21 


Charles 






1 


5 




2 


8 


Dorchester 


8 


'3 


6 


5 




10 


33 


Frederick 




6 


17 


5 


2 


10 


40 


Garrett 


24 


6 


4 


*4 


2 




40 


Harford 


1 




3 


*8 




'5 


17 


Howard 






1 


4 




1 


6 


Kent 


i 


6 


1 


3 


"i 


7 


19 


Montgomery 


1 


4 


14 


9 


2 


12 


42 


Prince George's. . . . 


1 


3 


9 


7 


3 


3 


26 


3 


3 


6 


1 


4 


7 


24 


St. Mary's 


5 


8 


1 




2 


8 


24 




1 


2 


4 


'2 


2 


6 


17 


Talbot 


3 


2 


1 


5 




4 


15 


Washington 




5 


17 


7 


i 


2 


32 


Wicomico 




3 


7 


6 


1 


4 


21 


Worcester 




4 


4 


5 




5 


18 



To Elementary Only To High Only 

* Baltimore 1 

* Garrett 1 

* Harford 5 



268 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Number of Schools to Which Transportation was Provided 

Transportation was provided to three more schools for white 
pupils in 1939 than in 1938. One county which had not previously 
done so provided for transportation of colored pupils to school 
at public expense and also because of consolidation of schools, the 
number of schools to which colored pupils were transported in- 
creased by 14 over the number in 1938. Of the schools to which 
pupils were transported at public expense in 1939, 54 were white 
one-teacher, 72 were two-teacher, and 162 were graded elemen- 
tary schools, 117 were schools having both white elementary and 
high school pupils, 29 were for white high school pupils only, 
and 120 were schools attended by colored pupils. (See Table 179.) 

Number and Type of Vehicles for Transportation 

In the fall of 1938 the counties used 944 motor vehicles for 
transportation of pupils, of which 94 were owned by the coun- 
ties and 850 were owned by contractors. In addition there were 
82 private cars used to transport small numbers of pupils or to 
bring children from side roads to the main roads to meet the 
busses. There were also in use a motor boat in Calvert and two 
horse-drawn vehicles. Of the 94 county owned busses, Mont- 
gomery had 60, Baltimore 20, Garrett 4, Calvert and Harford 
3 each, Frederick 2, Carroll and Charles 1 each. Baltimore City 
contracted for 12 busses to transport 430 physically handicapped 
and 203 normal children to school. 

The total distance reported in October , 1938, as covered one 
way by the 944 motor busses used in the counties was 12,504 
miles, an average of 13.25 miles per motor vehicle. The 82 pri- 
vate cars ran 454 miles one way, an average distance of 5.54 
miles, while the two horse-drawn vehicles each averaged 3.5 
miles. In addition to transportation in these vehicles the public 
paid for transporting 743 county pupils on trains, electric cars, 
and public busses. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR SCHOOLS 

School capital outlay in the counties for 1938-39 totaled $2,- 
845,537. This included $676,392 received from the Federal 
Public Works Administration by nine counties shown in the note 
to Table 180. Exclusive of Allegany, Cecil, and Wicomico Coun- 
ties, the largest capital outlay for schools was made in the coun- 
ties which received P.W.A. funds. (See Table 180.) 

The largest capital outlay, $1,466,956, was made for white 
county elementary schools, while $1,202,429 was used for white 
high schools. For county colored schools the capital outlay was 
$171,152. (See Table 180.) 



No. OF Schools to Which Children Were Transported; No. of 269 
Vehicles Used; Capital Outlay 



TABLE 180 
t Capital Outlay, Year Ending July 31, 1939 







White 


Elementary 








County 










White 








One- 


Two- 




All 


High 


Colored 


Grand 




Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Elementary 


Schools 


Schools 


Total 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 








Total Counties . . . 


$11,393 


$7,220 


$1,448,343 


$1,466,956 


$1,202,429 


$171,152 


ta 

$2,845,537 


Allegany 






363,997 


363,997 


161,407 




a 530, 404 


Anne Arundel 




"i? 


20,762 


20,779 


1,926 


6^705 


29,410 








70,858 


70,858 


32,599 


3,681 


tl07,138 


Calvert 


'i68 


"ii 


1,746 


1,925 


216 


10,658 


12,799 






595 


77,068 


77,663 


77,975 


21,180 


tl76,818 


Carroll 






1 ,883 


1,883 


32,381 


50 


34,314 


Cecil 






147,487 


147,487 


162,461 


506 


310,454 








267 


267 


567 


22,686 


23,520 




369 


355 


2,665 


3,389 




5,563 


8,952 


Frederick 




185 


2,119 


2,304 


152^840 


48,736 


t203,880 


Garrett 




5,102 


64,926 


70,028 


3,158 




t73,186 


Harford 






56,308 


56,308 


2,837 


' '23 


59,168 


Howard 


'i39 




58,431 


58,570 


191,672 


313 


1250,555 


Kent 




203 


91 


294 


635 




929 


Montgomery 






142,274 


142,274 


111,907 


15,489 


t269, 670 


Prince George's. . 
Queen Anne's. . . . 


10,717 




264,790 


275,507 


105,248 


31,583 


t412,338 




'i5i 


1,493 


1,644 


9,559 


1,547 


12,750 


St. Mary's 










1,490 


462 


tl,952 


Somerset 






' '76 


' "76 


148 


419 


643 


Talbot 




' "34 


128 


162 


3,135 


1,530 


4,827 


Washington 




562 


71,430 


71,992 


143,101 




t215,093 






5 


90,544 


90,549 


1,405 


■ '21 


91,975 


Worcester 






9,000 


9,000 


5,762 




14,762 


Baltimore City . . . 








17,823 


4,203 


3,200 


tb30,785 


Elementary .... 








1,310 




1,995 


3,305 


Vocational , , . . 








719 




1,205 


1,924 


Junior High . . . 








15,794 






15,794 


Senior High . . . 










4; 203 




4,203 


Total State 








$1,484,779 


$1,206,632 


$174,352 


tab 
$2,876,322 



a Includes $5,000 spent for the office building. 

b Includes $5,559 expended for the administration building. 

t Includes $676,832.62 from PWA distributed as follows : 



Baltimore 
Caroline . 
Frederick 
Garrett ... 
Howard ... 



$20,157.90 

77,504.52 

136,250.00 

30,072.00 

79,468.90 

Montgomery 146,171.60 



Prince George's $102,818.00 

St. Mary's 11,200.00 

Washington 72,748.75 



Baltimore City 



440.95 



SCHOOL BONDS OUTSTANDING 

In August, 1939, nineteen counties reported school bonds out- 
standing totaling $19,370,417, an increase of $3,652,017 over 
the amount outstanding the preceding year. In eleven counties 
there was an increase and in eight a decrease in the amount of 
school bonds outstanding. (See Table 181.) 

School bonds to the extent of $795,439 in seven counties were 
unissued in August, 1939, although they had been authorized 
by the 1939 session of the legislature or by the general legisla- 
tion making it possible for certain counties to issue bonds to 
take advantage of the opportunity to obtain aid from Federal 
appropriations. 



270 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 181 

School Bonds Outstanding in Maryland as of August 1, 1939 







1939 Assessable 




r^er oent that 






Basis Taxable 


Assessable Basis 


Indebtedness 


County 


ocnool rJonds 


at r ull Kate 


rJack OI ii<acn 


tor bicnool bonds 




Outstanding 


for County 


uouar 01 ocnooi 


is OI 1 oiai 




Tt.lir 01 1 QQQ 

July oi , lyoy 


Purposes 


Indebtedness 


County Basis 






<ti c\Ai And 7i;n 


<t KA 


1 . o 


Allegany 


*2, 735, 000 


83,192,638 


30 


3.3 




1 ^sf; finn 
1 , ooo , uuu 


t^7 mo 8fi7 
Oi ,UliJ,oD/ 


4 1 


2 4 


Baltimore 


o , lyi , DO / 


onfl j^sr; ftftQ 
^UO , OoD , Doy 


65 


1 5 




oCn c;of» 
aou , ouu 


o , oio , ^DU 


78 


1 3 


Caroline 


144,000 


15,073,887 


105 


1.0 






QQ r;Qn non 

oo , oyu , Uou 








Ann 
0(0, UUU 




1 n7 


g 






1 n ^^77 Q1 1 
lu , o I t , y 1 i 


105 


1 




COxD , UUU 


iio , DoO , OiiO 


AR 


2 2 




1,284,000 


67,314,950 


52 


l!9 


Garrett 




20,492,167 






Harford 


d221,350 


52,663,115 


238 


'.i 


Howard 


383,050 


18,671,970 


49 


2.1 


Kent 




17,046,314 






Montgomery 


64,431,850 


113,739,422 


26 


3^9 


Prince George's 


f 1,971, 500 


84,086,251 


43 


2.3 


14,000 


16,818,654 


1,201 


.1 


St. Mary's 




9,317,109 








70,500 


11,892,608 


169 


!6 


Talbot 


220,000 


22,148,234 


101 


1.0 


Washington 


gl, 222, 000 


77,300,272 


63 


1.6 




804,000 


31,522,669 


39 


2.6 




217,000 


21,130,501 


97 


1.0 


Baltimore City 


h21,744,633 


1,228,292,447 


56 


1.8 




41,115,050 


2,275,699,197 


55 


1.8 



* $350,000 authorized but unissued. f $60,000 authorized but unissued. 

a $55,000 authorized but unissued. As of May 31, 1939. 

b $27,000 authorized but unissued. h $10,000,000 authorized but unissued. 

c As of April 30, 1939, $48,439 authorized but unissued. 

d $80,000 authorized but unissued. 

e Includes $1,529,700 refunding bonds. Excludes $175,000 authorized but unissued. 

The assessable , basis taxable at the full rate back of each 
dollar of school indebtedness outstanding was $54 in the coun- 
ties and $56 in Baltimore City, a decrease of $11 for the counties 
and an increase of $3 for Baltimore City over the year preceding. 
The assessable basis back of each dollar of school indebtedness 
ranged between $26 and $46 in six counties . (See Table 181.) 

The per cent that indebtedness for school bonds was of total 
county basis assessable at the full rate for county purposes was 
over 1.8 per cent for the counties as a group and under 1.8 per 
cent for Baltimore City. These percentages ranged between 
2.2 and 3.9 per cent in the six counties with the highest rates 
of indebtedness to assessable basis. (See Table 181.) 

In Baltimore City the total amount of school bonds outstand- 
ing, $21,744,633, was $1,369,000 less than the amount outstand- 
ing the year before. The issue of $10,000,000, authorized by 
the legislature of 1931, by vote of the Board of School Com- 
missioners was not submitted for approval until May, 1939, 
when it received a favorable vote. (See Table 181.) 



School Bonds Outstanding in Maryland 



271 



TABLE 182 

School Bonds Authorized in 1937 and 1939, and Those Issued Earlier 
Not Previously Reported 



County 



Authorization 



Year 



Chap- 
ter 



Amount 
Authorized 
and Issued 
for Schools 



Date 

of 
Issue 



First and 
Final Pay- 
ment of 
Principal 



Allegany .... 

Anne Arundel 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester . . . 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Montgomery . 



Prince George's. 



Somerset. . . 

Talbot 

Washington 
Wicomico. . 



1937 
1939 

tl936 
1937 

1937 
1939 

tl936 
1939 

tl936 
1937 

1937 
1939 

1937 
1937 

1937 

1937 
1939 

tl937 
1937 
1937 

1931 
1931 
1933 
tl933 
tl933 
tl933 
1935 
tl936 
1937 
1937 
1937 
1939 
1939 

1936 
1937 
1937 
1939 

1937 
1939 

1937 

1937 

tl936 
tl937 
1939 



419 
367 

30 
367 

371 
495 

97 
8 

30 
367 

304 
637 

♦484 
367 

258 

163 
148 

13 
367 
367 

108 
108 
162 
25 
25 
25 
541 
156 
x335 
x335 
257 
158 
479 

84 
277 
277 
648 

453 
554 

90 

452 

84 
6 

340 



$600,000 
350,000 

120,000 
198,000 

25,000 
55,000 

24,000 
90,000 

100,000 
cl98,605 

25,000 
27,000 

150,0001 
30,000/ 

300,000 

95,000 
80,000 

45,000 
d30,250 
126,000 

1307,113 
t387,883 
bt47,898 
bt46,500 
bJlOl.SOO 
bt55,108 
b:557,810 
180,000 
230,000 
322,000 
bt90,050 
btl45,050 
175,000 

50,000 
250,000 
192,000 

60,000 

200,000 
55,000 

100,000 

190,000 

369,000 
125,000 
450,000 



1938 



1936 
1938 



1937 



1936 
1939 



1937 
1938 



1937 
1939 



1938 

1938 
1940 

1938 
1938 
1938 

1931 
1932 
1934 
1934 
1934 
1934 
1935-1937 
1936 
1938 
1939 
1938 
1939 
1940 

1937 
1937 
1938 
1939 

rejected in 
1939 

not to be is 

1937 

1937 
1938 
1939 



1944-1983 
1946-1955 



1937-1951 
1940-1955 



1939-1963 
15 years 



1940-1951 
1945-1962 



1938-1947 
1940-1958 



1938-1963 
1940-1966 



1939-1956 



1939-1953 

1944-1952 

1951- 1957 

1938- 1952 

1939- 1958 

1940- 1969 

1933-1962 
1933-1962 
1936-1954 
1936-1954 

1936- 1954 
1935-1954 

1939- 1955 

1937- 1954 

1942- 1958 

1943- 1964 
1942-1958 

1944- 1958 
1944-1958 

1938- 1942 

1939- 1963 

1940- 1963 

1940- 1951 

referendum 

1941- 1951 

sued 

1942- 1957 

1943- 1960 
1956-1959 

1952- 1966 



t Special session. 

* Amended by Chapter 16 of Special Session 
in 1937. 

t Part of larger issue including purposes 
other than schools. 

a Cannot be issued unless P.W.A. funds be- 
come available. 



b Refunding bonds. 

c Part of $400,000 issue. 

d Part of $75,000 issue for Public Works No. 1. 
X As amended by Chapter 840, laws of 1939. 



272 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

It was found that information had not previously been included 
in our annual reports regarding a number of bond issues for 
schools, especially those issued as a result of the general authori- 
zation provided for in Chapter 30 of the Special Session of 1936, 
as extended by Chapter 367 of the Laws of 1937, and by Chapter 
579 of the Laws of 1939, as well as some of those which were a 
part of general county bond issues. Information regarding bond 
issues recently authorized and those previously made available 
are included in Table 182. 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY 

In the Maryland counties the value of school property in use, 
including equipment reported separately for the first time in 

1937, totaled in 1939 $32,801,000, and in Baltimore City the value 
of sites and buildings only aggregated $49,676,000. The county 
valuation was an increase of $1,098,000 and the City valuation 
was larger by $43,000 than corresponding figures shown for 

1938. (See Table 183.) 

The value of school property per county pupil enrolled was 
$188, an increase of $4 over the preceding year. In Baltimore 
City the value per pupil enrolled, $408, was $2 less than for 
1938. Federal aid played a part in bringing about the county 
increase. (See Table 183.) 



TABLE 183 



Value of School Property, 1922-1939 





Value of School Property 


Value Per Pupil Enrolled 


Year 




















Baltimore 






Baltimore 




Maryland 


Counties 


Cityt 


Maryland 


Counties 


Cityt 


1922 


$20,453,646 


$10,014,638 


$10,439,008 


$82 


$68 


$103 


1923. 


22,236,638 


11,796,630 


10,440,008 


87 


77 


100 


1924 


28,264,507 


12,813,396 


15,451,111 


110 


85 


147 


1925 


33 , 622 , 503 


14,946,810 


18,675,693 


129 


97 


164 


1926 


38,865,024 


16,704,564 


22,160,460 


148 


108 


205 


1927 


48,654,045 


17,889,796 


30,764,249 


182 


114 


277 


1928 


51,765,517 


18,994,670 


32,770,847 


191 


120 


291 


1929 


52,801,013 


19,920,102 


32,880,911 


193 


124 


290 


1930 


55,741,316 


21,483,720 


34,257,596 


201 


132 


297 


1931 


61,141,759 


23,830,725 


37,311,034 


217 


144 


321 


1932 


64,116,448 


24,608,923 


39,507,525 


222 


146 


331 


1933 


66,030,676 


25,350,740 


40,679,936 


225 


147 


335 


1934 


72,241,647 


25,501,303 


46,740,344 


246 


149 


384 


1935 


74,116,872 


26,847,518 


47,269,354 


251 


156 


384 


1936 


74,429,453 


26,778,790 


47,650,663 


250 


155 


380 


1937 


*78, 573,662 


*29, 656,237 


48,917,425 


*264 


*171 


395 


1938 


*81,336,202 


*31,702,972 


49,633,230 


*277 


*184 


410 


1939 


*82,477,467 


*32,801,326 


49,676,141 


*278 


*188 


408 



* Includes value of equipment in Maryland counties. 

t Excludes value of equipment, and also of administration buildings, wart-houses, and 
storage buildings. 



Value of School Property 



273 



In the counties the school property used by white pupils was 
valued in 1939 at $30,890,000, an increase of $1,054,000 over 
1938. Thirteen counties showed an increase for 1939 over 1938 
in value of school property used by white pupils. The largest 
increases appeared in Prince George's, Caroline, Wicomico, Anne 
Arundel, Garrett, Harford, and Worcester. (See Table 184.) 

TABLE 184 



Value of School Property, Including Equipment, Per Pupil Belonging, 1939 



County 


Schools for White Pupils 


Schools for Colored Pupils 


Value 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pupil 


Value 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pupil 


Total Counties/ 1938. . . 


$29,835,584 


137,062 


$218 


$1,867,388 


26,776 


$70 


\1939. . . 


30,889,741 


139,833 


221 


1,911,585 


27,183 


70 


A 1 IpcTAn V 


4,297,421 


15,437 


278 


67,818 


307 


221 


Anne Arundel 


1,496,900 


8,185 


183 


162,140 


3,176 


51 


Baltimore 


4,375,350 


20,927 


209 


163,500 


1,827 


90 


Calvert 


133,650 


988 


135 


29,050 


1,156 


25 




598,575 


2,644 


226 


73,750 


799 


92 


Carroll 


1,135,914 


6,280 


181 


21,800 


413 


53 


Cecil 


850,081 


4,135 


206 


42,940 


416 


103 




287,050 


1,939 


148 


120,850 


1,658 


73 




707,750 


3,527 


201 


74,100 


1,441 


51 




1,489,240 


9,079 


164 


68,915 


955 


72 




464,875 


4,788 


97 










1,007,900 


5,292 


190 


7 5, '666 


898 


84 




434,450 


2,584 


168 


21,200 


605 


35 


Kent 


183,147 


1,751 


105 


24,690 


805 


31 




4,787,136 


11,506 


416 


129,450 


1,906 


68 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


2,730,000 


12,782 


214 


259,300 


3,109 


83 


288,925 


1,874 


154 


46,900 


730 


64 


St. Mary's 


136,920 


1,200 


114 


29,830 


1,118 


27 


Somerset 


378,000 


2,608 


145 


75,400 


1,572 


48 


Talbot 


534,462 


2,203 


243 


57,100 


960 


60 




2,444,000 


13,094 


187 


48.200 


288 


167 




1,617,595 


4,373 


370 


226,502 


1,608 


141 




510,400 


2,637 


194 


93,150 


1,436 


65 




142,413,808 


84,686 


501 


t7, 262, 333 


29,905 


243 


State 


t73,303,549 


224,519 


326 


t9. 173, 918 


57,088 


161 



t Excludes $1,194,286 for Baltimore City administration buildings, warehouses, and storage 
buildings, and also excludes value of equipment. 



Ten counties showed an increased value of school property 
per v^hite pupil belonging, accounted for in nine counties by 
the increase in value of property, but in three counties affected 
by the decrease in number belonging. 

The valuation of $42,414,000 for property used by Baltimore 
City white pupils in 1939 was an increase of $43,000 over 1938. 
The increase of $6 in value of school property per white pupil be- 
longing resulted in part from the increases in value of property 
and in part from decrease in number belonging. The tendency in 
cities is for the population to decrease in the older part of the 



274 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



City where adequate school facilities are available, and to in- 
crease on the outskirts where there are no or inadequate school 
facilities to take care of the growth in population. (See Table 
184 and Chart 42.) 

CHART 42 



^ALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY IN USE PER VWITE PUBLIC SCIiOOL PUPIL BELONGING 



County *1937 tl93.3 tl939 
Co. Av. $ 204 $ 218 

Montsomery 378 
Wicomico 
Allegany 




Balto. City 476 495 
State 310 324 



* In 1937, includes value of equipment in most of the counties, but not in Baltimore City, 
t In 1938, and 1939, includes value of equipment in all of the counties, but not in 
Baltimore City. 



The value of school property per county white pupil belonging 
averaged $221, an increase of $3 over 1938. In individual coun- 
ties the value of school property per white pupil belonging varied 
between $97 and $416. The valuation per white pupil belonging 



Value of School Property 



275 



was under $150 in six counties and over $200 in nine counties, so 
that in eight counties the valuation per white pupil belonging 
fell within the limits of $150 and $200. (See Chart 42 and 
Table 184.) 

The lowest property valuation per white pupil was found in 
the county with the largest proportion of white pupils in small 
buildings of frame construction, which, of course, are less ex- 
pensive than fireproof or semi-fireproof construction of brick, 
stone or concrete, necessary because of fire hazard in the large 
school buildings. The small one-room buildings have no audi- 
toriums, special rooms, corridors, or central heating plants, many 
of which facilities are found in larger school buildings. 

The highest property valuation per pupil was found in the 
wealthiest county with the smallest classes in graded schools, 
in which the population 'has been increasing rapidly, necessitat- 
ing much new construction of large fireproof buildings. 

The value of school property used by county colored pupils 
belonging in 1939 as checked by the State Supervisor of Colored 
Schools was $1,912,000, an increase of $44,000 over 1938. Nine 
counties showed an increase in the value of school property used 
by colored pupils. The average value of school property per 
county colored pupil belonging remained at $70 because the in- 
creased value of school property was offset by the increase in 
number of pupils belonging. In eig^ht counties the value per 
colored pupil of school property in use was higher in 1939 than 
in 1938. In four of the eight counties showing an increase, there 
was a decrease in enrollment accompanying an increase in value 
of school property. (See Table 184 and Chart 33, pages 215-6.) 

COUNTY PUPILS ATTENDING SCHOOL OUTSIDE COUNTY OF 

RESIDENCE 

The number of Maryland county pupils attending school out- 
side the county of their residence increased by 1 to 1,357 in 
1939. Baltimore County had 252 pupils in schools outside its 
limits, of whom 197 colored children attended junior and senior 
high schools in Baltimore City. (See Table 185.) 

According to by-law 11, a county sharing in the Equalization 
Fund makes no tuition charge for a pupil who attends school in 
its county whose residence is in another Maryland county. How- 
ever, a capital outlay charge of $20 per White high, $15 per white 
elementary, $10 per colored high, and $7.50 per colored elemen- 
tary pupil is made. In addition to the amount for capital outlay, 



276 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



counties not receiving the Equalization Fund make a charge for 
tuition w^hich is 60 per cent of the average current expense cost, 
excluding general control and fixed charges, for the preceding 
year in the various types of school. These amounts charged in 
1938-39 based on 1937-38 expenditures were $54.52 for each 
white high, $32.92 for each white elementary, $35.12 for each 
colored high, and $19.06 for each colored elementary pupil. For 
amounts received and paid for pupils attending school in adjoin- 
ing counties, see Table XVII, page 330, and Table XVIII, page 
331. 

TABLE 185 

Number of Pupils Attending Schools Outside Their Own County During School 

Year 1938-39 



County 
OR State 
IN Which 

Pupils 

FROM 

Adjoining 
Counties 
Attended 
School 





1,357 




120 


Anne Arundel . . . 


19 




11 




84 


Carroll 


178 


Cecil 


1 




29 




3 


Frederick 


51 




26 




77 




63 


Montgomery 


58 


Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's . . . 


183 


62 


St. Mary's 


12 




2 


Talbot 


13 


Washington. . . . 


26 




3 




62 


Baltimore City . . 


197 




15 


Pennsylvania. . . 


15 


West Virginia . . . 


47 



County or State from Which Pupils Came Who Attended 
Schools in Adjoining Counties 



>> 
c 

c4 
< 

17 


o 1 Anne Arundel 


w 1 Baltimore 


a; 
> 

O 
9 


^ 1 Caroline | 


o 

23 


u 

16 


1 Charles | 


§ 1 Dorchester | 


M 1 Frederick 


ci 
O 

162 
100 


T3 
u 

O 

14 


T3 

ci 

o 
K 

146 


^ 1 Kent 1 


1 Montgomery | 


g 1 Prince George's 


°S 1 Queen Anne's 1 


*>> 

32 


g 1 Somerset | 


o 

Xt 
Eh 

36 


c 

o 

bC 

.£ 

X 

T. 
CS 

6 
6 


S 

C 

17 


^1 Delaware | 


«, g 1 Pennsylvania 1 


wo 1 West Virginia | 


2 
'S 
'to 

u 

i> 

2 








9 
















7 






3 


















5 












6 




































60 














24 
























8 












118 






44 




8 


















































1 




































9 




20 




















1 






























2 

37 
















8 


















2 
















2 
4 


5 


2 


17 








































19 


47 






10 


















1 


















13 


















50 




































9 




8 








41 






















85 












2 




95 


i 


1 


























25 






















36 












































12 
























































2 










































13 




































12 


























14 














































3 








































62 


















197 




















































3 






























12 




























15 
47 

































































































































COUNTY LEVIES FOR 1939-40 

The Total Levy for All County Purposes Including Schools 

County levies for all services rendered by the counties in 1939- 
40 in eighteen counties and for the calendar year 1940 in five coun- 
ties totaled $16,312,000, an increase of more than $856,000 oyer 
the corresponding figure for the preceding year. All counties, 
except three, levied more in 1940 than in 1939. (See Table 186.) 



Pupils Attending School Outside County of Residence 277 
The 1939-40 County Levy, Total and for Schools 



The County Levy for Schools 
The county levy for school current expenses which totaled 
$6,095,000 was an increase of $224,000 over 1939. There were 
increases in the levy for school current expenses in all except 
three counties. The county levy required for participation in 
the State Equalization Fund was increased from 47 to 51° cents 
for the school year 1939-40 to provide for the new minimum 
salary schedules for teachers established by the 1939 legislature.J 
Several counties increased the salaries of colored teachers above 
the amounts previously paid and above the State minimum. The 
non-Equalization Fund counties had to provide additional teachers 
for growth in elementary and high school enrollment. (See 
Table 186.) 

TABLE 186 



County Tax Levy, 1939-40 







Levy for Public Schools 






Total 










Levy for 


County 


County 










Purposes 


Levy 


Current 


Debt 


Capital 




Other than 






Expenses 


Service 


Outlay 


Total 


Schools 


Total Counties 


$16,312,165 


$6,094,846 


$1,482,678 


$262,280 


$7,839,804 


$8,472,361 


Allegany 


1,529,139 


615,844 


*205,063 


5,000 


825,907 


703,232 


Anne Arundel t 


al, 334, 663 


391,952 


114,590 


20,125 


526,667 


a807,996 


Baltimoret 


3,644,952 


967,531 


285,498 


128,500 


1,381,529 


2,263,423 




121,951 


34,103 


*9,313 


500 


43,916 


78,035 


Caroline 


204,157 


79,000 


*9,275 


5,000 


93,275 


110,882 


Carroll 


386,070 


209,053 


40,000 


5,800 


254,853 


131,217 


Cecil 


435,260 


227,389 


*21,950 


23,000 


272,339 


162,921 


Charles 


hl54,327 


h58,940 


*11,500 


800 


h71,240 


83,087 


Dorchester 


b405,185 


129,911 


*43,555 


b. . . . 


bl73,466 


231,719 


Frederickf 


837,746 


372 , 630 


*85,730 


3,500 


461,860 


375,886 


Garrettt 


340,232 


106,276 


600 


20,745 


127,621 


212,611 


Harfordt 


628,319 


230,800 


*28,884 


2,700 


262,384 


365,935 




308,121 


95,570 


*21,175 


1,500 


118,245 


189,876 


Kent 


293,608 


91,624 






91,624 


201,984 




cd2,124,753 


844,756 


c*203;336 




el, 048, 092 


dl, 076, 661 




1,036,664 


540,783 


*133,955 




674,738 


361,926 




228,439 


91,090 


*6,850 


20^660 


117,940 


110,499 




ell0,901 


e47,517 


e300 


e3,220 


e51,037 


59,864 




193,604 


62,612 


*8,016 


5,000 


75,628 


117,976 


Talbot 


f263,117 


£116,518 


46,530 




f 163, 048 


100,069 




954,102 


491,181 


115,605 


1^390 


608,176 


345,926 




476,026 


182,000 


*67,645 


2,500 


252,145 


223,881 




g300,829 


107,766 


*23,308 


13,000 


144,074 


gl56,755 



t On calendar year basis. 

* Paid by county commissioners directly. 

a Excludes $101,250 to be received as share of gasoline tax and $101,421 to be obtained from 
miscellaneous revenues. 

b Excludes $20,089 to be provided for completion of building program from a bond issue 
of $48,439 which will also provide for certificates of indebtedness of 1938-39 for purchase of 
school sites. 

c Excludes $129,000 for redemption of bonds due which will be provided through an issue 
of refunding bonds. 

d Excludes $314,000 for redemption of bonds to be obtained through refunding bonds, and 
$232,798 to be obtained from loans, lateral gas tax. county home sales of products, services of 
engineering and forestry departments to be reimbursed, police department receipts, public wel- 
fare sources and other general county receipts. 

e Includes $1,300 from tongers' licenses and $8,058 from liquor licenses. 

f Includes $1,000 from tongers' licenses. 

g Excludes $15,000 to be received from State Roads Commission but includes estimated 
receipts of $25,000 from liquor control board and sale of alcoholic beverages, 
h Includes $8,000 received from Federal Government for Indian Head. 



° Chapter 514, Laws of 1939. 
t Chapter 502, Laws of 1939. 



278 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



School debt service in the counties which totaled $1,483,000 in 
1940 was $73,000 above 1939. Five counties showed a slight 
reduction in charges for debt service. In Carroll all and in 
Talbot part of the debt service represented payment of notes 
which in a short time will cover the entire cost of their recent 
building programs. 

The levy for school capital outlay in 1940 which totaled $262,- 
000 in eighteen counties was $90,000 more than in 1939. The 
largest amount levied was $128,500 in Baltimore County and in 
four additional counties the capital outlay levy was close to 
$20,000. 

The county levies for all school purposes totaled $7,840,000, 
an increase of $387,000 over 1939. Two counties levied less for 
all school purposes in 1940 than in 1939. Six counties levied less 
than $100,000 for all school purposes, while seven counties levied 
between $462,000 and $1,382,000. (See Table 186.) 

County Levies for Purposes Other Than Schools 

The total 1940 county levy for purposes other than schools 
aggregated $8,472,000, an increase of $470,000 over 1939. In 
all except six counties the levy for purposes other than schools 
was higher in 1940 than in 1939. (See Table 186.) 

In nine counties, in which there were incorporated towns and 
districts which levied additional taxes to take care of services 
which were provided for in other counties through the county 
levy, the county levy for purposes other than schools was less 
than the county levy for all school purposes. (See Table 186.) 

Levy in Incorporated Places Within Counties 

Certain localities in every county, except Baltimore County, 
which has no incorporated towns but which has an ad valorem 
tax in the metropolitan district, and Howard County, which in- 
cludes the levy for incorporated districts with the county levy, 
levied in addition to the county levy to provide for police, fire, 
water, highway, street cleaning, or other administrative and 
operating services needed over and above those available from 
the county. The amount reported in addition to the 1940 county 
levy was $3,002,000, which brought the total levied for county 
and local governmental services within the counties to $19,314,- 
000, an increase of $1,094,000 over corresponding figures included 
in the report for the preceding year. The 1940 figures for in- 
corporated towns were more complete than ever before for Mont- 
gomery and Prince George's Counties. (See Table 187.) 



.4 



1939-40 Levy for Schools; Levy in Incorporated Places; Per 
Cent of Total Levy for Schools 



279 




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ot-05QOiNooo5coiONeomco •coooomoioosi-Hco 



to Tj<N.-ieOOC0010rHO«OOOTj<;OCOOt-CJOO'HO«D 

-rj" n< kO CO O O m 00 Tj< 1-1 CO t- O N in 00 0> ri ,-1 ,-( 00 O «D 

00 00 05 in .-( o o CO oi oi 00 in <o t- 1- o in CD in t-i o t- 

Tj< in i-t t- Ti< o5 05 1- 00 05 N CO o in iH o »-i t- N CO rH eg t- 

ci ^ oj CO CO t- o N m t- o CO 05 05 T}< Tji oj Tj< C0 1-1 05 00 o 

o COC005 CON ^coi-icvi oom ^tj<i-ii-i 



1-1 1-1 CO o in in N T)< 05 C0 1-1 CO CO N in in o 1-1 o CO 
(N 1-1 in 1-1 1- <N 00 1-1 N c<j 00 N CO CO 00 CO 05 CO 00 N T}< in 
o OS in oi 05 1- o N (M CD t- in i-i(N N >H in o CO in oj t- 1> 

Tf in N in 05 1- C0 1-1 o> in CO CT> 00 OJ o in in rH OS c<J 00 T)< 
1-1 o 1-1 CO CO CO 00 in N 00 CD c:5 o rH N 05 CO o CO T)< c- 
CO .-iTjit-i-iN-^Tj<i-iinococDeocococoN>-iNeocococo 



N X iH CO CO in in in OS 00 1- • 00 o 00 m ■<i< i-i eo 05 ti< 
t- 1- o CO i-iin N 00 in t- 05 CD -(mooi-^ososcocoi-h-im 
t-t-coo50ocDooooooO'^N • CO -^t in o 1-1 o 00 1> 05 



05COCQi-tt-OOt-incO(N05^00COTj<CTii-lTj<t-C<lC005 

cocDinininc-cocvjoorj<coi-HNoincDcooOi-(0<M(N 

i-<CD0505i-IONC0i-lt>NC0i-(C0t-COTf05C0i-(i-iO00 

05Tf-<i<'-iTi<cDin'a<int>oooooeo-«tcoooocoeoT}<coo 
NeOTj<NooocoinocOTi<Noo5(NcoN^05CDint-o 
incocoi-iNcoT}<rHTj<ooeocDeoiNi-iON.-i.-ic<i05Tj<co 



3 (V 

c<; St" c- 



0) p C 01 



ssl 111=11111 isfiPi.^ 



280 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Since the counties vary in their administrative setup for 
local units, no comparison of the proportion of funds devoted 
to schools is fair without including these local funds. The per 
cent of all county and local levies provided for school current 
expenses was 31.6 per cent in the 23 counties, .6 under the pre- 
ceding year. The highest per cent of county and local levies 
allocated to school current expenses was 47.3 and in two more 
counties it was over 40 per cent. There were ten counties in 
which the percentage devoted to school current expense was 
under 30, the lowest being 24.4 per cent. (See Table 187.) 

The per cent of all levies within the county used for all school 
purposes including debt service and capital outlay averaged 40.6 
per cent. In three counties the levy for all school purposes was 
over 50 per cent and in five more under 36 per cent. (See 
Table 187.) 

ASSESSABLE BASIS 
Changes in Assessable Basis 

The total assessment taxable at the full rate for county pur- 
poses in 1939 was $1,047,407,000 in the 23 counties, an increase 

TABLE 188 



Assessable Basis Taxable at the Full Rate for County Purposes 

in Thousands of Dollars 

Data furnished by State Tax Commission 



County 


*1923 


1927 


*1928 


1931 


tl935 


1937 


1938 


1939 


Total Counties . 


$661,724 


$781,971 


$883,508 


$923,203 


$930,221 


$976,142 


$1,025,573 


$1,047,407 


Allegany 


69,886 


78,837 


80,715 


80,971 


76,790 


79,250 


83,160 


83,193 


Anne Arundel . . 


30,692 


44,565 


47,544 


48,553 


50,413 


52,725 


55,750 


57,013 


Baltimore 


104,232 


139,232 


157,654 


167,242 


175,657 


180,718 


199,908 


208,586 


Calvert 


4,427 


4,935 


5,305 


5,560 


5,795 


6,054 


6,181 


6,313 


Caroline 


14,027 


14,761 


15,283 


15,156 


14,604 


14,645 


14,813 


15,074 


Carroll 


33,382 


35,636 


39,875 


36,265 


36,258 


37,934 


38 , 633 


38,590 


Cecil 


23,189 


25,628 


30,408 


36,392 


37,913 


39,429 


40,402 


40,281 


Charles 


8,394 


9,315 


9,938 


10,103 


9,805 


9,816 


10,145 


10,578 


Dorcbester. . . . 


18,987 


20,439 


21,918 


22,188 


21,664 


25,387 


26,403 


23,635 


Frederick 


51,248 


57,655 


65,234 


64,670 


64,183 


65,862 


66,548 


67,315 


Garrett 


16,303 


18,903 


21 , 653 


20,838 


17,630 


17,556 


19,661 


20,492 


Harford 


28 , 580 


29,561 


39,763 


51,149 


52,132 


52,969 


53,192 


52,663 


Howard 


15,670 


16,539 


18,063 


18,666 


17,846 


18,204 


18,386 


18,672 


Kent 


14,519 


14,956 


16,162 


16,138 


16,171 


16,347 


17,062 


17,046 


Montgomery . . . 


45,503 


60,239 


77,889 


84,580 


88,529 


101,286 


109,635 


113,739 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 


33,651 


42,878 


59,312 


63,301 


68,197 


74,953 


77,260 


84,086 


14,793 


14,803 


16,692 


16,247 


16,337 


16,574 


16,778 


16,819 


St. Mary's , , . , 


7,162 


7,809 


8,289 


8,590 


8,583 


8,696 


9,084 


9,317 


Somerset 


10,609 


11,972 


12,392 


12,055 


11,529 


12,239 


11,920 


11,893 


Talbot 


16,927 


18,048 


20,478 


21,534 


20,707 


21,316 


21,682 


22,148 


Washington 


62,570 


72,867 


72,908 


75,322 


72,036 


75,226 


76,348 


77,300 


Wicomico 


20,394 


24,109 


25,092 


26,487 


27,557 


28,693 


31,538 


31,523 


Worcester 


16,579 


18,284 


20,941 


21,196 


19,885 


20,263 


21,084 


21,131 


Baltimore City 


902,208 


1,230,198 


1,255,978 


1,351,403 


1,273,610 


1,217,820 


1,231,046 


1,228,292 


State 


$1,563,932 


$2,012,169 


$2,139,486 $2,274,606 


$2,203,831 


$2,193,962 


$2,256,619 


$2,275,699 

L 



♦ Includes reassessment figures. t Omits assessment of distilled spirits. 



Assessable Basis Taxable at the Full Rate 



281 



of $21,834,000 over 1938 and the highest assessment ever re- 
ported for the counties. Except for the drop in assessable basis 
in 1933, there has been an increase in the basis for the 23 coun- 
ties eadh succeeding year. Every county except seven had a 
higher assessment in 1939 than in 1938, but there were nine 
counties in which the 1939 assessment was lower than that 
reported in one or more preceding years. Fifteen of the coun- 
ties will show the results of a reassessment in the 1940 figures. 
(See Table 188.) 

The 1939 Assessable Basis 
TABLE 189 

1939 Assessable Basis Taxable at Full Rate for County Purposes 
Data furnished by State Tax Commission 



County 



Total Basis 
Assessable at 
Full Rate for 
County 
Purposes 



Real and 
Tangible Per- 
sonal Property 
Taxable for 
County 
Purposes 



Railroad 
Rolling 
Stock 



Ordinary 
Business 
Corpora- 
tions 



Domestic 
Share 

Corpora- 
tions 



Personal 
Property 
of 

Non-Stock 
Corpora- 
tions 



Distilled 
Spirits 



Total Counties. 

Equalization 
Counties. . . . 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Howard 

Kent 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Non-Equaliza- 
tion Counties 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Harford 

Montgomery . . . 

Baltimore City 

Entire State . . . 



$1,047,406,750 



632,137,670 

83,192,638 
57,012,867 

6,31,3,260 
15,073,887 
38,590,080 
10,577,911 
23,635,328 
67,314,950 
20,492,167 
18,671,970 
17,046,314 
84,086,251 
16,818,654 

9,317,109 
11,892,608 
22,148,234 
77,300,272 
31,522,669 
21,130,501 



415,269,080 

208,585,669 
40,280,874 
52,663,115 

113,739,422 

1,228,292,447 
$2,275,699,197 



$978,384,203 



594,142,551 

a77,922,827 

55,690,553 
6,230,030 
14,410,004 
35,457,044 
10,470,201 
b21,369,775 
d57,370,369 
19,817,861 
18,400,885 
16,488,405 
82,277,931 
16,548,962 
9,284,414 
11,488,180 
21,375,580 
71,109,500 
27,840,939 
20,589,091 



384,241,652 

187,477,885 
38,131,167 
46,580,4^5 

112,052,115 

1,132,751,458 
$2,111,135,661 



$9,038,941 



5,668,295 

1,190,664 
334,984 

97,183 
662,480 
83,050 
89,301 
357,150 
179,359 

114,876 
495,610 
93,422 

221,863 
90,919 
1,401,647 
83,392 

172,395 



3,370,646 

2,019,494 
855,433 
495.719 



674,038 
$9,712,979 



$27,275,300 



17,674,417 

3,610,300 
710,790 
80,375 
561,165 
1,317,545 
22,015 
1,786,480 
2,216,452 
28,480 
199,130 
144,395 
560,260 
161,775 
25,120 
169,385 
544,670 
4,040,585 
1,184,495 
311,000 



9,600,883 

7,726,303 
810,820 
347,300 
716,460 

30,285,334 

$57,560,634 



$21,769,511 



13,763,097 

443,807 
252,945 
2,855 
4,170 
334,221 
2,545 
c389,097 
7,370,629 
458,187 
71,730 
297,938 
747,815 
13,995 
6,175 
13,180 
136,070 
746,475 
2,413.248 
58,015 



8,006,414 

1,319,007 
481,564 

5,237,181 
968,662 

64,371,840 

$86,141,351 



$73,225 



55,975 

6,445 
23,595 

1,365 

4,050 
100 
675 
350 

8,280 
225 
700 

4,635 
500 

1,400 

995 
2,065 
595 



17,250 

10,745 
1,890 
2,430 
2,185 

114,655 

$187,880 



$10,865,570 



833,335 



18,595 



814 



740 



10,032,235 
10.032,235 



95,122 
$10,960,692 



a Excludes $6,499,355 for Celanese Corporation and $29,161 for General Textile Mills, 
b Excludes $331,595 for Delmarva Power Co., $2,700 for South Dorchester Electric Co., $158,645 
for raw materials of individual firms and foreign corporations engaged in manufacturing, 
c Excludes $766,982 for Delmarva Power Co. 
d Excludes $18,725 for Loates Orphan Asylum. 



282 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The 1939 taxable basis assessable at the full rate for county 
purposes has been shown separately for the nineteen Equaliza- 
tion Fund counties and the four non-Equalization Fund coun- 
ties. In the nineteen Equalization Fund counties the total assess- 
able basis increased from $622,436,000 in 1938 to $632,138,000 
in 1939, a gain of $9,702,000, or 1.56 per cent. The elements in 
the assessable basis assessed by the county commissioners showed 
an increase, but all items assessed by the State Tax Commission 
showed decreases for the Equalization Fund counties. In the 
non-Equalization Fund counties the assessment of ordinary busi- 
ness corporations and distilled spirits in addition to property 
assessed by the county commissioners showed increases. Real 
and tangible personal property taxable for county purposes and 
assessed by the county commissioners represented 94 per cent 
of the total assessment in the Equalization Fund counties, 87 
per cent in the non-Equalization Fund counties, and 92 per cent 
in the City, items assessed by the State Tax Commission making 
up the remainder. (See Table 189.) 

In all counties, except six — Carroll, Dorchester, Frederick, 
Kent, Somerset, and Worcester — the basis for real and personal 
property assessed by the county commissioners increased from 
1938 to 1939. The assessment of railroad rolling stock decreased 
in all counties except three, and five counties and Baltimore City 
showed very great reductions because of the extension to other 
states of electrification by the Pennsylvania Railroad. The assess- 
ment of ordinary business corporations decreased in seven Equali- 
zation Fund counties and Baltimore City, the decrease in Dor- 
chester totaling $2,647,000 because of exemptions from county 
assessments of raw materials on hand and manufactured products 
in the hands of the manufacturer.* Only nine counties showed an 
increase in the assessment of domestic share corporations. Per- 
sonal property of non-stock corporations was assessed for less 
in 1939 than in 1938 in seven Equalization and three non-Equali- 
zation Fund counties. The assessment of distilled spirits showed 
increases in Allegany and Baltimore County from 1938 to 1939, 
while for Carroll County and Baltimore City the assessment of 
distilled spirits showed considerable reduction. (See Table 189.) 

COUNTY TAX RATES FOR 1938-39 

The county tax rates for school current expenses obtained by 
dividing the county levy for 1939-40 by the 1939 assessable 
basis taxable at the full rate for county purposes averaged 58 
cents in the nineteen Equalization Fund counties and ranged 
from 51 cents to 74 cents. Counties paying salaries above 



* Authorized by the county commissioners as permitted by Article 81. Section 7, Subsection 
(26). See Chapter 226 of the Laws of 1929. 



1939 Assessable Basis; County Tax Rates 



283 



the minimum State schedule, having an eighth grade, employ- 
ing teachers in excess of the number specified in the State 
laws and by-laws, and spending for purposes other than teachers' 
salaries and transportation more than is provided for in the 
minimum program, take care of their enriched program by tax- 
' ing themselves over and above the 51 cent minimum required 
for receiving the State Equalization Fund. (See Table 190.) 

TABLE 190 



Calculated County School Tax Rates and Published County Tax Rates, 

1939-40 



County 


1939-40 Calculated County Tax Rate for School 


Total 
Published 

County 
Tax Rate 

1939-40 


Current 
Expenses 


Debt 
Service 


Capital 
Outlay 


Total 


All Counties 


$.582 


$.142 


$.025 


$.749 




Equalization Fund 












Counties 


.605 


.149 


.017 


.771 




Allegany 


.740 


°.247 


.006 


.993 


*$1.60 




.687 


.201 


.035 


.923 


a2.32 


Prince George's 


.643 


°.159 




.802 


*1.38 


Washington 


.636 


°.149 


'.002 


.787 


*1.20 


Wicomico 


.577 


°.215 


.008 


.800 


*1.29 


Charles 


b.557 


°.109 


.008 


b.674 


*1.15 


Frederickf 


.554 


°.127 


.005 


.686 


*1.12 


Dorchester 


.549 


°.184 


c. . . . 


.733 


*1.40 


Carroll 


.542 


d.l04 


.015 


.661 


*1.00 


Queen Anne's 


.541 


°.041 


.119 


.701 


*.84 


Calvert 


.540 


°.148 


.008 


.696 


*1.90 


Kent 


.538 






.538 


*1.33 


Talbot 


e.527 


d°!2i6 




.737 


*1.12 




.527 


°.067 


!642 


.636 


*1.60 


Caroline 


.524 


°.062 


.033 


.619 


*1.24 




.519 


.003 


.101 


.623 


*1.30 




.512 


°.113 


.008 


.633 


gl.30 




.510 


°.110 


.062 


.682 


*1.25 


St. Mary's 


e.510 


.003 


.035 


e.548 


*1.07 


Non-Equalization Fund 












Counties 


.547 


.130 


.037 


.714 






.742 


f°.179 




f.921 


hi. 50 


Cecil 


.565 


°.054 


!657 


.676 


*.93 


Baltimoret 


.463 


.137 


.062 


.662 


kl.30 


Harford 


.438 


°.055 


.005 


.498 


ml. 18 



t Calendar year 1940. 

* Incorporated towns pay taxes in addition to county taxes. 
" Paid directly by county commissioners. 

a Election districts, except Annapolis, pay rates varying from $2.28 to $2.58. Annapolis 
pays $2.67. 

b Includes as part of levy $.076 to be received from Federal Government for Indian Head, 
c Excludes $20,089 to be provided from bond issue of $48,439 which will take care of certi- 
ficates of indebtedness for purchase of school sites, 
d To make payment on note. 

e Includes receipts from tongers' licenses and liquor licenses also in St. Mary's County, 
f Excludes $129,000 for redemption of bonds due which will be provided for through an 
issue of bonds. 

g Additional rates of 5 and 8 cents paid in two districts. 

h Every district pays from 1 to 74 cents additional while incorporated towns have a 
further tax. 

k Metropolitan district pays ad volorum tax of 4 cents in addition to county tax. 
m 96 cents additional paid in Bel Air, Aberdeen and Havre de Grace. 



284 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Tax rates for school current expenses were 44 cents in Har- 
ford, 46 cents in Baltimore County, 56.5 cents in Cecil, and 74 
cents in Montgomery. Two of these four non-Equalization Fund 
counties with tax rates over 51 cents have salary schedules in 
excess of the State minimum and in Montgomery County there is 
a low ratio of pupils to teachers and an eighth grade. (See , 
Table 190.) 

In two Equalization Fund counties and two non-Equalization 
Fund counties the tax rate for school current expenses was 
lower in 1939-40 than in 1938-39. (See Table 190.) 

The 1939-40 tax rate for school debt service of 14.9 cents in 
nineteen Equalization counties and of 13 cents in four non-Equali- 
zation Fund counties was for the 23 counties .2 cents less than 
in 1937-38. One county had no tax for school debt service, 
while at the other extreme four counties taxed themselves over 
20 cents to take care of these charges. In one of the latter 
counties this tax was in part for the payment of balances on 
notes due against amounts borrowed for the building program. 
(See Table 190.) 

The 1939-40 average tax rate for school capital outlay of 1.7 
cents in the Equalization Fund counties and 3.7 cents in the non- 
Equalization Fund counties was 1.3 cents more than the tax 
for the year preceding for the 23 counties as a group. Two coun- 
ties levied taxes of 12 and 10 cents for school capital outlay, 
while at the opposite extreme five counties did not levy for this 
purpose because proceeds of bond issues were available or be- 
cause there was no capital outlay. (See Table 190.) 

The 1939-40 average county tax rate for all school purposes, 
74.9 cents in the 23 counties, was 7 cents higher than in 1938-39. 
For the nineteen Equalization Fund counties the average rate 
for all school purposes was 77.1 cents and for the four non-Equali- 
zation Fund counties 71.4 cents. Among the nineteen Equaliza- 
tion Fund counties the range in tax rates for all school purposes 
was from 54 cents to 99 cents, while for the four non-Equaliza- 
tion Fund counties the extremes were 50 and 92 cents. (See 
Table 190.) 

According to the 1939-40 county tax rates as published, per- 
sons not living in incorporated towns paid 84 and 93 cents for all 
services performed by the county government in two counties. 
At the other extreme in five counties the rate was $1.50 or more 
for persons not living in incorporated towns or districts and in 
one of these three counties the rates by districts varied from 
$2.28 to $2.58. This latter county provides a considerable amount 
of county funds for roads. Taxpayers in incorporated places 
which received services in addition to those rendered by the 
county paid tax rates in addition to those shown in the last 
column of Table 190 wherever an asterisk appears. 



County Tax Rates; White Parent-Teacher Associations 285 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

Active parent-teac'her associations were found in 1939 in 471 
white schools, 62.2 per cent of the total number and the highest 
percentage ever reported. There was a decrease of 5 in number 
and an increase of 1.5 in per cent over corresponding figures for 
the preceding year. (See Table 191.) 



TABLE 191 

Number and Per Cent of Parent-Teacher Associations in White Schools, 

1924 to 1939 



Year 


Parent-Teacher Associations 
in White Schools 


Number 


Per Cent 


1924 


490 
623 
638 
649 
617 
588 
576 
613 
571 
556 
530 
506 
487 
465 
476 
471 


30.8 
40.6 
42.8 
45.1 
45.4 
45.8 
47.7 
54.7 
56.2 
59.1 
58.5 
57.1 
57.8 
56.2 
60.7 
62.2 


1925 


1926 


1,927 


1928 


1929 


1930 


1931 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


1936 


1937 


1938 


1939 





In the white elementary schools only 30.8 per cent of the 
one-teacher schools had parent-teacher associations in contrast 
with 65 per cent of the two-teacher, and 85.4 per cent of the 
graded schools. The percentage of these organizations in one- 
teacher schools increased by 1.9 over 1938, and in two-teacher 
schools by 1.3. (See Table 192.) 



TABLE 192 

Parent-Teacher Associations in Maryland County White Elementary Schools, 

School Year, 1938-39 





Parent-Teacher Associations 


White Schools Having: 








Number 


Per Cent 


One Teacher 


80 


30.8 


Two Teachers 


89 


65.0 




275 


85.4 


Total 


444 


61.8 



286 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In 1939 there were P. T. A.'s in 100 per cent of the white 
schools of Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, Caroline, and Queen 
Anne's Counties. Nine counties showed increases, while ten 
showed decreases in the per cent of white schools having 
P. T.A. 's. (See Chart 43.) 

CHART 43 



PAMHT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY VrdlTE SCHOOLS, 1938 and 1939 
County- 



Total and 
Co. Average 




t Excludes the parent-teacher association in the campus elementary school of the State 
Teachers College (s). 



For data regarding parent-teacher associations in colored 
schools, see Chart 35, pages 224 and 225. 



P.T.A.'s; Other than Public Funds Available 287 



During 1938-39, according to reports from teachers sum- 
marized by county superintendents, the parents of 48,179 pupils 
or nearly a third of all white pupils, visited the county schools 
to consult with teachers regarding the progress of their children 
or to acquire at first hand a knowledge of school problems and 
classroom instruction. The value of these contacts between the 
school and the home may be inestimable in giving both the 
teacher and the parent a better understanding of the problems 
which each must face. Not only did parents visit the schools 
but teachers reported that they visited the homes of 20,748 or 
over 14 per cent of their white pupils. 

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES BY WHITE SCHOOLS FROM OTHER 
THAN PUBLIC COUNTY FUNDS 

The amount of money other than public funds for which the 
white schools in 18 counties were responsible amounted to $378,- 
517 in 1939. With so large a sum of money, the advisability of a 
system of financial accounting, if only for the protection of those 
responsible for these funds, does not seem open to question. 

Gross receipts from school cafeterias accounted for over 40 
per cent of the funds and were the major source of receipts in 
7 counties. P. T. A.'s accounted for over 14 per cent of the 
receipts and this source of receipts was reported by ten coun- 
ties. The payment of transportation costs by parents of children 
in three counties was responsible for 7.1 of the gross receipts in 
the eighteen counties. (See Table XXIX, pages 342-343.) 

Sales represented an important source of receipts in seven 
counties, while seven counties showed considerable income from 
parties and dances, and eight counties added to receipts by giv- 
ing plays, movies, musical and radio programs. Dues brought 
in $14,033 in seven counties. Other sources of receipts were 
athletics, donations, school publications, and debates and declama- 
tions. 

The expenses connected with taking in the receipts reduced 
the net receipts to $199,529, which included nearly 53 per cent 
of the total gross receipts. (See Table XXIX, pages 342-343.) 

The largest proportion of the net receipts from other than 
county funds was used for transportation of high school pupils 
in Baltimore, Montgomery, and Harford Counties. School librar- 
ies ranked second in purpose of expenditures of net receipts in 
thirteen counties. Physical education, regular classroom in- 
struction, and improvement of buildings and grounds were next 
in importance according to funds spent in fourteen counties over 
and above public funds which came through the Board of Educa- 
tion. Eight of the eighteen counties reported spending money 
on their cafeterias to pay for managers or to improve equipment. 



288 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



These reports give indication that the parents and patrons of 
the schools contribute in various ways to supply funds in addi- 
tion to those available from the public so that attendance for 
many pupils may be possible, and there may be many school 
activities and experiences w'hich enrich the lives of children 
while they are attending school. 

For similar data for colored schools, see Table XXVIII, page 341. 

THE ISSUE OF CERTIFICATES TO COUNTY TEACHERS 

There was an increase over the preceding year in the number 
of certificates issued to academic and special high school teachers 
appointed to care for the larger high school enrollment and to 
provide an enriched curriculum in the special subjects. The 
number of vocational certificates issued was 26, a decrease of 
10 under the preceding year. (See Table 193.) 

TABLE 193 



Number of Certificates Issuedf in 1920-21, 1938-39 and 1939-40 





Number of Certificates Issued 


Grade of Certificate 










1920-21 


1938-39 


1939-40* 


Administration and Supervision: 










1 


1 






3 


2 


■ ■ '4 


Supervision Special Subjects 






4 






■ ■ '2 


1 


High School: 










8 


16 


7 


Academic 


141 


125 


141 


Special 


35 


62 


67 




39 


36 


26 






67 


54 


Elementary 








Principal 


19 


22 


23 


Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education 




152 


216 






183 


209 




'265 


6 


2 




289 




4 


Third Grade 


161 






Non-Public Bachelor of Science in Elementary 












1 


2 






8 


31 






10 


53 



* Up to February 1, 1940. f To white and colored teachers. 



The increase in the number of graduates from the teachers 
colleges in 1939 made a larger number of persons eligible for the 
Bachelor of Science Certificate in Elementary Education. Since 
all county graduates of the State teachers colleges completed the 
four-year course and were issued degree certificates, advanced 
first grade certificates were limited to colored graduates of the 
three-year normal school course at Bowie, to teachers holding 



The Issue of Certificates to Teachers 



289 



first grade certificates who by completing additional work be- 
came eligible for the advanced first grade certificate, and to 
out-of-State teachers who entered the service upon the basis of 
three years of normal sdhool work. (See Table 193.) 

Provisional certificates issued for elementary school teaching 
are exclusively for elementary school principals. The require- 
ments for the principal's certificate have been gradually increased 
and it is diflftcult to find enough teachers who have the prepara- 
tion required for the regular certificate and w*ho at the same 
time possess the necessary personal qualities for the work of a 
principal. The number of provisional high school teachers' cer- 
tificates, entirely in the special fields such as music, fine and 
industrial arts, showed a decrease under the preceding year. (See 
Table 194.) 

TABLE 194 



Number of Provisional or Emergency Certificates Issued 





Provisional or Emergency 




Certificates Issued for 


Year 








Elementary 


High School 




School Teachingt 


Teachingt 


1923-24 


276 


225 


1924-25 


316 


184 


1925-26 


175 


132 


1926-27 


214 


104 


1927-28 


268 


108 


1928-29 


72 


110 


1929-30 


35 


112 


1930-31 


25 


92 


1931-32 


15 


82 


1932-33 


7 


56 


1933-34 


4 


46 


1934-35 


10 


35 


1935-36 


20 


23 


1936-37 


24 


26 


1937-38 


27 


28 


1938-39 


20 


25 


1939-40* 


20 


14 



t Includes both white and colored teachers. 
* Up to February 1, 1940. 



For amendments in by-law 57 regarding renewal of certificates 
and the issuance of advanced first grade certificates, see page 293. 

Physical Examination of Teachers 

In order to make more effective Section 126 of the State school 
law requiring physical examination of teachers and to prevent 
the Teachers' Retirement System from admitting to membership 
physically handicapped teachers, arrangements were made be- 
ginning in the fall of 1929 to have the physicans at the State 
Teachers Colleges give a thorough physical examination to all 
graduates who are planning to take positions in the Maryland 
counties. All entrants into the service who have not had such 



290 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

examinations are required to visit the physican in each county 
appointed to examine such teachers. The State Department of 
Education bears the expense of such examinations. Reports of 
these examinations are forwarded to the Medical Board of the 
Teachers' Retirement System. Certificates are issued only to 
those teachers, reports of whose physical examinations are ap- 
proved by the Medical Board. The number examined, accepted, 
and rejected are shown in Table 195. 

TABLE 195 



Number of Teachers Accepted and Rejected on the Basis 
of Medical Examinations 





Number 


Number 


Number 


Year 


Examined 


Accepted 


Rejected 


1929-30 


917 


910 


7 


1930-31 


885 


872 


13 


1931-32 


772 


754 


18 


1932-33 


503 


495 


8 


1933-34 


392 


383 


9 


1934-35 


509 


500 


9 


1935-36 


527 


517 


10 


1936-37 


491 


487 


4 


1937-38 


500 


496 


4 


1938-39 


498 


497 


1 


1939-40* 


491 


490 


1 



* Up to February 1, 1940. 



COUNTY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION 

The salary of a Maryland county superintendent as fixed in 
the State minimum schedule depends on size of teaching staff 
and years of experience. Counties, however, may pay salaries 
above those in the minimum salary schedule, the range in salaries 
in 1938-39 being from $2,940 in four counties to $6,000 in Alle- 
gany and $8,000 in Baltimore County. The average salary was 
$4,270 and the median $4,200 in 1939. Four counties increased 
the salary of the superintendent, while one appointed a new 
superintendent at the minimum salary for one in his first year 
of experience to take the place of the experienced superintendent 
who retired. (See Table XIX, page 332.) 

There were ten counties with fewer than 150 teachers, four 
having from 150 to 199 teachers, and nine with more than 200 
teachers. The average number of teachers per county was 226 
while the median county had 162 teachers. The smallest county 
had 65 teachers and the largest 581. Several counties which 
would have had more than 200 teachers had they not carried 
forward a policy of school consolidation and transportation have 
replaced the additional problems of a large teaching staff with 
those of the transportation service. (See Table X, page 323.) 



Physical Examination of Teachers; County School 291 
Administration 

Conferences of County Superintendents with State Department Staff 

At a conference of county superintendents, teachers college 
presidents, and the staff of the State Department of Education 
held on October 10, 1938, the following subjects were presented 
and discussed: 

A survey of conservation policies in Maryland — Mr. J. D. Steele 
Fraternities and sororities in public high schools. Resulting from the rec- 
ommendations of the county superintendents, the State Board of Educa- 
tion on October 14, 1938, passed by-law 60 which reads as follows: 
No fraternities or sororities shall be allowed in the public high schools 
in the counties of Maryland. 
A proposed new cumulative report card for high school pupils 
Aid from the colored industrial fund for colored supervision is available 

only if a county has more than ten teachers 
Admission of freshmen to the State Teachers College at Bowie, which re- 
sulted in the following resolution adopted by the State Board of Educa- 
tion on October 14, 1938: 

"Until further notice the State Superintendent of Schools is hereby 
authorized by the State Board of Education to admit to the State 
Teachers College at Bowie from among the applicants who stand 
highest in the entrance tests, not more than sixty freshmen, of whom 
not more than one-third shall be boys." 
The proposed testing program in the white and colored elementary schools 
Information to be given to applicants for teaching positions whose train- 
ing has been obtained in out-of-State colleges regarding the require- 
ment that in order to obtain a certificate they must stand in the upper 
four-fifths of their class 
Questions under consideration by the Certificate Committee regarding 
renewal of certificates, credit for travel, and date after which no ad- 
vanced first grade certificates will be issued to white teachers not 
in service 

Need of special training by attendance officers of a type not available in 
normal school and college 

Bulletins on reading, commercial studies, library and conservation for high 
school teachers in course of preparation 

Maryland high schools asked to participate in Co-operative Study of Sec- 
ondary School Standards and at least one school in the Eastern, Central, 
and Western section of the State will be included for demonstration 
purposes 

Vocational industrial teachers should be allowed to substitute for summer 
school credit work in industry for eight weeks during the summer 

Early in the fall of 1938, the county superintendents became 
interested in the possibility of a survey of the public school 
system of the State with the idea that the 1939 legislature would 
provide for a commission with authority to select competent 
educators to conduct a study of the State public school system, 
the last such study having been made in 1915 by the General 
Education Board. Incidentally, the study of 1915 was one of the 
most fruitful of its kind ever made in this country. The Maryland 
Congress of Parent-Teacher Associations requested the legisla- 
ture to make the necessary provisions for a survey and this 
request was unanimously endorsed by the county superintendents. 



292 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The superintendents decided that, regardless of any subsequent 
action of the legislature in respect to appointing a commission to 
study the school system, it would be an excellent idea to define 
the problems involved in a study of the educational program of 
the State and of the separate counties. Accordingly, a committee 
was appointed to draw up a brief outline of the problems to be 
studied and the procedure to be followed in making a survey 
either locally or on a State-wide basis. The outline prepared 
was approved by the entire group and was distributed to all the 
superintendents for their guidance in making studies of their 
own and for the purpose of familiarizing them with the problems 
basic to any improvement of the school system. It was sub- 
sequently published as a bulletin of the Department. 

Chapter 610 enacted by the 1939 legislature provides for a 
survey commission with the following duties : 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Maryland, That 
the Governor of the State of Maryland be and he is hereby authorized, 
empowered and directed to appoint a Commission of five members to make 
a survey of the public elementary and high schools and State Teachers' 
Colleges of the State of Maryland, to study the obligations of the public 
school system of Maryland with a view to defining these and to adjusting 
the school program to present conditions; and to study such problems as 
the length and scope of the school program (including curriculum offerings; 
vocational preparation and guidance; adult education; recreational, aesthetic 
and cultural opportunities; health and social services; and adjustment to 
higher education); the adequacy of the physical plant for the services to 
be performed, and the financial implications of any proposed revision of 
the program; and said Commission is hereby directed to report its findings, 
with recommendations, to the Governor, which report shall be transmitted 
by the Governor to the General Assembly at its session in 1941. 

Section 2. And be it further enacted, That no member of such Com- 
mission shall be compensated for his services, but each member shall be 
paid his necessary traveling expenses incurred in attending meetings or 
in performing other duties incidental to the work of the Commission. 

Section 3. And be it further enacted. That the Commission shall have 
the power to arrange for conducting the survey in such manner as may 
seem best, employ and fix the compensation of competent educational 
authorities and other employes required for the efficient conduct of the work, 
and call to its assistance any expert help that may be available from either 
public or private foundations. It shall have the power to purchase books, 
materials, and other helps required, to prepare and print blanks for in- 
formation or guidance of its work, and in general to make any provisions for 
the work that may be necessary. 

Section 4. And be it further enacted. That the Commission shall have 
the use of the office and staff of the State Board of Education so far as 
this may be necessary; shall have free access to all public records necessary 
to the carrying out of the duties herein prescribed; and all members of the 
county boards of education, superintendents, teachers, and other officers, 
connected with the public elementary and high schools and the State Teachers' 
Colleges of the State of Maryland shall give such assistance to the Commis- 
sion as shall be required. 



School Survey; Curriculum Activities; Certification Changes 293 

At the May, 1939 conference, accomplishments in curriculum 
construction and suggestions for next steps for the elementary 
school were presented by Miss Simpson and for the secondary 
school by Mr. Pullen. After the reviev^ of course of study bul- 
letins which had been made available. Miss Simpson concen- 
trated on the need for a course of study bulletin in the social 
studies similar to the one prepared for science in September, 
1933. (See pages 75 to 77.) Other problems discussed were 
reporting promotions in the junior first grade, the new salary 
schedule, and recommendations of the certificate committee. 
The latter were adopted by the State Board of Education on 
May 27,1939 as an amendment to by-law 57 included below: 

BY-LAW 57— AMENDMENT 
Renewal of Certificates 

1. Upon recommendation of the county superintendent for successful 
experience and professional spirit, a Maryland teacher's certificate may be 
renewed on any one of the following bases: 

a. Acceptable summer school credits 

b. Travel 

c. Objective evidence of professional growth, this evidence having 
been submitted to the county superintendent, approved by 
him, and forwarded to the State Department of Education with 
his recommendation 

2. The first renewal of any certificate shall for four years. 

3. The second and subsequent renewals, except in the case of second 
and third grade certificates and except in the case of renewals based on 
travel, shall be for six years. The renewal based on travel shall be for a 
maximum period of four years, and no two successive renewals may be 
based on travel. 

4. Travel which is to be used for the renewal of a certificate must first 
be approved by the State Superintendent upon recommendation of the 
county superintendent. Travel which will be accepted for the renewal will 
be delimited by the Committee on Certification. 

5. Credits earned the summer a certificate is orginally issued shall not 
be used for the renewal of a certificate. 

Stopping Issuance of Advanced First Grade Certificates 

No advanced first grade certificates shall be issued to white applicants 
after May 1, 1940, except to teachers already in service. 

Conference of County Attendance Officers 

Every county except Charles employed an attendance officer 
in 1938-39. Calvert County employed a full-time instead of a 
part-time attendance officer beginning in September, 1938. Wash- 
ington County employed a visiting teacher as well as an attend- 
ance officer. 



294 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The Maryland county attendance officers were given the op- 
portunity to attend the 28th annual conference of the National 
League to Promote School Attendance held in Washington in 
October, 1938. At their own group meeting held during the 
conference there was a discussion of the application of the Fed- 
eral Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 to school attendance and 
child labor problems after the subject was presented by Miss 
Beatrice McConnell of the Children's Bureau. 

Each attendance officer responded to the roll call by giving 
plans for the attendance for the year 1938-39. These included 
the following : the building up in the office of a permanent record 
card for each child; the use of improved cumulative records for 
problem cases; requiring birth certificates of all children enter- 
ing school the first time and checking with health records; cal- 
culating an index of attendance for each school, using late 
entrance and withdrawals as well as attendance ; developing atten- 
dance consciousness on the part of teachers and principals; im- 
proving attendance in colored schools through transportation and 
school consolidation; improving attendance through an enriched 
junior high school program; meetings with school faculty to 
discuss problem cases; more attention to problem cases in first 
grade; developing a county program with the social agencies 
to provide shoes and clothing for needy children ; better arrange- 
ments for the issue of employment certificates; promotion of a 
program for enlarged capacity in institutions to care for mental 
cases now in public schools ; eliminating the causes for which the 
school is responsible which bring about withdrawal of pupils; 
urging elementary and high school teachers to know the homes 
and home conditions of each problem case; seeing that children 
enter school when it opens; improving attendance through hot 
lunches. 

The plan for having a continuous school census was described 
by Mr. Eugene Sheridan, director of attendance in Newark, N. J. 
Mr. Forrest Linden of the Federal Census Bureau in Washington 
spoke on the uses of a complete school census and the advantages 
for Health, School and Census Departments of a check of school 
census and birth records. 

THE MARYLAND STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 

Graduates of 1939 

There were 95 county and 79 City graduates from the three 
Maryland State Teachers Colleges in 1939. All of the county 
graduates completed the four-year course, while all but 7 of 
the City graduates had pursued the three-year course. The 
number of county graduates was 8 more than for 1938, but ex- 
cept for 1933 and 1938, there were fewer county graduates in 
1939 than for any year since 1922. (See Table 196.) 



Attendance Officers; Graduates of State Teachers Colleges 295 



TABLE 196 



White Graduates of Maryland State Teachers Colleges, 1920 to 1939 



Year 


Total 


TOWSON 

Baltimore 
City 


Counties 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 
Counties 




37 




37 


13 




50 




50 




50 


29 




79 




114 




114 


28 




142 




240 




240 


58 




298 


1924 


239 




239 


71 




310 


1925 


527 


'234 


293 


59 




352 


1926 


428 


214 


214 


84 


' '27 


325 


1927 


353 


139 


214 


91 


72 


377 


1928 


286 


97 


189 


82 


75 


346 


1929 


268 


115 


153 


81 


82 


316 


1930 


262 


133 


129 


72 


70 


271 


1931 


248 


111 


137 


84 


78 


299 


1932 


215 


106 


109 


44 


74 


227 


1933 


ab49 


a25 


b24 


tl5 


tl9 


t58 


1934 


tl99 


till 


t88 


t45 


t52 


tl85 


1935 


cdl58 


c70 


d88 


e55 


t31 


del74 


1936 


ef91 


e42 


f49 


g50 


h30 


fghl29 


1937 


m71 


c58 


kl3 


ml8 


h8 


hkm39 


1938 


no85 


n48 


o37 


o29 


o21 


o87 


1939 


dollO 


d79 


o31 


o30 


o34 


o95 


1920-1939 


*3,957 


*1,541 


*2,416 


*981 


*625 


*4,022 



* Excludes duplicates — who completed two-, three-, and four-year courses 

t Graduates of the three-year course f Includes 10 who completed the four-yr. course 

t Includes 43 graduates of the three-year course g Includes 22 who completed the four-yr. course 

a Includes 22 who completed the three-yr. course h Includes 8 who completed the four-yr. course 

b Includes 9 who completed the three-yr. course k Includes 12 who completed the four-yr. course 

c Includes 3 who completed the four-year course m Includes 15 who completed the four-yr. course 

d Includes 7 who completed the four-year course n Includes 5 who completed the four-yr. course 

e Includes 13 who completed the four-year course o All county graduates completed 4-yr. course 



In 1939 from Towson there were 31 county and 79 City grad- 
uates, including all from the counties and 7 from Baltimore City 
who received Bachelor of Science certificates after completing 
the four-year course. Frostburg graduated 30 and Salisbury 34, 
all of whom received the four-year certificate. The county grad- 
uates of 1939 were the second group who knew when they entered 
as freshmen in September, 1935, that a four-year course was 
required for graduation. (See Table 196.) 

Enrollment at Teachers Colleges 

The county enrollment of 249 at Towson in the fall of 1939 
was exceeded in every year from the fall of 1921 to the fall of 
1932, but there has been a steady increase in enrollment at Tow- 
son each year since the fall of 1935, the increase over the fall of 
1938 being 27. 

The Baltimore City enrollment at Towson of 322 in the fall 
of 1939 was smaller by 18 than in the preceding year, but it has 
only been exceeded in five years since 1924. The enrollments of 



296 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



223 and 273 students at Frostburg and Salisbury, respectively, 
in the fall of 1939, are the highest on record at both schools. 
(See Table 197.) 

TABLE 197 



Enrollment at Maryland State Teachers Colleges 



Fali. of 


Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 


City 


County 


County 


State 


1920 




184 


57 




241 


241 


1921 




397 


101 




498 


498 


1922 




506 


134 




640 


640 


1923 




569 


125 




694 


694 


1924 


'sis 


602 


149 




751 


1,269 


1925 


411 


513 


197 


'i67 


817 


1,228 


1926 


275 


475 


201 


158 


834 


1,109 


1927 


268 


402 


192 


170 


764 


1,032 


1928 


315 


359 


178 


186 


723 


1,038 


1929 


346 


368 


173 


174 


715 


1,061 


1930 


298 


348 


161 


165 


674 


972 


1931 


348 


306 


111 


127 


544 


892 


1932 


289 


257 


136 


101 


494 


783 


1933 


230 


230 


116 


114 


460 


690 


1934 


178 


193 


124 


108 


425 


603 


1935 


193 


147 


137 


185 


469 


662 


1936 


284 


175 


131 


201 


507 


971 


1937 


290 


186 


170 


210 


566 


856 


1938 


340 


222 


212 


239 


673 


1,013 


1939 


322 


249 


223 


273 


745 


1,067 



The county enrollment of 745 at the three State Teachers 
Colleges in the fall of 1939 was distributed among the classes 
in the following numbers: seniors 108, juniors 106, sophomores 
210, and freshmen 317. The sophomore class had 50 and the 
freshman class had 29 more county students enrolled than for 
the preceding September. (See Table 198.) 

TABLE 198 



Distribution of Enrollment in Maryland State Teachers Colleges by Class, 

Fall of 1939 





Towson 






Total 


Class 






Frostburg 


Salisbury 








City 


County 






County 


State 




96 


96 


86 


135 


317 


413 


Sophomore 


113 


64 


72 


74 


210 


323 


Junior 


82 


41 


30 


35 


106 


188 


Senior 


31 


48 


33 


27 


108 


139 


Special 






2 


2 


4 


4 


Total 


322 


249 


223 


273 


745 


1,067 


Resident Students 


31 


138 


102 


136 


376 


407 


Day Students 


291 


111 


121 


137 


369 


660 


Elementary School 


19 


223 


183 


135 


541 


560 



Enrollment, State Teachers Colleges at Towson, Frostburg, 297 

Salisbury 

The City enrollment of 322 at Towson in September, 1939, 
included 31 taking fourth year work, 82 in the third year, 113 
sophomores, and 96 freshmen. The City freshmen and sopho- 
mores are all enrolled for the four-year course, as a result of 
action taken by the State Board, of Education at the request of 
the Board of School Commissioners of Baltimore City increasing 
the curriculum for training elementary teachers for Baltimore 
City from three years to four years to become effective for all 
individuals who enroll on or after September 1, 1938. 

On October 14, 1938, the State Board of Education passed By- 
law 59 which reads as follows : 

Only citizens of the United States shall be employed in the public 
school system in the counties or admitted to the State Teachers Colleges. 

The county enrollment at Towson includes 96 freshmen, 64 
sophomores, 41 juniors, and 48 seniors. At Frostburg there 
are 86 freshmen, 72 sophomores, 30 juniors, and 33 seniors. At 
Salisbury, the freshman class of 132 is followed by a sophomore 
class of 74, a junior class of 35, and a senior class of 27. Both 
Frostburg and Salisbury are permitted to offer two years of 
junior college work, which may or may not become preparatory 
to the professional teacher- training course. ( See Tables 197 and 
198.) 

At Towson 31 City and 138 county students were residents in 
the fall of 1939. The county resident students included over 55 
per cent of the Towson county group. There were 102 resident 
students, or nearly 46 per cent of the enrollment at Frostburg, 
and 136 residents or almost 50 per cent of the total enrollment 
at Salisbury. Especially at Frostburg and Salisbury Where the 
junior college has been established, the day school enrollments 
have been augmented by many young men living in the vicinity 
of the colleges. (See Tables 197 and 198.) 

The campus elementary school enrollment in the fall of 1939 
was 242 at Towson, 183 at Frostburg, and 135 at SaHsbury. (See 
Table 198.) 

The enrollment at the three State Teachers Colleges distributed 
by class, sex, and county indicates that the college is attended 
in largest numbers by high school graduates who live in the 
same county in which the school is located or in an adjoining 
county. In the fall of 1939, for example, nearly 75 per cent of 
the county enrollment at Towson came from Baltimore, Harford, 
Anne Arundel, Howard, and Carroll Counties; at Frostburg, 
nearly 96 per cent, all but 10 students, came from Allegany, 
Garrett, and Washington; and at SaHsbury 62 per cent were 
residents of Wicomico, Dorchester, Somerset, and Worcester. 
Counties having liberal arts colleges or universities within their 



298 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 











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Enrollment, State Teachers Colleges; Status of Freshmen 299 



borders or nearby send a large proportion of their high school 
graduates to these institutions. (See Table 199 and Chart 15 
and Table 54, pages 87-89, and Table 58, pages 94-95.) 

County superintendents, high school principals, and guidance 
counselors will probably find it advantageous to check up the 
enrollment by classes from their county at the State Teachers 
Colleges with the tables in the annual report showing teacher 
turnover in white elementary schools for a number of years to 
ascertain whether it will not be advantageous to adopt measures 
to bring before high school graduates opportunities in the 
field of elementary education. (See Table 199, Chart 15 and 
Table 54, pages 87-89, and Table 30, pages 47-48.) 

Status of Freshmen Admitted to Teachers Colleges in the Fall of 1939 

Over 87 per cent of the 1939 freshmen at Towson from Balti- 
more City were graduates of the college preparatory course, 7 
per cent had taken the commercial course, and 6 per cent had 
pursued the general course. Of the county entrants at Towson, 
88 per cent had taken the academic course, 10 per cent had pur- 
sued the general course, and 2 per cent the commercial course. 
(See Table 200.) 

TABLE 200 



1939 Entrants at State Teachers Colleges 



High School 
Course 


Per Cent Having Had Various 
High School Courses 


Third of 
Class 


Per Cent from High, Middle, 
and Lower Third of Class 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


City 


County 


City 


County 


Academic 


86.5 
6.2 
7.3 


87.5 
10.4 
2.1 


73.3 
8.1 

12.8 
2.3 
3.5 


66.0 
29.6 
3.0 
1.4 


High 


71.9 
28.1 


53.2 
33.3 
13.5 


45.4 
43.0 
9.3 
2.3 


53.3 
34.8 
11.8 


General 


Middle 


Commercial .... 

Vocational 

Unclassified .... 

Total No. . . . 


Unclassified . . . 
Total No. . . 


96 


96 


86 


135 


96 


96 


86 


135 



At Frostburg over 73 per cent of the 1939 freshmen were 
graduates of the academic course, 13 per cent had pursued the 
commercial course, 8 per cent had taken the general course, 2 
per cent the vocational course, and nearly 4 per cent were unclassi- 
fied. At Salisbury 66 per cent had pursued the academic, 30 per 
cent the general, over 3 per cent had taken the commercial course, 
and 1 per cent were graduates of the vocational course. (See 
Table 200.) 



300 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

At Towson 72 per cent of the City and 53 per cent of the county 
entrants in 1939 were ranked in the high third of their high 
school graduating class, while none of the City but 14 per cent 
of the county entrants, respectively, were from the low third of 
their classes. Frostburg had 45 per cent of the 1939 freshmen 
from the high third and 9 per cent from the low third, while cor- 
responding figures at Salisbury included 53 per cent from the 
high and 12 per cent from the low third of their high school 
classes. (See Table 200.) 

Withdrawals in 1938-39 of Freshmen Who Entered State Teachers Colleges 

in 1938 

The requested or voluntary withdrawal before the fall of 
1939 of freshmen who had entered Towson in the fall of 1938 
included 18 City and 25 county entrants, 14 and 28 per cent, 
respectively, of the City and county groups. At Frostburg 17, 
or 21 per cent, withdrew, while 8, or 10 per cent, of the freshmen 
who entered Salisbury in 1938 left before September, 1939. The 
number and percentage of withdrawals of both City and county 
entrants from Towson, and from Salisbury were higher, and from 
Frostburg the per cent but not the number was lower than cor- 
responding figures for the preceding year. (See Table 201.) 

TABLE 201 



Freshmen Who Entered Maryland Teachers Colleges in September, 1938, 
Who Withdrew at the Request of the School or Voluntarily before 
September, 1939 





Towson 








City 




Frostburg 


Salisbury 




County 






Freshmen Enrollment, September, 1938 


132 


90 


90 


108 


Withdrawals for Removal, Transfer or Death 


5 


1 


9 


26 


Withdrawals at Request of School 


4 


15 


4 




Voluntary Withdrawals 


14 


10 


13 


8 


Per Cent* Withdrawn at Request of School 


3.2 


16.9 


4.9 






11.0 


11.2 


16.1 


9.8 


Per Cent* of Total Withdrawals 


14.2 


28.1 


21.0 


9.8 



Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer, commitment or death. 



Faculty at the State Teachers Colleges 

At Towson in the fall of 1939 the instructional staff numbering 
32, excluding 9 for the campus elementary school, remained the 
same as the year before. Training centers included 6 teachers 
in 5 schools in Baltimore County and between 18 and 24 teachers 
in from 9 to 12 schools in Baltimore City, the number used vary- 
ing according to semester. The Towson office staff included 9 



Freshmen, Withdrawals, Faculty at State Teachers Colleges 301 



members as it did in 1938 and there were 3 individuals on the 
dormitory staff, the same number employed the preceding year. 
At Frostburg the staff increased by one instructor in 1939. At 
Salisbury the training centers included 9 teachers in 5 schools in 
1939 as against 7 teachers in 3 schools in 1938. (See Table 202.) 

TABLE 202 



Faculty and Staff at Maryland State Teachers Colleges, 1938-39 



Position 


Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


President 


1 

27 
4 


1 
10 
2 


1 

dll 

3 


Instructors 






9 


6 


4 


Training Centers: 










a6 




e9 


City 


b24 
9 
c3 


'2 
1 


"2 
1 


Office Staff 







a In five schools of Baltimore County, 
b In 12 schools in Baltimore City. 

c Includes social director, physician, and resident nurse. 

d Includes director of training who also acts as principal of elementary school, but excludes 
social director who acts as teacher of home economics. 

e Includes 2 in one school in Somerset County and 7 in four schools in Wicomico County. 

The State Board of Education on November 18, 1938, passed 
the following by-law prescribing uniform contracts for teachers 
in the State Teachers Colleges: 

BY-LAW 61— UNIFORM CONTRACTS FOR TEACHERS IN THE 
STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 

All contracts with teachers at the State Teachers Colleges who are 
employed after June 1, 1938, shall be in writing and on uniform blank? 
furnished by the State Board of Education, shall be signed by the 
teacher, and by the president and the secretary of the State Board of 
Education, and when so signed shall be filed among the records of the 
State Board of Education and the records of the College; provided 
teachers employed prior to June 1, 1938, and continuing in the service, 
shall have the contract herein prescribed if they so desire. The follow- 
ing shall be the form of contract and no other shall be recognized: 

TEACHER'S CONTRACT 
Maryland State Teachers Collefires 

STATE OF MARYLAND 

STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE AT 

IT IS HEREBY AGREED by and between the State Board of Education, as Trustees of the 

State Teachers College at , and . (Name of Teacher) , that the said 

teacher shall be and is hereby employed to teach in the State Teachers College at , 

subject to assignment by the President of said Teachers College or transfer to some other 
teaching position within the College, provided that if the transfer be made during the school 
year or after the opening of the school for any year, the salary shall not be reduced for the 
remainder of the year. The salary of said teacher shall be fixed by the State Board of Edu- 
cation. 

AND IT IS FURTHER AGREED that the teacher named herein shall become a member of 
the Maryland Teachers' Retirement System as of date on which h teaching service begins. 

AND IT IS FURTHER AGREED that the said teacher will not vacate the position to which 
assigned during any school year, except in case of emergency, of which the State Board of 
Education shall judge. 



302 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



AND IT IS FURTHER AGREED that either of the parties to this contract may terminate 
it at the end of the first or second school year by giving thirty days' notice in writing to the 
other during the month of June or July. 

AND IT IS FURTHER AGREED that if the teacher named herein wishes to vacate his or 
her position after the second year, thirty days' notice in writing shall be given the State Board 
of Education during the month of June or July, except in case of emergency, of which the State 
Board of Education shall judge. 

If any of the conditions of this contract shall be violated by the teacher named herein, salary 
already accrued will be forfeited, in the discretion of the State Board of Education. 

This contract shall continue from year to year, subject to the aforegoing conditions, provided 
that if the teacher is recommended for dismissal by the President of the College in accordance 
with the provisions of Sections 153 and 154 of Article 77 of the Annotated Code of Maryland, 
said teacher shall have the right of being heard by the State Board of Education and the State 
Superintendent of Schools sitting as the Board of Trustees of said College. 

This contract is made in accordance with the provisions of the school law, and is subject to 
Sections 153 and 154 of Article 77 of the Annotated Code of Maryland, Chapter 506 of the Acts 
of the General Assembly of 1916, and any amendments thereto, and will be filed among the re- 
cords of the State Board of Education and the records of the College. 

The said teacher on his or her part hereby accepts said appointment, to take effect on the 
day of , ]9 

Date of signing this contract , 19 

WITNESS OUR HANDS: 



President, State Board of Education. 

(SEAL) 



Teacher. Secretary, State Board of Education and State 

Superintendent of Schools. 

OATH OF OFFICE 

I, , having been appointed a teacher in the State Teachers Col- 
lege at do swear (or affirm) that I will obey the school 



law of the State of Maryland and all rules and regulations governing my position as teacher, 
passed in pursuance thereof by the proper authority ; that I will, to the best of my skill and 
judgement, (diligently and faithfully, without partiality or prejudice, discharge the duties of a 
teacher in the said State Teachers College. 

Teacher. 

STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE, , to wit: 

Sworn (or affirmed) before the subscriber by 

, teacher, who in my presence has thereto 

affixed h signature this day of , 19 



Signature. 



Total and Per Student Costs at State Teachers Colleges 

Although partly because of restoration of cuts in salaries, 1938 
and 1939 total current expenses and cost to the State at Towson 
State Teachers College were higher than during the period 
from 1934 to 1937, they were mudh lower than corresponding 
amounts from 1928 to 1933. The cost to the State at Frostburg 
and Salisbury which was low for the years 1934-37, increased 
somewhat in 1938 and 1939, but the 1939 total current expenses, 
were the highest on record for Frostburg, and the highest Salis- 
bury has known, except for the years 1930 and 1931. (See 
Table 203.) 

Despite the fact that the college enrollments were generally 
smaller from 1934 to 1939 than from 1928 to 1933, receipts from 
students' fees at the three colleges were generally higher in the 
later period because of the increase in fees which took effect in 
the fall of 1933. 



Total and per Student Costs, State Teachers Colleges 



303 



TABLE 203 

Total and Per Student Costs at State Teachers Colleges, 1928 to 1939 



Total 
Current 
Expenses 



Fees 
Paid 
by 
Students 



Cost 

to 
State 



College 
Enrollment 



Total 
4 



Per Cent 
Resident 
5 



Per Cent 
Elementary 
is of College 
Enrollment 



Average Annual Cost 
per College Student 











in 


to 


Total 


Fees 


State 


7 


8 


9 



Towson 



1928 


$300,675 


$76,406 


$224,269 


734 


51 


34 


$410 


a$104 


$306 


1929 


301,590 


64,551 


237,039 


650 


51 


39 


464 


a99 


365 


1930 


314,699 


64,660 


250,039 


604 


49 


43 


521 


al07 


414 


1931 


311,674 


61,663 


250,011 


561 


51 


42 


556 


alio 


446 


1932 


277,642 


57,201 


220,441 


582 


43 


46 


477 


a98 


379 


1933 


261,686 


42,182 


219,504 


503 


36 


53 


520 


a84 


436 


1934.... 


210,135 


79,108 


131,027 


450 


36 


54 


487 


bl96 


291 


1935 


192,873 


58,317 


134,556 


354 


31 


71 


545 


bl65 


380 


1936 


179,751 


50,286 


129,465 


330 


25 


75 


545 


bl53 


392 


1937 


184,263 


65,395 


118,868 


438 


23 


54 


420 


bl48 


272 


1938 


217,359 


70,312 


147,047 


455 


26 


54 


478 


bl55 


323 


1939 


218,699 


81,737 


136,962 


531 


25 


47 


412 


bl54 


258 



Frostburg 



1928. . . . 


$71,247 


$16,770 


$54,477 


194 


38 


* 


*$368 


a$87 


*$281 


1929. . . . 


73,584 


14,566 


59,018 


178 


44 


65 


413 


a82 


331 


1930 


76,581 


13,221 


63,360 


161 


43 


65 


476 


a82 


394 


1931 


77,554 


14,290 


63,264 


154 


51 


80 


504 


a93 


411 


1932 


75,575 


9,809 


65,766 


113 


50 


166 


669 


a87 


582 


1933 


71,254 


9,175 


62,079 


121 


41 


175 


589 


a76 


513 


1934. . . . 


61,359 


21,545 


39,814 


115 


49 


171 


533 


bl87 


346 


1935. . . . 


56,780 


23,230 


33,550 


117 


49 


171 


485 


bl99 


286 


1936. . . . 


59,558 


22,415 


37,143 


130 


42 


161 


459 


bl73 


286 


1937 


64,087 


23,444 


40,643 


131 


45 


153 


489 


bl79 


310 


1938. . . . 


77,755 


29,625 


48,130 


167 


44 


123 


466 


bl78 


288 


1939 


82,025 


33,895 


48,130 


204 


39 


93 


402 


bl66 


236 



Salisbury 



1928. . . . 


$85,688 


$21,216 


$64,472 


167 


81 


38 


$513 


a$127 


$386 


1929 


86,575 


28,437 


58,138 


180 


80 


35 


481 


al58 


323 


1930 


98,930 


27,456 


71,474 


168 


88 


53 


589 


al63 


426 


1931. . . . 


98,359 


28,005 


70,354 


160 


90 


59 


615 


al75 


440 


1932. . . . 


88,197 


20,475 


67,722 


124 


85 


79 


711 


al65 


546 


1933. . . . 


71,346 


12,575 


58,771 


98 


72 


108 


728 


al28 


600 


1934. . . . 


66,144 


24,267 


41,877 


114 


71 


102 


580 


b213 


367 


1935. . . . 


59,435 


20,706 


38,729 


109 


40 


121 


545 


b252 


293 


1936. . . . 


67,672 


32,289 


35,383 


184 


41 


69 


384 


bl92 


192 


1937 


70,185 


34,801 


35,384 


200 


40 


61 


351 


bl74 


177 


1938. . . . 


87,595 


36,608 


50,987 


210 


39 


58 


417 


bl74 


243 


1939. . . . 


89,119 


41,787 


47,332 


228 


49 


52 


391 


bl83 


208 



a Day students paid $20, women residents $200, and men boarders $72. 
b Day students paid $100, women residents $316, and men boarders $128. 
* Elementary school paid for through Allegany County budget. 



The college enrollment at Towson decreased steadily from 
1928 to 1936, with the exception of a slight increase in 1932. En- 
rollment for 1939 at Towson showed a considerable increase over 
1937 and 1938. At Frostburg the years 1932 and 1934 and at 
Sahsbury the years 1933 and 1935 showed the lowest enrollments, 



304 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

since which years there have been more or less consistent in- 
creases in enrollment, until in 1939 they both have the highest 
number enrolled since 1928. The effects of the depression in 
making it more difficult for high school graduates to finance 
further education, especially with the increased costs and the 
lengthening of the course to three and then four years, and the 
fear that there would not be a position after graduation from 
college resulting from the failure to appoint the usual number 
of teachers during the depression, deterred many high school 
graduates from attending the teachers colleges. The shortage of 
elementary school teachers in the past few years, however, has 
brought about an increase in enrollment. All of the colleges 
showed an increase in enrollment in 1939 over 1938, and a still 
further gain in the fall of 1939. (See Table 203.) 

In general the per cent of college students resident at Towson 
and Salisbury is lower after than before 1933, which in part ex- 
plains the decreases in total cost per student. After fees were 
increased in 1933 some students within commuting distance found 
it more economical to commute than to pay the charges for living 
in the dormitory. (See Table 203.) 

There is considerable difference at the three colleges in the 
relation between the enrollment in the campus elementary school 
and the college enrollment. Since the cost of the campus elemen- 
tary school is a charge against the total current expenses and 
the cost to the State and is included in calculating the total cost 
and the cost to the State per college student, some of the differ- 
ences in per student costs at the three schools are accounted for 
in this way. At Frostburg from 1932 to 1938 the campus elemen- 
tary school enrollment was much larger than the college enroll- 
ment. At 'Salisbury the elementary school enrollment was 
larger than the college enrollment in 1933, 1934, and 1935. At 
Towson the campus elementary school enrollment was 34 per 
cent of the total college enrollment in 1928, as against 75 per 
cent in 1936 and 47 per cent in 1939. (See Table 203, column 6.) 

Over the twelve-year period, total cost per college student 
averaged between $410 and $556 at Towson, the amount in 1939 
being $412. At Frostburg over the period from 1929 to 1939, 
cost per college student averaged between $402 and $669, the 
1939 amount being $402. At Salisbury the range in cost per 
student was between $351 and $728, the 1939 amount being $391. 
The differences in costs for the three colleges are explained in 
part by per cent of students in residence, relation between ele- 
mentary and college enrollment, relation between resident en- 
rollment and capacity, and many other factors. (See Table 203.) 



Total and per Student Costs, State Teachers Colleges 305 

The average annual fee paid by each college student was 
higher after 1933 than before, because it became necessary after 
the budgetary cuts to increase the fee for instruction from $20 
to $100 and the board from $5 to $6 per week. The proportion 
of resident students was higher at Salisbury than at Towson and 
Frostburg in 1939, which explains the higher average fee paid 
at Salisbury. (See Table 203, column 8.) 

During the twelve-year period the cost per student to the 
State ranged between $258 and $446 at Towson, with $258 the 
amount in 1939 ; between $236 and $582 at Frostburg, the aver- 
age in 1939 being $236 ; and between $177 and $600 at Salisbury, 
the 1939 average being $208. The proportion of students in 
residence and the relation between elementary and college en- 
rollment at each college are factors affecting cost to the State 
per student. (See Table 203.) 

The distribution of 1939 expenditures for instruction and 
dormitory expenses at the three State Teachers Colleges and 
receipts from the State and from the student are given in 
Table 204. 

TABLE 204 



Distribution of Expenditures at State Teachers Colleges from Sept. 1, 1938 

to Aug. 31, 1939 



College 


Total 


Expenditures for Instruction 


Expenditures for Dormitory 


c 

2 
"S 

E 

T3 
< 


03 

.2 2 

U -)-> 


Cost of In- 
struction 
other than 
Salaries 


Operation, 
Maintenance, 
Transportation 


c 
.2 

OJ 

03 

'a 
S 

<J 


Operation, 
Maintenance, 
Transportation, 
Health 


O 


Total 


$218,699 
82,026 
89,119 


$20,451 
9,100 
7,657 


$104,733 
39,850 
38,104 


$6,162 
5,401 
5,174 


$40,766 
9,824 
8,213 


$4,203 
1,950 
4,733 


$26,355 
9,358 
17,144 


$16,029 
6,543 
8,094 


$389,844 


$37,208 


$182,687 


$16,737 


$58,803 


$10,886 


$52,857 


$30,666 



Receipts from Teachers College Students and from State from Sept. 1, 1938 

to Aug. 31, 1939 



College 


Average 
Total 
College 

En- 
rollment 


Average 

Ele- 
mentary 

En- 
rollment 


Receipts for 
Instruction from 


Total 
Resident 

En- 
rollment 


Receipts for 
Dormitory from 


Students 


State 


Students 


State 


Towson 

Frostburg 

Salisbury 


531 
204 
228 


252 
190 
118 


$53,441 
20,365 
22,847 


$118,670 
43,810 
36,301 


135 
79 
111 


$28,296 
13,531 
18,940 


$18,292 
4,320 
11,031 



306 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The total 1939 cost per college student for instruction at Tow- 
son was $324, of which $224 was paid by the State and $100 by 
each student. At Frostburg the total cost per college student 
for instruction was $315, and at Salisbury it was $259 per 
student, making the cost to the State after deduction of tuition 
fees, $215 and $159, respectively. (See Chart 44.) 



CHART 44 



1938-39 COST PER COLLEGE STUDENT FOR INSTRUCTION 
TOTAL COST PER DAY STUDENT 



State Average 
Teachers Niimber of 

College College Elera. Total . Total ^ Paid by -—.Paid by 

at Students Pupilst Cost Hi I Cost H State I Istudent 



Towson 531 252 $324 ■BSSHEEiZI 

Frostburg 204 190 315 ^^B^HBCj^ZI 

Salisbury 228 118 259 l^ggjI^EI] 



1938-39 TOTAL COST PER RESIDINT STDDMT 

State Resident 
Teachers Students 

College Average Per Total ^ — . Total _ Paid by ^Paid by 

at Number Cent* Cost Hi — I Cost Hi State I I Student 



Towson 


135 


25 


$669 


Frostburg 


79 


39 


540 


Salisbury 


111 


49 


529 




t Not considered in calculating cost per college student. Elementary pupils were follow- 
ing per cent of college enrollment in 1939 : Towson 47. Frostburg 93, Salisbury 52. 
* Per cent that resident students were of total college enrollment. 



The total 1939 cost of instruction and dormitory per resident 
student was highest at Towson, $669, of which $359 was paid 
by the State, and lowest at SaHsbury, $529 per student, $258 of 
which was paid by the State. At Frostburg the total cost per 
resident student was $540, with $269 paid by the State. (See 
Chart 44.) 

Student Aid Through National Youth Administration 

Through the National Youth Administration during 1938-39, 
aid was available to needy students at the State Teachers Col- 
leges. There were 90 students at Towson who received $5,670, 



Cost per Student, N. Y. A., Inventories at State Teachehis 307 

Colleges 

an average of $63 per student. At Frostburg 38 were aided to 
the extent of $1,620, or $42.63 per student. At Salisbury 71 
students received assistance totaling $2,565, an average of $36.13 
per student. In return the students had to give service for a 
specified number of hours a week to the school or community. 

Inventories of Teachers Colleges 

The inventories for land and improvements and buildings at 
the three State Teachers Colleges remained the same in Septem- 
ber, 1939, as for the preceding year, while the equipment showed 
increases over 1938 at Frostburg and Salisbury, and a decrease 
at Towson. (See Table 205.) 

TABLE 205 



Inventories at State Teachers Colleges, September, 1939 





Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Land and Improvements 


$127,970 


$80,590 


$17,516 


Buildings 


1,156,500 


354,718 


699,850 




*204,533 


36,602 


84,561 


Total 


$1,489,003 


$471,910 


$801,927 



* There was a decrease of approximately $10,000 below the corresponding figure for 1938, 
due to the dismantling of the cafeteria, the destruction of old library books, and the elimina- 
tion of an old automobile. 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM COUNTY TEACHERS AND MEMBERSHIP IN 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

The Maryland Teachers' Retirement System in its twelfth year 
of operation, 1938-39, received contributions from county teachers 
to the amount of $309,851, an increase of $12,140 over the amount 
contributed during 1937-38. In October, 1939, 5,176 county 
teachers, 95.5 per cent of the entire teaching staff, were active 
members of the system. (See Table 206.) 

The proportion of the teaching staff in active membership in 
the Retirement System varied in the individual counties from 
89 to 100 per cent. Only one county had fewer than 90 per cent 
of its teachers enrolled in the Retirement System, While over 
95 per cent were members in 15 counties. Contributions from 
211 members in the State Department of Education, the four 
State Teachers Colleges, and the four State schools for handi- 
capped and delinquent children brought the total contributions 
to $333,020. (See Table 206.) 

For State contributions to the Teachers' Retirement System of 
the State and to the Baltimore City Employees' Retirement 
System on account of teachers, see Table 1, pages 6-7, and the 
financial statement on page 309. 



308 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 206 

Contributions by Teachers to the Annuity Savings Fund of the Teachers* Re- 
tirement System of the State of Maryland for the Year Ended July 31, 1939, 
Number and Per Cent of October, 1939, County Teaching Staff Who are 
Members in Active Service 









Members 






Amount 




in Active Service 


County or Institution 


Contributed 


October, 1939 




Year Ending 










July 31, 1939 














Number 


Per Cent 


County: 












Allegany 


$30,938 


61 


475 


96 


5 


Anne Aruoidel 


18, 569 


76 


330 


93 


5 




42,643 


23 


602 


96 


8 


Calvert 


3,339 


58 


68 


98 


6 




6 , 231 


33 


113 


96 


6 


Carroll 


12,618 


46 


222 


96 


5 


Cecil 


10,000 


69 


159 


97 


5 




5,257 


95 


121 


97 


6 




8,030 


00 


161 


95 


3 




18,460 


10 


298 


98 







8,953 


15 


156 


93 


4 


Harford 


12,222 


26 


211 


93 


4 




5,299 


10 


100 


94 


3 


Kent 


5,256 


84 


87 


100 







33,797 


79 


478 


98 





Prince George's 


26,297 


69 


494 


93 


6 


5,568 


68 


97 


100 







3,726 


03 


84 


96 


6 


Somerset 


6,673 


73 


126 


99 


2 


Talbot 


5,907 


10 


109 


93 


2 




23,949 


68 


379 


90 


9 




9 223 


82 


170 


89 







6^885 


85 


136 


97 


8 


Total Counties 


$309,851 


43 


5,176 


95 


5 


Teachers Colleges: 














$6,183 


56 


48 








2,089 


50 


18 








2,383 


13 


23 






1,216 


64 


18 






Department: 














4,032 


98 


26 






Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission 


417 


40 


4 






283 


40 


3 






Other Schools: 














2.483 


72 


27 








649 


88 


7 






Rosewood State Training School 


1,440 


23 


13 








1,988 


60 


24 






Total Schools and Departments 


$23,169 


04 


211 








$333,020 


47 


5,387 







Contributions to Maryland Teachers Retirement System; 309 
Financial Statement 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 
For Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1939 



Account 



State 
Appropriation 



Receipts from 
Fees, Federal 
Aid, Other 
Sources, and 
by Budget 
Amendment 



Refunds, 
Withdrawals 
by Budget 
Amendment 
or Returned 
to State 
Treasury 



Total 
Available 

and 
Disbursed 



State Aid to Approved High Schools . 
State Aid to Colored Industrial 

Schools 

Part Payment of Salaries of School 

Officials 

Free Textbooks and Materials of 

Instruction 

Fund Distributed on Basis of 

Census and Attendance 

Equalization Fund 

Fund Distributed to Reduce Taxes . 
State Aid for Handicapped Children 

State Board of Education. . . 

Bureau of Publications and Printing 
Medical Examination of Teachers . . 

Consultant Architect 

Vocational Rehabilitation 

Vocational Education 

Bureau of Educational 

Measurements 

Physical Education and Recreation . 
State Department of Education .... 
State Teachers College, Towson. . . . 
State Teachers College, Frostburg . . 
State Teachers College, Salisbury . . 
State Teachers College, Bowie 

Totals 

Teachers Retirement System: 

County Teachers 

Baltimore City Teachers 

Expense Fund 

Totals 



$570,602.00 
a25, 500.00 

al83,647.00 
250,000.00 



1,800, 
al,177. 
1,250, 
15, 
bl, 
4, 
1 

15 
bl2, 

10 
15 
b65 
bl36 
48 
b47 
b43 



000.00 
171.75 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
500.00 
700.00 
750.00 
293.50 
240.25 

491.50 
000.00 
848.00 
962.50 
130.00 
332.00 
280.00 



$5,164.00 



3,487.00 



$300.00 
d2,000.00 



hl8,303.58 
dhll,413.72 

d2,900.00 

d2,312.40 
47.85 

87,784.19 
c33,056.42 

47,597.79 
c2 1,499. 84 



.615.75 



13.20 
14.20 
2.00 

' "5!22 
598.03 

1,761.76 
175.01 
244.95 
e479.40 
e70.06 
83,912.08 
e434.00 



$565,438.00 

25,500.00 

180,160.00 

250,000.00 

1,800,000.00 
1,168,556.00 
1,250,000.00 
15,000.00 
1,286.80 
6,485.80 
1,698.00 
750.00 
33,591.86 
23,055.94 

11,629.74 
17,137.39 
65,650.90 
224,267.29 
81,116.36 
91,017.71 
64,345.84 



$5,674,448.50 



f 16, 623. 00 
f443,383.00 
11,450.00 



$227,215.79 



$24,976.66 



g75,624.00 



$5,876,687.63 



fl6,623.00 
f367,759.00 
11,450.00 



$6,145,904.50 



$227,215.79 



$100,600.66 



$6,272,519.63 



a Does not include following amounts transferred by amendment to other items of the 
budget: State Aid to Colored Industrial Fund, $1,500.00; Part Payment of Salaries of School 
Officials, $200.00 ; Equalization Fund. $20,950.00. 

b Includes following amounts transferred by amendment from other items of the budget: 
State Board of Education, $200.00 ; Vocational Education, $2,800.00 ; State Department, 
$2,165.00 ; Towson, $7,360.00 ; Salisbury, $4,055.00 ; Bowie, $6,070.00. 

c Includes increase in estimated fees of $7,770.00 for Frostburg, and of $2,000.00 for Bowie. 

d Includes reservation from the 1938 appropriation as follows : Publicatons and Printing, 
$1,100.00 ; Vocational Education, $600.00 ; Educational Measurements, $2,900.00 ; Physical Edu- 
cation and Recreation, $2,312.40. 

e Includes refunds of fees amounting to $479.00 at Towson; $70.00 at Frostburg; $3,911.96 
(including room rent for boys) at Salisbury ; and $434.00 at Bowie. 

f In February, 1939, $600,000 additional in State bonds were received — $500,000 for County 
teachers and $100,000 for City teachers. 

g Returned to the State Treasury because of overpayments to Baltimore City in previous 
years. 

h Includes $18,050.00 for vocational rehabilitation and $10,798.72 for vocational education 
transferred from Federal funds. 



310 



1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Financial Statements, State Dep't, Teachers Colleges, 311 
Allied Activities 



RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS 
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1939 



Receipts 







Reserva- 










State 


tion from 


Transfers 


Other 


Total 


Purpose 


Appropria- 


1938 


by Budget 


Receipts 


Receipts 




tion 


Budget 


Amendment 




Bureau of Educational Measure- 














$10,491.50 


$2,900.00 






$13,391.50 


Bureau of Publications and Print- 








ing 


4,500.00 


1,100.00 


$900.00 




6,500.00 


Physical Education and Recreation 


15,000.00 


2,312.40 






17,312.40 


Vocational Education 


9,440.25 


600.00 


a2,806!66 


b$10,813!72 


23,653.97 




15,293.50 






bl8,303.58 


33,597.08 


State Board of Education 


800.00 




a506!66 




1,300.00 


Consultant Architect 


750.00 








750.00 


Medical Examination of Teachers. 


1,700.00 








1,700.00 


State Aid for Handicapped 












Children 


15,000.00 








15,000.00 


Supervision of Colored Schools. . . . 


250.00 






c4,735!33 


4,985.33 



Disbursements 



Purpose 


Salaries 


Traveling 
Expenses 


Miscel- 
laneous 


Budget 
Amendment 
or Returned 
to Treasury 


Total 
Disburse- 
ments 


Bureau of Educational Measurements 
Bureau of Publications and Printing . 
Physical Education and Recreation. . 

State Board of Education 

Medical Examination of Teachers . . . 
State Aid for Handicapped Children . 
Supervision of Colored Schools 


$7,300.00 

4,456!66 
17,000.00 
11,100.00 

756; 66 
4,oo6!66 


$1,746 lei 

3,824.64 
2,287.48 
1,101.90 

985!33 


$4,329.74 
6,485.80 

10,946.78 
2,231.30 

20,204.38 
184.90 

1,698!66 
15,000.00 


$1,761.76 
14.20 
175.01 
598.03 
5.22 
13.20 

2!66 


$13,391.50 

6,500.00 
17,312.40 
23,653.97 
33,597.08 

1,300.00 
750.00 

1,700.00 
15,000.00 

4,985.33 



a Includes following amounts transferred by amendment from other items of the budget : 
Vocational Education, $2,800.00 ; State Board of Education, $200.00. 

b Includes following amounts transferred from Federal funds : Vocational Education, 
$10,798.72 ; Vocational Rehabilitation, $18,050.00. 

c Includes $3,750.00 for salary and $985.33 for travel from the General Education Board. 

Construction Account 
Bowie State Teachers College 

For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1939 

Loan of 1931: 

Balance, October 1 , 1938 $278 . 53 

(No receipts or disbursements during fiscal year) 

Balance, September 30, 1939 $278 . 53 

Loan of 1937 and PWA Federal Grant: 

Balance, October 1, 1938 $61,714.63 

Disbursements: 

Construction $40,823.51 

Architects' Fees 859.23 

Equipment 13,969.68 

Refrigerating Unit 350 . 90 

Roads 3,085.18 

Resident Engineer 580 . 03 

Insurance 140.56 



Total Disbursements $59 , 809 . 09 



Balance, September 30, 1939 $1 , 905 . 54 

Less difference in amount allotted and received from PWA Grant . $1,401.08 

Plus refund on insurance paid 690 . 66 

710.42 



Balance, September 30, 1939 



$1,195.12 



312 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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■ CO kO CO t> i-( ?£> to CD O 00 CO lO->3<O5iOC0 

• 05«dooocooo--i«ooco;di« ooom-»j<o 

Co"co" rHi-Ti-H rHi-T f-Tin TfCo" 



t> 05 »-H O O «£> CO 
■^00OOC0«£>O 

1-H tH tH l-H CO CO ^> 



• O 05 CO !£> CO CO Irt 05 O CO r-( t- • • CO rH 

•uoknoooot^oocoo50iot>t> i-h • -cooo 

■iH rH CO Tl< ,-1 CO CO CO coco 1-1 • -T-HO 



kOU5 • t- CO ^ 00 o CO • CO CO t- in 05 in CO cc 00 1- 00 oj co 
in t- • o> CO CD Tji t- in CO •ooeoocowoo-i'oocoeoco-^ cd 

CO • l-H rHrH,-! • »-l rH CO l-i y-l i-t CO .-I 05 



t> CD CO 

_ o t- o 
<Ji • -t-co t- 



00 05 CO CD --Jf 7-1 CO CO 05 O • 05 CO O CO t- O 1-1 in CO t- 05 00 

CO o 00 00 CO Ti< CO in 05 • 00 00 1> co 05 00 cd cd tji o cd 
CO 05 o> o CD CO CO CO c- • c- in CD t- 00 CD 05 00 00 CO eo CO 



CO in 05 
eoTfosco 
t-oineo 



00 CO 1-1 in 05 T)< 1-1 00 1- 00 • co o cd co 00 o co t}< m tj< 
o CO in in CO CD c- osoo o • 00 co co 05 co m cd co t- co 
rH -s" 05 in CO 1-1 1-1 CD in • eo co 00 00 00 co "S* cd ri cd cd 



1—1 o 



in t- 1-1 i-(in t- rH Tj< CO t> • in ci o CO 1-1 o CO in o CO Tji Tf 
th 05 in CO in to t> CO tr- 00 ■ o co m o o 00 o co co co 
T-i Tj< 05 in C0 1-1 rH c- CD CO • CO 00 05 in eo t> lit 1-H CD CO 



05 Tj- 05 r-^ 

05 CO in CO 
ocoeoco 



CO y-l 



incoococoi-ioocDt~cot>oocoocoinoooooooot-cD 
ococooocoo505cooooocoT}<coooi-iinooococococooo 
cot>cDO«incooco-^ocDoooocot>ococ-coinL-c- 



000 CO CO 1-1 
CO t> CO CO CO 
00 00 05 CO CO 



cooocorHcocoTjicooooiinincoi-icococoi 



oooOrHOt-coooooocooo^oooot-toincoinco^^ 
cot-cD.-i05t-t-05oocooocoooooo— i-HOinooo5-HO 
o>eococot-t-coino5Ti<,-iincoinoo-<i<inTtt>cDincooo 

eo"co*in i-Ti-T co"i-<"i-<" co'eo' co'i-h" 



1-1 • • in 1 



n T)< o oi 1-1 CO CO 00 in o rH 1-1 00 CO CO CO o o o in t- 
n o CO CO CO CO CO 00 CO in CO CO 00 T)< 05 00 1- CO 05 in t- o CO 
SI i-i CO t- 1-1 05 CO CO in CO CD w CO CO t- CO CO CO CO CO CO 



•c:50 

• C~ i-( 

• in t- 



cDoocDt:-^<Dt>t>ococot-oocoin-<4<inc4inoocD-<4< 
coincoc-coT)<oocDooooineoocoo5eoT)<oocDco^ot- 
ooi-iin CO 00 in CO Tjt 1-1 in t- CO CO 00 CD CO rH CO 00 CO CD CO 



ininococo->4<incD05-^^o^co-'i'oocoincoincDCDin 
t>xt>cocoi-icot>o5oinx-<i<c-cocoo5t-t>oo-<t-^x 
cocoooxooo^-<tcDooooi-icoTrco-«s<ooo5CD05inci 



05 00 cooo 
t> t> CO o 

t- CO 05 CO 



COCDC- CO -t CO rH CO t- CO CO 1 



coT)<-<j<co^o-^-^cococ-Tj<inincoi-iT}<ooo5CDcoinin 
oinc-oooococDcoco— it-omococoi-i-^Oi-ioin 
050co-*05coincDcoTi<xo5o<Dinooc~-»j<05«ooc>05 



I CO o 

> CO t- 

) CD Tj< 



CO in CO 00 



) CO —1 CO O CO CO C- CO -<t CD CD t> 00 t- W CO t> 05 O 

< t- CO 05 CO in o — 1 1> 00 CO o C0 1-1 1-1 ^ CD CD CO c^ 00 CO 
> CO CO 05 o in CD 00 CO in o 1-1 1-1 1- 05 in t- o 00 CO 00 o 

co'cfoo" 



t- T}< o 00 
CO c- o 00 

05 O 00 i-H 



ocoeoco 



CD 1; C JJ 



u «- « 
0) o c „ 



01 dJ . 



314 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE III 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and Private 

Institutions, Fall of 1938 



County and School 



Enrollment 










Teach- 


Ele- 


Com- 




ers 


men- 


mer- 


High 




tary 


cial 




520 


34 


106 


17 


383 




71 


11 


333 




59 


11 


165 




60 


9 


215 






g 


172 




16 


5 






173 


9 


lis 






4 


60 






2 


1,963 


34 


485 


74 


299 






8 


71 






2 


287 




157 


11 


402 






8 


324 






8 


316 






8 


184 




93 


7 


246 






5 


228 






5 


194 






4 


189 






4 


163 






5 


161 






6 


150 






4 






149 


12 


24 


13 


70 


11 


79 






5 


69 






3 


65 






3 


3,081 


13 


469 


109 



County and School 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



Com- 
mer- 
cial 



High 



Teach- 
ers 



Allegany 
*S. S. Peter's and Paul's, 

Cumberland 

*St. Patrick's, Catholic Girls 
Central High, Cumberland 
*St. Mary's, Cumberland . . . 
*St. Peter's, Westernport. . . 
St. Michael's, Frostburg. . . 
St. Patrick's, Mt. Savage . . 
*La Salle Inst., Cumberland 

St. Joseph's, Midland 

St. Michael's, Eckhart. . . . 



Total . 



Anne Arundel 

St. Mary's, Annapoli 



Baltimore 
*School of the Immaculate and 

Catholic High, Towson . . 
Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, 

Middle River 

St. Mark's, Catonsville 

St. Michael's, Overlea 

*St. Stephen's, Bradshaw. . . 
St. Joseph's, Fullerton .... 

St. Rita's, Dundalk 

St. Clement's, Rosedale . . . 
Ascension, Halethorpe. . . . 
St. Clement's, Landsdowne 
St. Charles', Pikesville. . . . 

St. Agnes', Woodlawn 

*St. Charles' College H. S., 

Catonsville 

Mt. de Sales Academy, 

Catonsville 

St. Vincent's Orphanage, 

Towson 

St. Joseph's, Texas 

Sacred Heart, Glyndon 



Calvert 

Our Lady Star of the Sea, 
Solomons 



Total . 



Caroline 

St. Gertrude's Academy, 
Ridgely 

Carroll 

*St. John's, Westminster . . . 
St. Joseph's, Taneytown . . . 

Total 

Cecil 

Parish School 

Charles 

*Sacred Heart, La Plata 

*Notre Dame, Bryantown. . 

Total 

St. Mary's (Col.), 

Bryantown 

Frederick 

*St. John's, Frederick 

St. Euphemia's, 

Emmitsburg 

St. Anthony's, Emmitsburg 
*St. Joseph's College High, 

Emmitsburg 

Visitation, Frederick 

St. Peter's, Libertytown . . . 

Total 

St. Euphemia's (Col.), 
Emmitsburg 

Garrett 

St. Peter's, Oakland 

Harford 

St. Margaret's, Bel Air 



37 



15 



134 
29 



163 
92 



219 
106 



325 
124 

122 

183 
104 



456 
4 



103 



47 



90 



67 



30 



191 



* Secondary school accredited by Maryland State Board of Education. 



Enrollment in Individual Catholic Schools 315 



TABLE III— (Continued) 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and Private 

Institutions, Fall of 1938 



County and School 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



Com- 
mer- 
cial 



High 



Teach 
ers 



County and School 



Enrollment 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



Com- 
mer- 
cial 



High 



Teach- 
ers 



Howard 

St. Paul's, Ellicott City 

St. Augustine's, Elkridge . . , 

*St. Louis', Clarksville 

*Trinity Preparatory, 

llchester 

Total 

St. Augustine's (Col.), 
Ellicott City 

Montgomery 

St. Michael's, Silver Spring. 
St. Martin's, Gaithersburg . 
♦Georgetown Preparatory, 

Garrett Park 

Academy of the Holy 

Name, Silver Spring 

Total 

Prince George's 

St. James', Mt. Rainier. . . . 

Holy Redeemer, Berwyn . . . 
*St. Mildred's, Laurel 

St. Mary's, Marlboro 

*La Salle Hall, Ammendale . . 

Total 

St. Mary's (Col.), Marlboro 

St. Mary's 
*St. Mary's Academy, 

Leonardtown 

*St. Michael's, Ridge 

Little Flower, Great Mills . . 

St, John's, Hollywood 

St. Joseph's, Morganza 

Our Lady, Medley's Neck. . 

Holy Angels, Abell 

Sacred Heart, Bushwood . . . 

Leonard Hall, Leonardtown 

Total 

St. Peter Claver's (Col.), 

Ridge 

St. Joseph's (Col.) 

Morganza 



151 
95 
81 



332 
34 



357 
121 



478 



398 
243 
146 
105 



892 
97 



110 
174 
176 
159 
152 
128 
127 
81 
64 



1,171 
130 



21 



58 



103 
87 



21 



190 



25 



81 



130 
68 



25 



198 



17 



45 



Washington 
*St. Mary's, Hagerstown . 



Total County White 

Catholic Schools 

Total County Colored 

Catholic Schools 

Baltimore City 

*Seton 

*Mt. St. Joseph's , 

*lnstitute of Notre Dame . . , 

*Calvert Hall 

*Notre Dame of Maryland . 

*Loyola 

*Mt. St. Agnes' 

Mt. Washington Country 

School 

Visitation 

Calvert Hall Country 

School 

Total 

*St. Martin's 

Other White Parish Schools 
Institutions for White 

Children 

Total White 

*St. Francis' Academy 

(Colored) 

Colored Parish Schools 

Institutions for Colored 
Children 

Total Colored 

Total State 

White 

Colored 



347 



9,823 



529 



18 
248 



152 
92 



128 
60 



744 



1,110 
26,679 



527 



29,060 



63 
1,112 



192 



1,367 



38,883 
1,896 



123 



74 



1.899 



1,355 
809 
532 
404 
250 
385 
173 



35 
463 



73 



3,914 
125 



571 



4,039 



79 



27 



106 



694 5,938 
.. 106 



* Secondary school accredited by Maryland State Board of Education. 



316 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE IV 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Non-Catholic Private Elementary and Second- 
ary Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending June 30, 1939 



County and School 



Enroll- 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



Sec- 
ond- 
ary 



No. OF 
Teachers 



Full- 
time 



Part- 
time 



County and School 



Enroll- 



Ele- 
men- 
tary 



Sec- 
ond- 
ary 



No. of 
Teachers 



Full- 
time 



White Schools 

Allegany 

The Waddell School . . . , 
Seventh Day Adventist . 



Total. 



Anne Arundel 

Cochran-Bryan 

tSevern 

Holladay 

Primary School, U. S. 

Naval Academy 

Annapolis Kindergarten 

and Nursery School 

Twenty-Four Hour Day 

School 

U. S. Naval Academy 

Prep 

The Thomas School 



Total . 



Baltimore 
fMcDonogh 

Garrison Forest 

Hannah More Academy 

St. Timothy's 

Greenwood 

Oldfield's 

Roberts-Beach 

Bluebird School 

Practice Kindergarten, 
Md. College for Women 

Miss Barnhart's Kinder- 
garten 

The Playground 

Crestmont School 



Total . 



Cecil 

tTome Town 

tTome Boarding School. . 
fWest Nottingham 

Seventh Day Adventist . 

Reynold's 



Total . 



Frederick 

Buckingham School for 
Boys 



*21 
15 



36 



54 
31 
§28 
a28 

io 



151 



276 
69 
7 

ii 



°38 

x28 

§17 
x§15 
al4 



478 



*218 
2 
12 
21 
17 



270 



25 



180 



314 
72 
80 
85 
63 
70 
38 



30 



722 



109 
133 
78 



139.6 



329 45 



.4 



4.4 



.6 
27.6 



2.4 



5.4 



Montgomery 

Washington Missionary 

College 

Landon School for Boys 

Chevy Chase 

Bullis School 

Countryside 

National Park 

Chevy Chase Country. 

Green Acres 

The Slade School 

Lady Isabel's Studio . . . 

Total 

Prince George's 

Longfellow School for 

Boys 

Briarley Military Acad. 

Avondale Country 

Seventh Day Adventist, 

Laurel 

Mrs, Ballinger's Kdgn. . 
Seventh Day Adventist, 

Capitol Heights 

Total 

Queen Anne's 

Gunston School 

St. Mary's 

tCharlotte Hall 

tSt. Mary's Seminary . . . 

Total 

Talbot 

Country School 

Washington 

St. James' 

Misses Hoffmeier and 

Campbell 

Seventh Day Adventist 

Total 

Wicomico 

Mrs. Herold's 

Sunshine School 

Total 

Total County White 

Anne Arundel 

Bates Kdgn. (Colored) . 



136 
*128 



a53 

a39 
a36 
33 
18 



443 



51 
35 
26 

24 
xl5 



15 



166 
14 
12 



12 

29 

19 
*22 



50 



*29 
*19 



48 
1,735 

x23 



171 
46 
82 
58 

44 



401 



15 



15 



11 



36 



134 



35 



39 



1,837 



3 

342.2 



t Secondary school accredited by Mary- 
land State Board of Education. 
* Includes kindergarten. 
° Includes nursery school. 



X Kindergarten only. 
§ Nursery school only. 

a Includes nursery school and kindergarten. 



Enrollment in Individual Private Non-Catholic Schools 317 



TABLE IV— (Continued) 



Number of Pupils and Teachers in Non-Catholic Private Elementary and 
Secondary Schools in Baltimore City, Year Ending June 30, 1939 









Number op 


School 


Enrollment 


Teachers 












Elemen- 




Full- 


Part- 




tary 


Secondary 


time 


time 


White Schools 










■{■Friends' School 


°249 


123 


29 


4.6 


Oilman Country 


182 


121 


32 


2.5 


Bryn Mawr . . 


°179 


106 


26 


3 


Roland Park Country 


al77 


75 


20 


7 


Calvert School . . 


*240 




19 


3 


Park School 


al60 


71 


29 


1.6 


Talmudical Academy of Baltimore 


173 


10 


12 


2' 


St. Paul's School for Boys 


80 


55 


g 


4 


Salvation Army Day Nursery 


§114 




11 


10 


tFranklin Day School 


21 


" '79 


6 


.7 


Boys' Latin School 


51 


72 


5.6 


.1 


tSamuel Ready 


40 


31 


4 


5 


Immanuel Lutheran 


70 




3 




Homewood School 


67 




7 


"3 


Nursery and Child Study Home 


a66 




4 


2 


Edgecombe Junior Academy 

Girls' Latin School 


41 


17 


5 




8 


43 


7 


'5 


Miss Crater's Country School 


a41 




4 


1 




x38 




2 




Jewish Educational Alliance Nursery School 


§35 




2 


"3 




*30 




2 




Kornerstone Kindergarten 


°*27 




3 


i 


Cloverdale School 


*25 




3 




Frey's School 


a25 




2 


i 


Ireland Nursery School 


§25 




3 




Little School in Guilford 


a25 




3 


'2 


Cathedral Kindergarten 


x24 




2 


1 


Mrs. Eagle's Nursery School 


°18 




2 




Twin Maples 


17 




3 


i 


t Woodland Nursery School 


°15 




2 




jNorthlake Kindergarten 


x§13 




1 




Morven School 


11 




1 




Miss Bernstein's Kindergarten 


xlO 




1 




Total White 


2,297 


803 


263.6 


63.5 


Colored School 










Seventh Day Adventist 


89 


18 


5 


2 



t Secondary school work accredited by Maryland State Board of Education. 
* Includes kindergarten. 
° Includes nursery school. 
X Kindergarten only. 
§ Nursery school only. 

a Includes nursery school and kindergarten, 
t Report not in ; figures for 1937-38. 



318 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE V 



Number of Pupils Reported Enrolled in Maryland Non-Public Elementary and 
Secondary Schools, for the Year Ending June 30, 1939 





White 


Colored 


County 




Enrollment 






Enrollment 






Number 

of 
Schools 


Elemen- 
tary 


Com- 
mer- 
cial 


Second- 
ary 


Number 
of 

Teachers 


Number 

of 
Schools 


Elemen- 
tary 


Second- 
ary 


Number 
of 

Teachers 



fCATHOLic Parish and Private Schools and Private Institutions, Fall of 1938 



Allegany 


9 


1,963 


34 


485 


74 


.... 








Anne Arundel 


1 


299 






8 




' 'li 




' ' '2 




17 


3,081 


is 


469 


109 










Calvert 


1 


37 




8 


4 












1 


*15 




8 


7 










Carroll 


2 


163 




47 


9 










Cecil 


1 


*92 






4 










Charles 


2 


325 




" '90 


13 


. . 


'i24 




' ' '2 


Frederick 


6 


456 


"so 


191 


45 


1 


4 




1 


Garrett 


1 


69 






3 










Harford 


1 


103 






3 


. ... 








Howard 


4 


332 




" '58 


17 




' '34 




"i 


Montgomery 


4 


478 


' 21 


190 


34 


.... 










5 


892 




81 


29 




' "97 




' ' '2 


9 


1,171 


' 25 


198 


45 


2 


199 




6 


Washington 


1 


347 




74 


11 










Total Counties 


65 


9,823 


123 


1,899 


415 


7 


529 




14 




66 


29,331 


571 


4,039 


859 


8 


1,367 


'ioe 


74 


Total State 


131 


39,154 


694 


5,938 


1,274 


15 


1,896 


106 


88 



*Non-Catholic Private Schools 



Allegany 


2 


36 






2 










Anne Arundel 


8 


151 




180 


34.4 


. . 


' '23 




. . 


Baltimore 


12 


478 




722 


167.2 










Cecil 


5 


270 




329 


50.4 












1 


38 




6 


2 










Montgomery 


10 


443 




401 


92.3 










Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


6 


166 




15 


16 










1 


14 




11 


5 












2 


12 




134 


14.3 










Talbot 


1 


29 






5 












3 


50 




" '39 


22 












2 


48 






3 










Total Counties 


53 


1,735 




1,837 


413.6 


1 


23 




1 




33 


2,297 




803 


327.1 


1 


89 


' 18 


7 


Total State 


86 


4,032 




2,640 


740.7 


2 


112 


18 


8 



*Schools for Atypical Children 



Md. Training School for Boys 


268 




27 


7 










Md. School for the Deaf 


143 




32 


18 










Montrose School for Girls ... . 


52 




55 


4 










Md. School for the Blind 


68 




15 


17 




' '34 


■ ■ 2 


' "6 


Md. Training School for 
















2 














82 




Md. Tuberculosis Sanitorium 


' 66 




■ ■ "4 


"i 










Children's Rehabilitation 


















Institute 


45 




6 


8 










Reinhardt School for Deaf 


















Children, Inc 


10 






2 











t Figures furnished by Rev. John I. Barrett, Superintendent of Catholic Schools. 
* Figures furnished by principals of schools. 



Non-Public Schools; Summary of Public and Non-Public 319 
Elementary and Secondary Schools, Their Enrollment 
AND Teaching Staff 



TABLE VI 

Summary for Public and Non-Public Schools by County, City, and State, White and 
Colored, Elementary and Secondary, Showing Number of Schools, Enrollment 
and Teachers Employed for Year Ending June 30, 1939 



Type of School 


Elementary 


Secondary 


Grand Total 






















White 


Colored 


Total 


White 


Colored 


Total 


White 


Colored 


Total 



Number of Schools 



Public 






















712 


392 


1,104 


150 


30 


180 


862 


422 


1,284 


City 




















Elementary and 




















Senior High 


93 


38 


131 


7 


2 


9 
















14 


2 


16 


lll9 


hs 


ll62 










5 


1 


6 


J 


J 


J 


State 


805 


430 


1,235 


176 


35 


211 


981 


465 


1,446 


Non-Public 




















County 


103 


8 


111 


t53 




53 


156 


8 


§164 


City 


95 


9 


104 


°34 


' ' 3 


37 


129 


12 


§141 


State 


198 


17 


215 


87 


3 


90 


285 


20 


§305 


Public and Non-Public 




















County 


815 


400 


1,215 


203 


30 


233 


1,018 


430 


1,448 


City 


188 


47 


235 


60 


8 


68 


248 


55 


303 


State 


1,003 


447 


1,450 


263 


38 


301 


1,266 


485 


1,751 



Enrollment 



109,579 


24,052 


133,631 


36,637 


4,567 


41,204 


146,216 


28,619 


174,835 


57,378 
*12,608 


25,045 
*3,329 


82,423 
*15,937 


14,221 
*5,025 
1,932 


2,031 
*1,122 
597 


16,252 
*6,147 
2,529 


1 

^91,164 

J 


J32,124 


|l23,288 


179,565 


52,426 


231,991 


57,815 


8,317 


66,132 


1236,076 


t60,469 


t296,545 


11,558 
31,628 


552 
1,477 


12,110 
33.105 


3.859 
x5,345 


'i24 


3,887 
5,469 


15,417 
36,973 


552 
1,601 


15,969 
38,574 


43,186 


2,029 


45,215 


9,204 


124 


9,356 


52,390 


2,153 


54,543 


121,137 
101,614 


24,604 
29,851 


145,741 
131,465 


40.496 
26,523 


4,567 
3,874 


45.063 
30,397 


161,633 
128,137 


29,171 
33,725 


190,804 
161,862 


222,751 


54,455 


277.206 


67,019 


8,441 


75,460 


t288,466 


t62,622 


t351,088 



Public 

County 

City 

Elementary and 
Senior High . . , 
*Junior High .... 
Vocational 



State . . . . . 
Non-Public 
County. . . 
City 



State 

Public and Non-Public 

County 

City 



Number of Teachers 



Public 

County 

City 

Elementary and 

Senior High 

Junior High 

Vocational 


2,946 


658 


3,604 


1,440 


150 


1,590 


4,386 


808 


5,194 


1,587 


639 


2,226 


503 
656 
88 


82 
136 
26 


585 
792 
114 


12,834 

J 


1 883 

J 


|3,717 


State 

Non-Public 

County 

City 


4,533 


1,297 


5,830 


2,687 


394 


3,081 


7,220 

829 
1,186 


1,691 

15 
81 


8,911 

844 
1,267 


State 

Public and Non-Public 

County 

City 














2,015 

5,215 
4,020 


96 

823 
964 


2,111 

6,038 
4,984 


State 














9,235 


1,787 


11,022 



§ Totals do not agree with total number of schools in Table V since schools having both elemen- 
tary and secondary departments have been counted twice in Table VI. 

t Totals exclude duplicates among the individual counties and Baltimore City. 

* Enrollment for Baltimore City junior high schools has been prorated to show seventh and eighth 
grade enrollment with elementary, and ninth grade with secondary schools. 
t All except 14 are combined elementary and secondary schools. 
° All but 3 are combined elementary and secondary schools. 
X Includes commercial work given to 536 pupils in parish elementary schools. 



320 



1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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64.70 

62.87 
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71.64 

45.57 
96.76 
84.36 

61.64 
138.83 
106.08 

88.57 
109.76 
118.87 
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1,470 
1,526 
1,651 
1,555 

1,675 
1,753 
1,908 
1,861 

1,167 
1,466 
1,424 

1,350 
1,541 
1.499 

1,622 
1,689 
1,747 
1,693 

1,210 
1,428 
1,405 

1,584 
1,712 
1,901 
1,753 

2,003 
2,. 539 

2,010 
2,147 

2,024 


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78.7 
35.9 
80.7 
195.3 

27.7 
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181.4 

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3.5 
4.5 

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43.8 
98.9 
215.8 

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30.3 
16.6 
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653.1 
505.0 

137.9 
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1,159 
2,422 
5,920 

962 
299 
4,394 
5,655 

218 
670 
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38 
51 
89 

1,649 
800 
1,722 
4,171 

77 
417 
494 

1,002 

498 
1,139 
2,639 

15,944 
12,904 

4,115 
1,871 

54,690 


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2,478 
1,211 
2,526 
6,215 

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320 
4,652 
6,001 

235 
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970 

42 
57 
99 

1,781 
860 
1,863 
4,504 

82 
446 
528 

1,063 
521 
1,188 
2,772 

17,043 
13,694 

4,422 
1,990 

58,238 



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11 



Disbursements for Junior and Senior High and for Colored 339 
Elementary Schools 



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Disbursements for Colored High Schools; Receipts and 341 
Expenditures of Other than County Funds by Colored Schools 



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342 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 

Source of Gross Receipts and Purpose of Expenditures of 



Purpose 



Source of 



1 Balance on Hand 


$40,112 


10 


6 




$12,948 




$896 






2 Cafeteria and Lunches 


154,096 


40 


7 




65,782 




11,890 


$20;2i7 




3 P. T. A.'s 


54,073 


14 


3 


$11^433 


16,308 




457 


21,172 






27,163 


7 


2 




15,031 












19,231 


5 


1 




6,846 




992 








14,033 


3 


7 




3,090 




729 








11,563 


3 


1 




2,478 




342 






8 School Publications 


8,107 


2 


1 




2,993 




292 






9 Parties, Dances, etc 


7,725 


2 







2,243 




407 








6,846 


1 


8 


1^38 






33 




$536 


11 Transfer from Other Organiza- 


6,823 








3,644 












1 


8 














6,786 


1 


8 




1,633 




' '30 








5,540 


1 


5 




2,087 




571 






14 Musical and Radio Programs . . . 


2,000 




5 




1,357 




106 






15 Debates and Declamations 


363 




1 




271 












14,056 


3 


7 




5,841 










17 Total Gross Receipts 


$378,517 


100 





$12,871 


$142,552 


$130 


$16,745 


$41,389 


$536 




178,988 








80,302 




12,875 


23,175 




19 Net Receipts 


$199,529 




$12,871 


$62,250 


$130 


$3,870 


$18,214 


$536 



Purpose of Expenditures 



1 Transportation of Pupils 


$26,960 


17.6 




$15,031 














20,124 


13.1 


$3,050 


5,010 




$947 


$2 


362 




3 Cafeteria and Lunches 


14,910 


9.7 


1,200 


945 


'$53 










4 Physical Education 


13,653 


8.9 


1,437 


4,709 




'397 


1 


ii4 




5 Regular Classroom Instruction. . 


11,902 


7.8 


1,847 


767 




306 


1 


695 




6 Buildings and Grounds 


7,120 


4.6 


555 


2,148 


' "5 


132 




573 




7 General Use 


6,000 


3.9 


30 


2 , 132 


6 


227 








8 Transfer to Other Organizations 


5,439 


3.5 




3,644 




16 








9 Social Affairs, Trips, etc 


5,344 


3.5 




1,882 




142 








10 Office of Principal 


4,773 


3.1 


"i7 


1,767 




106 




447 




11 Medical Inspection and Safety 






1,378 






55 










3,691 


2.4 


1,557 


5 








12 Auditorium 


3,228 


2.1 




1,435 


60 


' '29 




513 




13 Music and Art 


3,128 


2.0 




1,386 








14 Graduation Exercises 


2,456 


1.6 




512 




48 








15 Agriculture, Industrial Arts, 








214 










$536 




1,966 


1.3 














1,478 


1.0 




1,135 




' '34 




'76 






411 


.3 


"159 


'i43 












18 Cleaning and Heating 


370 


.2 




' "9 








19 Other School Purposes 


5,521 


3.6 


3;i98 


1,453 


" i 




6 


756 






14,961 


9.8 


1,826 








21 Total Expenditures 


$153,435 


100.0 


$12,871 


$47,696 


$130 


$2,448 


$13 


530 


$536 




46,094 






14,554 




1,422 


4, 


684 





Receipts and Expenditures of Other than County Funds by 343 
White Schools 



XXIX 



other Than County Funds, 1938-39— for White Schools 















>> 




































c 






ter 














03 






c 














B 












o 


Item Nc 


Dorches 


Frederic 


Garrett 


Harford 


Kent 


Montgo; 


Prince 
George 


St. Mar; 


Somerse 


Talbot 


Washinj 


Wicomi( 



Gross Receipts 



1 


$1,798 






$1,646 






$466 


$350 


$1,502 




$20,506 




2 


10,288 


$2! 087 




940 






7,784 


92 


647 




34,369 




3 


738 






2,806 








84 


370 




575 




4 








851 




$li;678 


'263 












5 


2^322 












2,252 


'841 


1^8i3 




4465 




6 


635 






"784 






1,792 


36 


339 




6,628 




7 


1,938 






1,511 






1,034 


423 


294 




3,543 




8 


548 






1,359 






148 




36 




2,731 




9 


719 






1,853 






348 


' '33 


691 




1,431 




10 


397 


' 12 


$2435 




$434 




43 






$448 




$l'376 


11 


382 












980 


10 


311 




1,496 




12 


1,632 


'254 




'422 






400 




429 




1,986 




13 


107 






212 








'ioe 


1,011 




1,446 




14 


70 














32 


76 




359 




15 


















61 




31 




16 


1^233 






4^738 






'556 


• • 


293 




1,394 




17 


$22,807 


$2,353 


$2,135 


$17,122 


$434 


$11,078 


$16,000 


$2,014 


$7,873 


$448 


$80,660 


$1,370 


18 


12,441 






4,275 






1,653 


478 


2,147 




41,642 




19 


$10,366 


$2,353 


$2,135 


$12,847 


$434 


$11,078 


$14,347 


$1,536 


$5,726 


$448 


$39,018 


$1,370 



OF Net Receipts 



1 








$851 




$11,078 














2 


$1,049 


$12 




1,328 


$434 




$528 


$277 


$522 


$i78 


$3,544 


$883 


3 


185 


1,650 




273 






7,268 








3,336 




4 


2,406 


156 










1,480 


'307 


'sis 




1,042 


' '87 


5 


196 




$2^35 








871 


144 


109 


' 'ei 


3,371 


400 


6 


271 






1^933 






8 


159 


284 




1,052 




7 


374 












942 


15 


105 




2,169 




8 


382 














10 


298 




1,089 




9 


924 






'554 






'443 


59 


886 




454 




10 


479 






429 






441 


65 


6 




1,016 




11 


456 












88 


5 




92 


55 




12 














97 


35 


'i22 




1,479 




13 


■ 83 






'i82 






61 


47 


284 




543 




14 


300 






298 






775 


10 


295 




218 




15 


76 






183 






144 


43 


80 


117 


573 




16 


105 












10 




23 




101 




17 








'408 














3 




18 


' "9 












■ '25 


' 'i 


"i 




23 




19. . . ; . . . 


375 






2i7i8 






666 


1 


35 




272 




20 


391 






1,622 






377 




266 




525 




21 


$8,061 


$1,818 


$2,135 


$10,779 


$434 


$11,078 


$14,224 


$1,178 


$3,834 


$448 


$20,865 


$1,370 


22 


2,305 


535 




2,068 






123 


358 


1,892 




18,153 



344 1939 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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INDEX 



A 

Academic course, each high school, 344-349 
Administration 
General control 

Cost per pupil, 251-252 
Expenditures, 332 
Per cent for. 247-250 
Superintendents, 290-293 
W.P.A. program, 260 
Adult education, 6, 7, 234-238 
Agriculture 
Enrollment 

Colored, 190-191, 211-212 
Each high school, 350-355 
Evening schools, 237 

White. 98, 101-103, 106, 108, 111. 149-150 
Failures and withdrawals, white pupils, 121- 

123 

Federal aid, x49-150, 211-212, 237, 255-257 
Schools having, l02. 125-126, 350-355 
White teachers of, 125-126 
Age for admission to first grade, 19-20 
Aid from State and Federal funds to Counties 
and Baltimore City 
Distributed by type of fund. 1938-39, 329 

1920-1939, 240-244 
Total and per cent, 1938-39. 244-247 
State teachers colleges, 6-7, 227-229, 302-306, 
309-310 

Vocational education, 149-151, 211-212. 237, 
255-259 
Appropriations 

County, 1939-40, 276-280 
County and State 
1920-1939, 240-244 
1938-39, 244-247, 329-330 
State 

1938- 39, 244-247, 309-311, 329 

1939- 1941, 6-7 
Architect, consultant, 6, 309 
Art, white high schools 

Enrollment, 99, 104, 106, 116-117, 350-355 
Teachers of, 125-126 
Assessable basis, 280-282 
Athletics 

Colored schools, 220-222 
White schools, 231-233 
Attendance 

Aggregate days of, 322 

Average daily. 321 

Index of elementary. 27-28, 172-173 

Officers, 293-294. 332 

Per cent of, 321 

Colored elementary, 168-171 

Colored high, 183-184 

White elementary. 21-25 

White high, 81 



A — (Continued) 
Attendance — ( Continued ) 

Summer school pupils, 194-195. 233-234 
Teachers at summer school, 45-46, 127-128, 
194-195 
Audiometer tests. 40-41 
Auxiliary agencies 

Cost per white pupil for, 253-255 
Elementary, 57-60, 63-64 
High, 148, 152-154, 156-157 
Expenditures for 

Colored, 212-213, 339-340 
Total by purpose, 334 
White elementary, 50, 336 
White high, 153, 337 
Per cent of current expense budget, 247-250 

B 

Badge tests 

Colored, 220-222 
White, 231-233 
Bands, orchestras, glee clubs, 114-116 
Belonging, average number, 320 
By months 

Colored, 168-169 

White elementary, 23 

White high, 81 
Each high school, 344-349 
Per teacher, 328 

Colored, 200-202 

White elementary, 49-52 

White high, 140-142 
Proportion in high school 

Colored, 184 

White, 82-83 
Birth rates 
Colored, 166 
White, 18-19 
Board of Education, State, 2, 6, 309, 311 
Bonds for schools 

Authorized by 1939 legislature, 10 
County, authorized or issued recently, 273 
Outstanding, 269-272 
State Retirement System, 6, 7, 309 
Teachers colleges, 10 
Books and instructional materials 
Cost per white pupil, 253-255 

Elementary, 57 

High, 148-152 
Expenditures 

All schools. 333 

Colored. 339-340 

White elementary, 336 

White high. 337 
Per cent of current expense budget, 247-248 
State aid for 

1938- 39, 329 

1939- 1941, 6 



Index 



357 



B — (Continued) 

Bowie State Teachers College, 6, 185, 187, 226- 

229, 309-311 
Boys and girls 
Enrollment, 313 
Grade enrollment 
Colored, 173, 175 
White, 28-29, 31 
Graduates 

Elementary school 
Colored, 176-177 
White, 31-33 
High school 

Colored, 185-187 
White, 84-87 
Non-promotions 

Colored elementary, 177-181 
White elementary, 33-36 

First grade, 35-36 
White high school subjects 
Each subject, 120-123 
One or more subjects, 117-120 
Budget (s) 

Local, county and Baltimore City 
1920-1939, 240-244 

1938- 39, 244-247 

1939- 40, 276-280 
State public school 

1938- 39, 309-311 

1939- 1941, 6-7 
State teachers colleges 

1938- 39, 228, 302-306, 310 

1939- 1941. 6-7 

Buildings, grounds and equipment 

Cost analyzed by sites, buildings and equip- 
ment, 335 
Cost, by type of school, 264-266 
Cost, 1920-1939, 242-243 
Number of, 312 
Value of school, 272-275 
Per pupil belonging 
Colored, 215-216, 273 
White, 273-275 
Per pupil enrolled, 272 

c 

Capital outlay, school 

By year, 1920-1939, 242-243 

By sites, buildings, equipment, 335 

By types of schools, 268-269 

Colored, 214-215, 339-340 

White elementary, 57, 71, 336 

White high, 146-148, 156, 337 
Census and attendance fund, 6, 329 
Census, school 

Colored, 160-163, 187-190 

White, 11-16, 95-97 



C— (Continued) 

Certificates 

By-law amendment, 293 
Held by county teachers 
Colored, 327 

White elementary, 44-45, 324 

In one- and two-teacher schools, 45, 325 
White high, 126-127, 326 
Medical examinations for, 289-290 
Number issued, 288-290 
Citizenship required for teachers and teachers 
college entrants, 297 

Classes 

Evening school, 234-238 
Size of, 328 

Colored, 200-202 
White elementary, 49-52 
White high, 140-142 
Special for handicapped, 41, 42, 43, 192-193 
Summer school, Baltimore City, 233-234 
Clerks, county high schools, 126 
Clinics, 41, 43-44, 67-69 
Colleges 

Colored high school graduates 
of 1938 entering, 186, 187 
of 1939 entering Bowie, 185, 187, 344-349 
State teachers. 226-229, 294-306 
Training teachers appointed in Maryland 
counties, 1938-39 
Colored, 200 

White elementary, 294-306 
White high, 131-133 
White high school graduates 

of 1938 and earlier continuing education, 

89-90, 91-93 
of 1938 entering Maryland. 94-95 
of 1939 entering State teachers, 87-89, 344- 
349 

Colored schools : for detail see Table of Contents, 
4 

Commercial subjects, white high schools 
Enrollment 

Each high school, 350-355 

Total and by county, 98-99, 104, 106, 112-113 
Failures and withdrawals, 121-123 
Schools having, 99, 125, 350-355 
Teachers, number, 125 
Conference programs of 

Attendance Officers, 293-294 
Superintendents, 76-77, 291-293 
Supervisors 

Colored, 230 

White elementary, 76-77 

White high, 157-159 
Consolidation 

Decrease in one-teacher schools 

Colored, 217-218 

White, 72-73 
Schools closed by, 312 



358 



Index 



C— (Continued) 

Consolidation — (Continued) 

Transportation of pupils, 261-268 
Colored, 212-213 
White elementary, 59-60 
White high, 152-154 
Contracts for instructors in State teachers 

colleges, 301-302 
Cost per pupil, 250-255 
Capital outlay 

White elementary, 57, 71 
White high, 148, 157 
Current expenses, 250-255 

Auxiliary agencies, white schools, 253-255 
Elementary, 57-60, 63-64 
High, 148, 152-154, 156-157 
Books and materials of instruction, white 
schools, 253-255 
Elementary, 57-58 
High, 148, 152 
Colored schools, 207-214 
Elementary schools, white, 54-59, 63-64 

By type, 55-57 
General control, 251-252 
Health activities 

White elementary, 59, 63-64 
White high, 153, 156-157 
High schools, white, 145-149, 152-154, 157 
Individual high schools, 344-349 
Instruction, white schools, 253-255 
Elementary, 57-58 
High, 148-149, 152 
Maintenance, white schools, 253-255 
Elementary, 57-58 
High, 148-149, 152 
One-teacher schools, white, 55-56, 254-255 
Operation, white schools, 253-255 
Elementary, 57-58 
High, 148-149, 152 
Salaries, white schools, 253-255 
Elementary, 57-58 
High, 148-149 
Supervision, white elementary, 57-58 
Transportation, 263-266 
Colored, 212-213 
White elementary, 59-60 
White high. 152-154 
State teachers colleges, 227-229, 302-306 
Costs (See expenditures) 
Courses in individual high schools, 344-349 
Crippled children, services for, 38-40, 41-42, 

68-69, 238-240 
Current expenses 

Cost per pupil for, 250-255 
Colored, 207-213 
Individual high schools. 344-349 
White elementary, 54-60, 63-64 
White high, 146-149, 152-154, 157 



C— (Continued) 

Current expenses — (Continued) 
Expenditures, total, 331 

Colored, 339-340 

White elementary, 336 

White high, 337 
Curriculum construction, 76-77, 158-159, 293 

D 

Dates, opening and closing of schools, days in 
ses^ "2? 

Colored elt. y, 166-167 

Colored high. 183 

White elementary, 20 

White high, 80 
Day camp, 43 
Debt service 

1938- 39, 335 

1939- 40, 276-280 

Tax rate for, 282-284 
Dental clinics, 70-71 
Disbursements (see expenditures) 
Distributive education, 237, 255-258 

E 

Elementary schools : for details see Table of 

Contents, 4 
Employment of children, school census 
Colored, 162-163, 187-189 
White, 15-16, 95-97 
English, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, 190-191 

Each high school, 350-355 

White 

In each year, 98-100, 105 

Total and county, 98-99. 105 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 121-123 
Schools offering, 98-99, 125 
Teachers, number white, 124-125 
Enrollment 

Attending school in adjoining counties, 276- 

276 
Elementary 

Colored, 163-165 
White, 17-18 
Grade or Year 
Colored, 173-175 
White, 28-31 
High school 

Course, each school, 344-349 
Growth in 

Colored, 181-182, 209-211 
White, 78-80, 145-146 
Subjects 

Colored. 190-191 
Each school, 350-355 
White, 98-117 



Index 



359 



E — (Continued) 

Enrollment — (Continued) 
High School — (Continued) 
Year 

Each school, 344-349 
White, 98-99, 105-106 
Non-public, private and parochial schools, 
314-319 
Colored, 165 
White elementary, 18 
White high, 79-80 
Public schools, total, 313 
State teachers colleges, 2'" ^99 
Subject 

Colored high, 190-191 
Each high school, 350-355 
White high, 98-117 
Summary, elementary and secondary, public 
and non-public. City & county, 11, 319 
Summer schools, pupils, 233-234 
Total public schools, 313 
Equalization fund 

Legislation regarding county levy required 
for, 8 

1938- 39. 247. 329 

1939- 1941. 6-7, 8 

Per cent of total current expenses, 245-247 

Evaluative Criteria of Co-operative Study of 
Secondary School Standards, 157-158 

Evening schools and courses, 234-238 
Enrollment, 193, 235 
Expenditures, 236-238, 334 

Expenditures, 331 

(See also general control, instruction, op- 
peration, maintenance, auxiliary agencies, 
fixed charges, tuition to adjoining counties, 
current expenses, debt service, capital out- 
lay) 

Colored schools, 339-340 
Elementary schools 

Colored, 339 

White, 336 
Evening schools, 236-238, 334 
Extra-curricular activities 

Colored, 225, 341 

White, 287-288, 342-343 
Health 

All schools, 334 

By State and County health offices, 59, 63-64 
White elementary, 59, 63-64 
White high, 153, 156-157 
High schools 
Colored, 340 
White, 337 

Junior and junior-senior high schools, 338 
Libraries 

All schools, 334 

White elementary, 59-60 

White high, 153-154 



E — (Continued) 

Expenditures — ( continued ) 
Salaries 

All schools, 333 

Colored, 203-207, 339,' 340 

Vocational teachers, 149-151, 211-212, 234 
238, 255-257 

White elementary, 336 

White high, 145-146, 337 
State teachers colleges 

Colored. 228, 310 

White, 305-306, 310 
Summer schools, 234, 334 
Total, by major classifications, 331 
Transportation 

All schools, 334 

Colored, 212-213 

Elementary and high, 261-264 

Elementary schools, white, 59-60 

High schools, white, 152-154 
Vocational work, federal 

Entire program, 255-260 

Teachers' salaries, 149-151, 211-212, 237 
Extra-curricular activities, financing 
Colored. 224-225, 341 
White, 287-288, 342-343 

F 

Failures (see non-promotions) 
Federal aid 

N. Y. A., 229, 307 

P. W. A., 9, 250 

Vocational education, 255-257, 329 
Salaries of teachers 
Baltimore City, 257 
County day 
White, 149-151 
Colored, 211-212 
County evening, 236-238 
W. P. A., 57, 156, 260 
Financial statements, 1938-39 
County schools, 329-340 
State public schools, 309-311 
State teachers colleges, 309-311 
First grade 

Age for admission, 19-20 
Non-promotions, white, 35-36 
Fixed charges, 247-250, 334 
Fraternities in high schools not allowed, 291 
French 

Enrollment 

Colored, 190-191 
Each high school, 350-355 
White, 99-101, 106, 111 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 120-123 
Schools offering, 99, 125, 350-355 
Teachers, white, 124-125 



360 



Index 



G 

General control 

Cost per pupil, 251-252 
Expenditures, 332 
Per cent for, 249-250 
Glee clubs, bands, orchestras, 114-116 
Graduates 
Colored 

Elementary school, 176-177 
High school, 185-187 

Entering Bowie, 185-187 
From each school, 344-349 
Occupations of, 186-187 
Teachers colleges, 226-227, 229 
White 

Elementary school, 31-33 
High school, 84-87 

Entering State teachers colleges, 87-89 
From each school, 344-349 
Occupations of, 89-95 
State teachers colleges, 294-295 
Growth in high school enrollment, teachers, and 
salaries 
Colored, 209-211 
White, 145-146 
Guidance, vocational, 151, 259 

H 

Handicapped children 

Appropriation, State, 1939-1941, 6-7 
Census of, 69 

Colored, 163-164 

White, 15-16 
Expenditures, 38-40, 311 
Home instruction, 39, 40, 43, 193, 313 
Hospital schools, 39, 69 

Opportunities for education of, 37-44, 192-193 

Receipts from State, 329 

Transportation, 38, 39, 60, 263 
Hard of hearing children, 40 
Health 

Activities of State Department of, 64-71, 223- 
224 

Cost per pupil 

White elementary, 59, 63-64 

White high, 153, 156-157 
Expenditures 

All schools, 334 

By county health offices, 59, 63-64, 329, 330 

White elementary, 59, 63-64 

White high, 153, 156-157 
High schools : for detail see Table of Contents, 4 
Disbursements, 337, 338, 340 
Individual, 344-355 
Home economics 
Enrollment 

Colored, 190-191, 212, 237 

Each high school, 350-355 

White, 98, 99, 101-103, 106, 111, 149-150, 237 



H— (Continued) 
Home economics — (Continued) 

Evening schools, 235, 236-237, 256-259 

Federal aid, 149-150, 211-212, 237, 255-257, 259 

Schools having, 99, 125, 350-355 

White teachers of, 125 
Home instruction of pupils, 39-40, 43, 193, 313 

I 

Incorporated towns, levy for, 278-280 
Index of school attendance, 27-28, 172-173 
Industrial arts (See also trades and industries) 
Enrollment 

Colored, 190-191 
Each high school, 350-355 
White, 98, 99, 101-102, 106, 111 
Schools having, 99, 125, 350-355 
Teachers of, white, 125 
Instruction 

Cost per white pupil, 253-255 
Elementary, 57-58 
High, 148-149, 152 
Expenditures 
Colored, 339-340 

Junior and junior-senior high, 338 
Salaries, supervision, books, etc., 333 
State teachers colleges 
Colored, 227-229, 310 
White, 302-306, 310 
White elementary and high, 336-337 
Per cent of current expense budget, 247-250 

J 

Junior and junior-senior high schools, 338 
Baltimore City, 312-313, 319-323, 336-340 
Teachers 

Growth in number of white county, 128-129 
Total number, 312, 338 

K 

Kindergartens, enrollment, 29-31, 174 

L 

Languages (see English, French, Latin) 
Late entrants, 25-26, 170-173 
Latin, see French 
Legislation, 1939, 8-10 
Length of session, 322 

Colored elementary, 166-167 

Colored high, 183 

White elementary, 20-21 

White high, 80 
Levies, county, 276-280 

Legislation, 8 
Libraries 

Colored schools, 213-214 



Index 



361 



L — (Continued) 

Libraries (continued) 
Expenditures 
All schools, 334 
White elementary, 59-60 
White high, 153-154 
Service from (See Library Advisory Com- 
mission) 

Library Advisory Commission, service from 

Colored, 214 

Legislation, 1939, 9 

White elementary, 60-63 

White high, 154-156 

W. P. A. projects, 62, 156 
Lip reading classes, 40, 43, 193 

M 

Maintenance 

Cost per white pupil for, 253-255 

Elementary, 57-58 

High, 148, 152 
Expenditures 

By type of repair, 334 

Colored, 339-340 

White elementary, 336 

White high, 337 
Per cent of current expense budget, 247-250 
W. P. A. program, 260 
Materials of instruction and books 
Cost per white pupil, 253-255 

Elementary, 57-58 

High, 148, 152 
Expenditures 

Colored, 339-340 

Total, 333 

White elementary, 336 

White high, 337 
State aid for, 6, 309, 329 
Mathematics, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, 190-191 

Each high school, 350-355 

White, 99, 106, 109-110 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 121-123 
Schools having, 99, 125, 350-355 
Teachers of, white, 124-125 
Medical examinations 
Pupils, 65-71, 223 
Teachers, 6, 289-290, 311 
Mental hygiene clinics, 41, 68 

Mentally handicapped children, 15-16, 41, 42, 

43, 68, 192 
Men teachers, 323 

Colored, 199-200 

White elementary, 49 

White high, 133 



M — (Continued) 

Music, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, 190-191 

Each high school, 350-355 

White, 99, 104, 106, 114-116 
Orchestras, bands, etc., 114-116 
Schools having, 99, 125, 350-355 
Teachers, number of, white, 125 

N 

National Youth Administration, aid to State 
teachers college students, 229, 306-307 
Night schools (see evening schools) 
Non-promotions 

Colored elementary schools, 177-181 
Subject, white high schools 

Each subject, 120-123 

One or more subjects, 117-120 
White elementary schools, 33-37 

First grade, 35-36 
Number belonging, 320 
By months 

Colored, 168-169 

White elementary, 23 

White high, 80 
Each high school, 344-349 
Per teacher, 328 

Colored, 200-202 

White elementary, 49-52 

White high, 140-142 
Proportion in high school 

Colored, 184-185 

White 82-83 
Number of schools 

Having one teacher, 72-73, 217-218, 312 
Non-public, 314-319 
Public, 312 

Colored elementary, 216-218 

Colored high, 218-220 

White elementary, 71 

White high, 134-136 
Summary, public and non-public, 319 

o 

Occupations of high school graduates 
Colored, 186-187 
White, 89-95 
One-teacher schools 

Colored, decrease in, 217-218 

Number of, 312 

White 

Capital outlay for, 269 
Cost per pupil, 55-57, 254 
Decrease in, 72-73 
Number belonging in, 73, 320 

Per teacher, 51, 328 
Per cent of attendance, 22 
Salary per teacher in, 328 



362 



Index 



O — (Continued) 

Operation 

Cost per white pupil, 253-255 

Elementary, 57-58 

High, 148-149, 152 
Expenditures 

By fuel, janitors' wages, supplies, 333 

Colored, 339-340 

White elementary, 336 

White high, 337 
Per cent of current expense budget, 247-250 
Orchestras, bands, etc., 114-116 

P 

Parent-teacher associations 

Colored, 224 

White, 285-287 
Parochial and private schools, 314-319 

Colored, 165 

White elementary, 13-14, 18 

White high, 79-80 
Part-pajntnent of salaries, 6, 309, 329 
Persistence to high school graduation, white, 85- 
87 

Physical education 

Appropriation for, 6-7, 309, 311 
High school enrollment 
Colored, 190-191 
Each high school, 350-355 
White, 99, 104-106, 113-114 
Program 

Colored, 220-222 
White. 231-233 
Schools offering. 99, 125, 350-355 
Teachers of, white, 125 
Physical examinations (see medical examina- 
tions) 

Physically handicapped children, 38-41, 42-44, 
192-193 

Services for crippled children, 41-42, 68-69 
Pre-kindergarten classes, 30 
Presidents of teachers colleges, 2, 227, 301 
Private and parochial schools (See parochial 

and private schools) 
Programs of conferences (see conferences) 
Property, valuation of 
County and City, 280-282 
School, 272-275 

Colored, 215-216, 273, 275 
White, 272-275 
Pupils 

Attending schools in adjoining counties, 275- 
276 

Non-public schools, 314-318 
One-teacher schools 

Colored, 217-218 

White, 72-73 



P— (Continued) 

Pupils — (Continued) 
Per teacher, 328 

Colored. 200-202 

White elementary, 49-52 

White high, 140-142 
Public school 

Enrollment, 313 

Number attending, 321 

Number belonging, 320 

Per cent of attendance, 321 
Transported 

All schools, 261-268 

Colored, 212-213 

White elementary, 59-60 

White high, 152-154 
P. W. A. aid, 9, 250 

R 

Ratio of high school to total attending and 
belonging 
Colored, 184-185 
White, 82-83 
Receipts from 
All sources, 330 
Federal Government, 329 

Evening schools, counties, 236-238 

N. Y. A., 229, 307 

P. W. A., 9, 250 

W. P. A., 62, 156, 260 

Teachers' salaries, counties, 149-151, 211- 

212, 237 
Vocational education, 255-259 
Baltimore City, 257-259 
Rosenwald fund, 213-214, 311 
Sources other than public funds 
Colored schools, 224-225, 341 
White schools, 287-288, 342-343 
State 

Distributed by type of fund, 1938-39, 329 
1920-1939, 240-244 

Teachers colleges, 6-7, 228-229, 302-306, 310 
Total and per cent. 244-247 
Rehabilitation, vocational 
Appropriation. 1939-1941. 6 
Financial statement. 309. 311 
Services rendered, 238-240 
Resignations of teachers 
Colored, 195 

White elementary, 46-47 

White high, 129-130 
Retirement System, Teachers, 307-308 

Appropriation, 6-7 

Financial statement, 309 

Legislation, 1939, 9 

Members, 307-308 
Rosenwald fund, 213-214, 311 



Index 



363 



S 

Salaries 

Attendance officers, 332 

Growth in high school, 145-146, 209-211 

Legislation on, 8 

Superintendents, 332 

Supervisors, 333 

Teachers 

Average per teacher, 328 
Colored, 203-207 
White elementary, 52-54 
White high, 142-144 
Cost per white pupil, 253-255 
Elementary, 57-59 
High, 148-149 
Per cent of school budget, 247-250 ' 
Total, 333 

Colored elementary, 339 
Colored high, 206-207, 340 
White elementary, 336 
White high, 145-146, 337 
Science, high school 
Enrollment 

Colored, 190-191 
Each high school, 350-355 
White, 99, 106, 108-109 
Failures and withdrawals, 120-123 
Schools offering, 99, 125, 350-355 
White teachers of, 124-125 
Scholarships, legislation, 8 
Session, length of, 322 
Sex of teachers (See also men), 323 

Size of Classes, 328 
Colored, 200-202 
White elementary, 49-52 
White high, 140-142 

Size of school(s) 

Colored elementary, 216-218 
Colored high, 220 
Each high, 344-349 
White elementary, 71-73 
White high, 136-140 
Social studies 

Enrollment, high school 
Colored, 190-191 
Each high school, 350-355 
White, 99, 106-108 
Failures and withdrawals, white high schools, 
120-123 

High schools offering, 99, 125, 350-355 
White high school teachers of, 124-125 
Curriculum revision, elementary schools, 77 

Special classes for handicapped, 41-43, 192-193 

Special high school teachers, 125-126, 344-349 

Standardized tests 

Colored elementary, 181 

White elementary, 38 

White high. 123-124 



S — (Continued) 

State 

Aid to health, 64, 329 
Aid to schools 

Showing various school funds, 329 

1920-1939, 240-244 

1939-1941, 6-7 

Total and per cent, 1938-39, 244-247 
Board of Education, 2, 6-7, 309, 311 
Department of Education, 2, 6-7, 309-311 
Department of Health 

Expenditures, 59, 63-64 

School activities, 64-71 
Colored, 223-224 
Public school budget, 6-7, 309-311 
Teachers colleges, 226-229, 294-307 
Teachers retirement system, 307-308 
Statistical tables, 312-355 

Stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping, 112-113 
Subjects studied in high school 
Colored, 190-191 
Each high school, 350-355 
White, 99-117 
Summer school attendance 

Baltimore City pupils, 233-234 
Teachers 

By-law regarding, 293 

Colored, 194-195 

White elementary, 41, 45-46 

White high, 127-128 
Superintendents, 2, 291-293, 332 
Supervision, Supervisors 
Activities 

Colored, 229-231 

White elementary, 73-77 

White high, 157-159 
Cost per white elementary pupil for, 57-58 
Cost, salaries and expenses 

AU schools, 333 

Colored elementary, 339 

White elementary, 336 

White high, 337 
Curriculum revision, 77, 158-159, 293 
Names of, white, 3 
Number of, 75, 157, 323 

Per cent of current expense budget, 247-250 
Survey, 8, 291-292 

T 

Taxable basis, 280-282 

Tax dollar, distribution of school, 247-250 
Tax rates. County, 282-284 

Required for Equalization Fund, 10 
Teacher-pupil ratio, 328 
Teacher (s) 

Academic, high school, 124-126, 344-349 

Certification of, 324-327 

Colleges, 6-7, 226-229, 294-307 



364 



Index 



T — (Continued) 

Teacher (s) — (Continued) 
Number of, 323 

For each high school subject, 124-126 
In each high school, 344-349 
In schools of each type 
Colored, 327, 339-340 
Non-public schools, 314-319 
Public and non-public, high and ele- 
mentary, white and colored, 313 
Public schools, 323 
White elementary, 324-325, 336 
White high, 326, 337 

White junior and junior-senior high, 338 
Total public school, 323 
Pupils per, 328 

Resignations of, 46-47, 129-130, 195 

Salaries of, 328 

Sex of, 49, 133, 323 

Special high school, 124-126, 344-349 

Summer school attendance of, 41, 45-46, 127- 

128, 194-195 
Turnover of, 47-49, 130-132, 195-200 
Teachers' Retirement System 
Appropriation, 6, 7 
Financial statement, 309-310 
Staff, 2 

Teachers' contributions to, 307-308 
Tests 

Athletic badge, 220-222, 231-232 
Standard 

Colored elementary schools, 181 

White elementary schools, 38 

White high schools, 123-124 
Trades and industry, courses in 
Enrollment, day schools 

Colored, 190-191, 211-212 

Each high school, 350-355 

White, 98, 99, 101-102, 106, 108, 111, 149, 151 
Evening schools, 234-238, 256-259 
Federal aid, 149, 151, 211-212, 237, 255-257, 
259 

Schools having, 98, 125, 350-355 

White teachers of, 125 
Training centers, teachers colleges, 227, 300-301 
Training of teachers new to Maryland counties 

Colored, 200, 227 

White elementary, 294-295 

White high, 132-134 
Transportation of pupils, 261-268 

Baltimore City, 263 

Cost, total and per pupil, 263-266, 334 

Colored, 212-213 

White elementary, 59-60 

White high, 152-154 
Legislation, school busses, 9 
Per cent of pupils transported, 266-267 
Vehicles used in, 268 



T — (Continued) 
Tuberculosis, tests for, 67 
Tuition charge 
Teachers colleges 
Colored, 228 
White, 302-307 
To adjoining counties, 275-276, 335 
Turnover in teaching staff 
Colored, 195-200 
White elementary, 47-49 
White high, 130-132 

V 

Value of 

Assessable property, 280-282 
School property used by 
Colored, 215-216 
White, 272-275 
Vocational education 
Enrollment 
Day schools 

Colored, 190, 191, 211-212, 350-355 
White, 98, 99, 101-103, 106, 111, 149-152, 
350-355 

Evening schools, 234-238, 256-259 
Federal aid, 149, 151, 211-212, 237. 255-257, 
259 

State aid, 6-7, 259 

Units required for graduation, 102, 103 
Vocational guidance, 151, 259 
Vocational rehabilitation 

Appropriation, 6 

Financial statement, 309, 311 

Service rendered, 238-240 

w 

White schools : see Table of Contents for white 

elementary and high schools, 4 
Withdrawals of pupils 

Colored elementary, 171-172 

Teachers colleges, freshmen, 300 

White elementary, 26-27 

White high, 120-123 
W. P. A. projects, 62-63, 156, 260 

Y 

Year, length of school, 322 
Colored elementary, 166-167 
Colored high, 183 
White elementary, 20-21 
White high, 80 



STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 



Seventy-fourth Annual Report 

OF THE 

State Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 

OF THE 

Public Schools of Maryland 

FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1940 




BALTIMORE, Ml). 



STATE OF MARYLAND 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION— 1940-41 

Name Address Name Address 

TASKER G. LOWNDES, Pres Cumberland ROBERT E. VINING Baltimore 

DR. J. M. T. FINNEY, Vice-Pres. Baltimore CHARLES A. WEAGLY Hagerstown 

WENDELL D. ALLEN Baltimore HENRY C. WHITEFORD Whiteford 

MRS. ALVIN THALHEIMER Baltimore 

ALBERT S. COOK, Secretary-Treasurer, Towson 

OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 

1111 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

Name Office 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

L JEWELL SIMPSON. . Assistant State Superintendent in Charge of Elementary Instruction 

T. G. PULLEN, JR. Asst. Supt. in Administration and Supervisor of High Schools 

E. CLARKE FONTAINE ( Chestertown ) Supervisor of High Schools 

JAMES E. SPITZNAS (Cumberland) Supervisor of High Schools 

EARLE T. HAWKINS .- Supervisor of High Schools 

J. WALTER HUFFINGTON Supervisor of Colored Schools 

JOHN J. SEIDEL Assistant Superintendent in Vocational Education 

ELISABETH AMERY Supervisor of Home Economics Education 

H. F. COTTERMAN (College Park) Supervisor of Agriculture 

R. FLOYD CROMWELL Supervisor of Educational and Vocational Guidance 

R. C. THOMPSON (1112 Lexington Bldg.) Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation 

and Special Education 

THOMAS D. BRAUN (1112 Lexington Bldg.) Rehabilitation Assistant 

ROGER E. MARTZ (Hagerstown) Rehabilitation Assistent 

THOMAS C. FERGUSON Supervisor of Physical Education and Recreation 

ETHEL E. SAMMIS Asst. Supervisor of Physical Education and Recreation 

ADELENE J. PRATT (400 Cathedral St.) State Director of Public Libraries 

BESSIE C. STERN (llli Lexington Bldg.) Director, Bureau of Educational Measurements 

MERLE S. BATEMAN Director, Teacher Certification 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS Financial Secretary 

E. SUE WALTER Clerk 

RUTH E. HOBBS Stenographer 

ELIZABETH McGINNITY r Stenographer 

HELEN BUCHER BANDIERE Stenographer 

EMMA E. LUECKERT (1112 Lexington Bldg.) Stenographer 

FRANCES O. KANN (1114 Lexington Bldg.) Statistical Assistant 

MARY A. BARTHEL (1112 Lexington Bldg.) Stenographer 

MARGARET L. MILLER Stenographer 

C. ELIZABETH OWINGS Stenographer 

MARY ELEANOR RICE (1114 Lexington Bldg.) Stetistical Assistant 

ELSIE F. FORMAN Stenographer 

BEATRICE LOOBAN (1114 Lexington Bldg.) Statistical Assistant 

PRESIDENTS OF STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 

M. THERESA WIEDEFELD State Teachers College, Towson 

JOHN L. DUNKLE State Teachers College, Frostburg 

J. D. BLACKWELL State Teachers College, Salisbury 

LEONIDAS S. JAMES State Teachers College (For Colored Youth), Bowie 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

911 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

HOOPER S. MILES State Treasurer and Chairman 

J. MILLARD TAWES State Comptroller 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME Superintendent of Montgomery County Schools, Vice-Chairman 

ALTHEA FULLER Principal. AUegany County 

MILDRED MEDINGER Secretary 

MINNIE M. HAMILTON Stenographer 

HELEN KIRKMAN Clerk 



MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISORS 

1940-41 



County Address 

ALLEGANY— Cumberland 
Charles L. Kopp, Supt. 
Lillian Compton, Asst. Supt. 
Jane Botsford 
Winifred Greene 
Mildred Willison 
Helen Sandfort (Art) 
Richard T. Rizer (High School) 
Harold McNally (Special Education) 

ANNE ARUNDEL— Annapolis 
George Fox, Supt. 
Ruth Parker Eason 
W. Slater Bryant 

Howard A. Kinhart (High School) 

BALTIMORE— Towson 
C. G. Cooper, Supt. 
Edward G. Stapleton, Asst. Supt. 
M. Lucetta S'sk (Curriculum) 
Viola K. Almonyi 
Myrtle Eckhardt^ 
Jennie E. Jessop- 
C. James Velie (Music) ^ 
Olive Jobes (Art)i 
Howard A. Wescott (Physical Ed.)i 

CALVERT— Prince Frederick 
Harry R. Hughes, Supt. 
Mattie V. Hardesty 

CAROLINE— Denton 
B. C. Willis, Supt. 
A. May Thompson 

CARROLL— Westminster 
Raymond S. Hyson, Supt. 
Ruth DeVore 
Charles E. Reck 

Samuel M. Jenness (High School) 

CECIL- Elkton 

H. E. McBride, Supt. 
Olive L. Reynolds 

CHARLES— La Plata 

F. Bernard Gwynn, Supt. 
Jane Bowie 

DORCHESTER— Cambridge 
W. Theodore Boston, Supt. 
Evelyn E. Johnson 

FREDERICK— Frederick 
E. W. Pruitt. Supt. 
L. Louise Freeman 
A. Drucilla Worthington 

GARRETT— Oakland 

Franklin E. Rathbun, Supt. 
Kate Bannatyne- 
Caroline Wilson 



County Address 

HARFORD— Bel Air 

C. Milton Wright, Supt. 
Hazel L. F.sher 
Mary L. Grau^ 

HOWARD— Ellicott City 
H. C. Brown, Supt. 
Gail W. Chadwick 

KEN T— Chesterto wn 

Louis C. Robinson, Supt. 
Esta V. Harrison 

MONTGOMERY— Rockville 
E. W. Broome, Supt. 
Grace Alder 
Elizabeth Meany 
Mary Gertrude Cross (Music) 
Marjorie Billows (Art) 
Fern D. Schneider (High School) 

PRINCE GEORGE'S— Upper Marlboro 
Nicholas Orem, Supt. 
Louise R. Colip* 
Maude Gibbs Hyle 
Mary Kemp* 
Kathryn Reidy* 

QUEEN ANNE'S— Centreville 
Franklin D. Day, Supt. 
Tempe H. Dameron 

ST. MARY'S — Leonardtown 
Lettie M. Dent, Supt. 
E. Violette Young 

SOMERSET— Princess Anne 
W. Stewart Fitzgerald, Supt, 
Alice Mae Coulbourn 

TALBOT— Easton 

J. Willard Davis, Supt. 
William R. Phipps 

WASHINGTON— Hagerstown 
B. J. Grimes, Supt. 
Pauline Blackford 
Katherine L. Healy 
Anne Richardson 
Mary Helen Chrissinger (Art) 
Helen E. Crahan (Music) Deceased 

WICOMICO— Salisbury 

James M. Bennett, Supt. 
Hazel Jenkins Hearne 
Leah M. Phillips 

WORCESTER— Snow Hill 

Arthur C. Humphreys, Supt. 
Elizabeth Mundy 



1 200 W. Saratoga St., Balto. 
- Grantsville 



3 Havre de Grace 
* Hyattsville 



CONTENTS 

Page 



Letter of Transmittal 5 

The State Public School Budget for 1940 6 

The Maryland Elementary and Secondary School Program 7 

White Elementary Schools : 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Birth Rates, Length 

of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, Withdrawals 8 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promoted and Over-Age Pupils ... 19 

Tests; Education for Handicapped Children in Counties and City 31 

Teachers: Certification, Experience, Summer School Attendance, 

Resignations, Turnover, Men 40 

Size of Class, Teachers' Salaries 48 

Per Pupil Costs, Transportation, Libraries, Health, Capital Outlay ... 53 

Size of Schools and Consolidation; Supervision 72 

White High Schools: 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Length of Session, 

Attendance, Graduates and Occupations 78 

Enrollment by Year; Distribution by Subject of Enrollment, Fail- 
ures, Withdrawals; Tests 96 

Teachers by Subjects, Certification, Experience, Summer School 
Attendance, Junior-Senior High Schools, Resignations, Turn- 
over, Sex 127 

Number and Size of High Schools 140 

Ratio of Pupils to Teachers, Salaries of Teachers 146 

Per Pupil Costs, Vocational Education and Guidance, Transporta- 
tion, Libraries, Health, Capital Outlay 152 

Supervision 163 

Colored Schools: 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Birth Rates, Length 

of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, Withdrawals 166 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promoted and Over-Age Pupils; 

Tests; Handicapped Pupils 174 

High Schools: Enrollment, Length of Session, Attendance, Grad- 
uates and Occupations, Subjects, Teaching Staff by Subjects, 

Tests 187 

Teachers: Certification, Experience, Summer School Attendance, 

Resignations, Turnover, Sex, Size of Class, Salaries 199 

Cost per Pupil, Transportation, Libraries, Capital Outlay, Value of 

School Property 215 

Number and Size of Elementary and High Schools; Physical Edu- 
cation and Health; P. T. A.'s; Other than County Funds 226 

Bowie State Teachers College; Coppin Teachers College 236 

Supervision 240 

The Physical Education Program in Maryland Counties 241 

Summer Schools, Evening Schools, Adult Education, Vocational Re- 
habilitation 244 

Costs of Maryland Schools, Total and per Pupil 255 

Financing the Vocational Education Program; Defense Training; 

W. P.A. Projects 271 

Transportation of Pupils 278 

Capital Outlay, Bonds Outstanding, Value of School Property 287 

County Residents Attending Schools Outside County 294 

1940-41 County Levies; Per Cent of Levies Used for Schools; Assess- 
ments; Tax Rates 295 

Parent-Teacher Associations; Other Than County Funds — White 

Schools 304 

State Certification of Teachers; County School Administration 307 

The Maryland State Teachers Colleges — Towson, Frostburg, Salisbury 311 

Contributions of Teachers to State Teachers' Retirement System 324 

List of Financial Statements and Statistical Tables 32G 

Index 356 



4 



Baltimore, Md., July 15, 1941. 

Honorable Herbert R. 0' Conor, 
Governor of Maryland, 
Annapolis, Maryland. 

Dear Governor O'Conor: 

In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77, of the Laws of 
Maryland, the seventy-fourth * 'annual report, covering all opera- 
tions of the State Department of Education and the support, con- 
dition, progress, and needs of education throughout the State" for 
the school year ending in June, 1940, is herewith presented to you. 

Following the appointment of the Survey Commission in the 
Spring of 1940, the staffs of the State Department of Education and 
the county boards of education spent considerable time and thought 
on preparing reports for the director appointed by the Commission. 
These reports presented the picture of existing conditions and rec- 
ommendations for changes if the schools are to meet better the 
needs of youth in a world of constant change. 

The excellent law which governs the Maryland school pro- 
gram, its simple and efficient plan of organization for administra- 
tion, supervision and financing, as well as the enthusiastic co-opera- 
tion received from all county teachers, clerks, attendance officers, 
supervisors, and superintendents, who have been given the whole- 
hearted moral and financial support of their patrons, county boards 
of education and county commissioners have made possible the 
conditions shown in this report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Albert S. Cook, 

Secretary- Treasurer. 

State Board of Education. 
Tasker G. Lowndes, President 
Wendell D. Allen 
J. M. T. Finney, M. D., Vice-President 
Fannie Thalheimer 
Robert E. Vining 
Charles A. Weagly 
Henry C. Whiteford 



5 



STATE AND FEDERAL AID TO MARYLAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN 

1939-40 

Of $6,324,845 State funds provided in 1939-40 for the public 
schools, $5,365,913 or 85 per cent was distributed to the counties 
and Baltimore City in various forms of State aid, nearly nine 
per cent went to the Maryland Teachers' Retirement Systemf, 
four per cent was used by the four State teachers colleges, and 
the remaining two per cent was spent for administration and 
supervision by the State Department of Education and allied 
activities, for vocational rehabilitation, and for the school survey. 
(See Table 1.) 

Of $300,237 Federal funds expended in Maryland, the coun- 
ties and Baltimore City received $205,386 for the regular day 
and evening school vocational program, $73,294 for the defense 
training program inaugurated in July 1940, leaving $10,801 for 
administration and supervision of the vocational education pro- 
gram and $10,756 as aid toward vocational rehabilitation. (See 
Table 1.) 

Of $469,437 expended by the four State teachers colleges, 56.5 
per cent came from State funds, 41.1 per cent from fees from 
students, and 2.4 per cent from payments made for services 
received by faculty and students. (See Table 1.) 



TABLE 1 

State and Federal Funds Spent for the Public School System 1939-40 



Purpose 


State 
Funds 


Per 
Cent 


Federal 
Funds 


Per 
Cent 


Tuition Fees 
and Pay- 
ments for 
Services 
Received 


Aid to Counties and Baltimore City: 


$5,365,913 


84.9 

8.7 
4.2 
1.8 
.3 
.1 


$205,386 
73,294 


68.4 
24.4 

3.6 
3.6 




Defense Program 




Retirement System 


t553,386 
265,050 
114,889 
15,850 
9.757 








$204,388 
68 


State Department and Allied Activities. 
Vocational Rehabilitation 


10,801 
10,756 


School Survey 




°Total Public Schools 


?6, 324. 845 


100.0 


$300,237 


100.0 


J204,456 


*Total State Current Expenses. . . . 


38,362,144 




5,660,095 




4,701,046 


Per Cent of Total State Current 










Expenses Spent for Public 














16.5 




5.3 




4.35 



t Excludes $492,002 due Baltimore City, but not paid in 1939-40 because of previous 
overpaymer-ts to City. 

° For detail, see financial statements on pagres 327-329. 

* Excludes disbursements for debt service (interest on and redemption of bonds) and 
capital outlay. 



An analysis of the report of the State Comptroller for 1939-40 
indicates that the State funds disbursed for the State public 
school budget ($6,324,845) represented one-sixth of the total 
State's current expenses paid from funds raised by State taxa- 



6 



tion ($38,362,144). In addition, from funds raised by taxation, 
the State spent for debt service, i.e., interest on and redemption 
of State bonds, $6,127,196. 

Federal funds spent for current expense activities in Mary- 
land totaled $5,660,095 of v^hich the public schools spent $300,- 
237, or 5.3 per cent. 

From fees paid by students, and payments made to hospitals, 
institutions and the various State departments, there was ex- 
pended for services received $4,701,046. These amounts paid at 
the State teachers colleges, $204,388, represented 4.35 per cent of 
the corresponding State total. 

The capital outlay of the State paid for to the extent of 
$2,211,483 from State bond issues and to the extent of $1,159,- 
248 from Federal funds from the Public Works Administration 
included $279 in State funds and $153 in Federal funds for the 
State Teachers College at Bowie. 

THE SIZE OF MARYLAND'S ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY 
SCHOOL PROGRAM 

Maryland had 1,659 elementary and secondary public and non- 
public schools for white and colored pupils in 1939-40, counting 
elementary and secondary schools housed in the same building as 
two schools. Of the grand total of 1,659 elementary and secondary 
schools, 1,204 were for white and 455 for colored pupils; 1,359 were 
public schools and 300 non-public schools; 1,360 schools were in 
the counties and 299 in the City; 1,357 were elementary schools 
and 302 were secondary schools. Of the 1,359 public schools, 921 
were for white and 438 for colored pupils; 1,145 were for elemen- 
tary and 214 were for secondary pupils; 1,197 were in the counties 
and 162 in the City. Further detail on white and colored, elemen- 
tary and secondary, public and non-public, and City and county 
schools may be found in the upper part of Table VI, page 337. 

There were 350,204 white and colored children enrolled in Mary- 
land elementary and secondary, public and non-public schools in 
1939-40. Of the grand total of 350,204 pupils, 287,032 were white 
and 63,172 colored; 297,031 were in the public schools and 53,173 
were in the non-public schools; * 192, 138 of the pupils were in the 
counties and *159,737 were in Baltimore City; *273,331 pupils were 
in elementary and *78,544 were in secondary schools. Additional 
detail on white and colored, elementary and secondary, public and 
non-public, and City and county school enrollment is included in 
the middle part of Table VI, page 337. 

Out of the grand total of 10,972 teachers serving in Maryland 
elementary and secondary public and non-public schools, 9,203 were 
in white schools and 1,769 in colored schools; 8,884 teachers were 
employed in public schools and 2,088 worked in non-public schools; 
6,091 taught in the counties and 4,881 in the City schools. Of 
8,884 teachers employed in the public schools, 5,733 gave instruction 
in elementary and 3,151 in secondary school work; 5,238 taught in 
the counties and 3,646 in the City; and 7,189 were white and 1,695 
were colored teachers. For more detail, see lower part of Table VI, 
page 337. 

* Includes some duplicates, not included in the grand total. 



7 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



WHITE ENROLLMENT IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The enrollment in the county public elementary schools for white 
pupils for 1940 totaled 109,154, a decrease of 425 under the year 
preceding. Except for a slight gain in 1937, there has been a small 
decrease in white enrollment in county public elementary schools 
each year since 1933, the decrease in seven years totaling 3,355. 
(See Tables 2 and 3.) 



TABLE 2 

Total Enrollment in Maryland White Elementary Schools, for Years Ending 
in June, 1923, 1939 and 1940 



County 



Total Counties. 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Washington 

Prince George's 
Montgomery. . . 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel . . 

Carroll 

Harford 

Garrett 

Wicomico 

Cecil 



Number Enrolled in 




Number Enrolled in 


White Elementary Schools 




White Elementary Schools 








County 








1923 


1939 


1940 




1923 


1939 


1940 


*106,069 


*109,579 


*109,154 


Dorchester. . . . 


3,432 


2,699 


2,562 








2,241 


2,141 


2,201 


13,333 


17,370 


17,428 


Caroline 


3,025 


2,033 


1,948 


11,107 


12,275 


12,039 




2,298 


1,985 


1,915 


10,859 


10,946 


10,799 




3,059 


1,976 


1,880 


6,421 


10,338 


10,692 


Talbot 


2,105 


1,635 


1,659 


4,524 


9.424 


10,003 




1,803 


1,476 


1,490 


8,505 


7,004 


6,798 


Queen Anne's. . 


2,l(tl 


1,492 


1,462 


4,947 


6,385 


6,275 


Kent 


1,748 


1,372 


1,292 


5,902 


4,814 


4,747 


Calvert 


1,060 


822 


823 


4,290 


4,080 


4,152 


St. Mary's , , . 


2,117 


875 


819 


5,373 


3,851 


3,757 








3,986 


3,516 


3,422 


Balto. City 


t*79,709 


t*68,863 


t*66,896 


3,405 


3,125 


3,045 


Total State 


t*185,114 1*178,442 


t*176,050 



* Excludes duplicates. 

t Includes estimate of enrollment in grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools, but excludes 
enrollment in vocational schools. 

For enrollment in counties arranged alphabetically, see Table II, page 331. 



The counties are arranged in Table 2 in order of size of white 
elementary public school enrollment in 1940. Eight of the counties, 
of which two adjoin Washington, D. C, and four are adjacent to 
Baltimore City, showed increases in white enrollment in public ele- 
mentary schools from 1939 to 1940, but only five counties had a 
larger enrollment in 1940 than in 1923, when the new system of 
reporting went into effect. 

The Baltimore City drop of 1,967 from 1939 to 1940 brought the 
total white enrollment in public elementary and occupational schools 
and in the first two years of junior high schools to 66,896 in 1940. 
Except for the increase which appeared in 1936, the white enroll- 
ment in these Baltimore City schools has shown a steady decrease 



8 



White Enrollment in Public and Non-Public 9 
Elementary Schools 

since 1930. The decrease in Baltimore City white pubHc school en- 
rollment between 1930 and 1940 totaled 11,237, over 3.3 times the 
drop in county white elementary school enrollment since 1933. En- 
rollment in Baltimore City vocational schools formerly included in 
this table has been transferred to the table showing high school en- 
rollment. (See Tables 2 and 3.) 



[ TABLE 3 

i 

! Comparison of White Elementary Enrollment in Counties and Baltimore City 
I in Public and Non-Public Schools, 1930 to 1940 



Year 


*Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic Schools 


*Non-Catholic 
Non-Public Schools 






















Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Baltimore 




Counties 


Cityt 


Counties 


Cityt 


Counties 


City 


Counties 


City 


1930 


118,717 


109,159 


108,737 


78,133 


8,722 


29,002 


1,258 


2,024 


1931 


119,763 


108,736 


109,406 


77,304 


9,079 


29,462 


1,278 


1,970 


1932 


121,923 


108,720 


111,370 


76,949 


9,321 


29,954 


1,232 


1,817 


1933 


123,224 


108,420 


112,509 


76,426 


9,636 


30,399 


1,079 


1,595 


1934 


122,881 


107,883 


111,907 


75,311 


9,876 


31,020 


1,098 


1,552 


1935 


122,559 


107,192 


111,696 


74,818 


9,622 


30,735 


1.241 


1.639 


1936 


121,857 


107,230 


110,938 


75,316 


9,698 


30,171 


1,221 


1,743 


1937 


122,247 


105,173 


110,955 


73,452 


9,785 


29,817 


1,507 


1,904 


1938 


121,422 


103,094 


109,636 


71,392 


9,933 


29,384 


1,853 


2,318 


1939 


121,137 


100,250 


109,579 


68,863 


9,823 


29,090 


1,735 


2,297 


1940 


120,719 


96,947 


109,154 


66,896 


9,828 


27,947 


1,737 


2,104 



t Excludes enrollment in vocational schools included with secondary school enrollment. 
* See Tables II to VI, pages 331 to 337. 



The white enrollment in county public elementary schools totaled 
j 109,154 in contrast with a comparable enrollment in Baltimore City 
1 1 of 66,896, giving an excess of 42,258 for the counties. A part of 
the difference between the white county and City enrollment is ex- 
plained by the existence of a larger non-public school enrollment in 
the City than in the counties. White elementary enrollment in the 
county and City public and non-public schools is shown from 1930 
to 1940, in Table 3. White elementary public school enrollment in 
the counties was at its maximum in 1933 since which time there has 
been a slight tendency to decline. The City white enrollment in 
public elementary and occupational schools and the first two years 
of junior high schools, except for an increase in 1936, has declined 
steadily during the past decade. The white elementary enrollment 
in Catholic schools increased steadily to 1934, since which time it 
has fluctuated up and down in the counties and has decreased 
steadily in the City. White elementary school enrollment in non- 
Catholic private schools declined during the depression years 1932 
to 1934, since which time it has shown a general tendency to in- 
crease, although 1939 and 1940 showed decreases under 1938. (See 
Table 3.) 



10 



1940 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Decreases in elementary school enrollment are generally attrib- 
uted to lower birth rates. According to the reports of the Bureau 
of Vital Statistics, Maryland State Department of Health, recorded 
birth rates for 1939 are lower than they were in 1930, except in 
three counties. However, birth rates from 1935 to 1939 according 
to residence of mother, show increases in all except six of the counties. 
(See Table 4.) 

TABLE 4 

Recorded and Resident Birth Rates Per 1,000 White Population 

Reported by Bureau of Vital Statistics, Maryland State Department of Health 







Recorded Birth Rates 


Resident Birth Rates* 


County 








































1920 


1930 


1935 


1939 


1935 


1937 


1938 


1939 




23. 


5 


17.4 


14.3 


13.5 


17.0 


17.6 


18.1 


18.4 


Allegany 


27. 


1 


22.2 


20.4 


21.2 


19.5 


20.2 


19.8 


19.0 




20 


2 


14.4 


13.8 


12.1 


16.9 


16.3 


16.7 


17.6 




21 


5 


13.9 


8.1 


5.3 


14.5 


14.0 


15.5 


14.7 


Calvert 


26 


6 


22.2 


19.8 


20.6 


20.6 


21.0 


23.9 


21.4 




32 


1 


16.5 


16.6 


16.3 


19.5 


19.0 


16.3 


16.6 


Carroll 


22 


1 


15.1 


13.0 


11.4 


16.5 


15.4 


17.2 


17.1 


Cecil 


22 


4 


19.9 


15.7 


14.6 


17.7 


17.2 


16.3 


16.7 


Charles 


26 


3 


20.1 


17.2 


21.2 


13.2 


23.4 


22.8 


25.2 


Dorchester 


26 


9 


19.2 


15.5 


15.4 


15.3 


15.7 


17.4 


15.6 




25 





20.2 


17.6 


16.7 


17.2 


17.4 


17.6 


16.4 




28 


4 


24.2 


24.3 


23.2 


25.8 


24.8 


23.9 


25.8 


Harford 


18 


6 


17.8 


14.0 


12.5 


16.7 


16.8 


17.3 


17.6 




22 


8 


14.9 


13.9 


10.0 


19.1 


22.2 


23.5 


18.8 


Kent 


21 


5 


12.6 


11.8 


14.2 


12.6 


15.4 


14.4 


14.7 




20 


9 


13.6 


14.9 


16.0 


18.7 


22.8 


23.1 


26.3 


Prince George's 


20 


9 


11.4 


7.5 


5.8 


19.2 


20.0 


21.5 


23.9 


Queen Anne's 


21 


1 


18.1 


13.1 


12.3 


14.6 


17.1 


17.5 


17.6 


St. Mary's 


26 


8 


26.7 


25.8 


27.0 


25.5 


23.9 


26.6 


25.8 




24 


7 


17.9 


14.6 


11.9 


14.2 


13.9 


14.5 


13.4 


Talbot 


22 





19.4 


16.9 


18.1 


13.4 


14.9 


14.3 


14.5 


Washington 


26 


9 


20.4 


17.5 


18.3 


17.7 


17.8 


17.1 


18.6 




22 


3 


18.3 


14.0 


18.2 


12.3 


14.3 


13.9 


14.9 


Worcester 


20 


.0 


15.7 


9.3 


12.7 


11.9 


13.6 


15.2 


16.2 


Baltimore City 


25 


.3 


17.6 


15.4 


16.3 


13.7 


18.6 


14.3 


13.2 




24 


.5 


17.5 


14.9 


14.8 


15.5 


15.6 


16.2 


15.9 



* Prior to 1935 birth rates were calculated on births occurring in the indicated areas and 
are shown under the heading "Recorded Birth Rates." For 1935. 1937, 1938 and 1939 birth 
rates are shown by residence of mother as weil as according to location of birth. 



COUNTIES REQUIRING BIRTH RECORDS ON FIRST ENTRANCE 

TO SCHOOL 

In accordance with the desirability and necessity for the pos- 
session of a birth record by each individual to establish proof of 
age for many purposes,* a number of counties are requiring the 
parent to present a birth certificate when a child is first registered 
at school. Ten counties — Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore,. Cal- 
vert, Caroline, Carroll, Frederick, Howard, Kent and Talbot— now 
require the birth certificate as evidence of date of birth when children 
enroll in school for the first time. In three other counties— Cecil, 
Charles, and Dorchester — a birth certificate is required in doubtful 
cases, or for children born outside the county or State. Princp 
George's requires some evidence of date of birth. 



* See page 311 for a list of purposes. 



Birth Rates; Birth Certificates; Age Admission 1st Grade; 11 
Length of Session 

Children who are applying for employment certificates are re- 
quired to present birth certificates. The Health Department is in a 
better position to obtain evidence regarding dates of birth for young 
children who upon entering school do not possess certificates, than 
later when the children are older and ready to leave school. A 
birth certificate will be issued by the Health Department whenever 
sufficient evidence substantiating the birth is presented. 

AGE REQUIRED FOR ADMISSION TO FIRST GRADE 

Each county determines the age at which children may be ad- 
mitted to the first grade. The status reported by the counties at 
the beginning of the school year 1939-40 was included in the 1939 
report on pages 19-20. A check of the situation at the beginning of 
the school year 1940-41 showed no change except in Anne Arundel 
County and Baltimore City. In Anne Arundel a child must become 
six by January 1 if he is to be admitted to school the preceding 
September. December 1 was the date shown in the 1939 report 
for Anne Arundel. In Baltimore City, which admits pupils in Sep- 
tember and February, since children are promoted semi-annually, 
beginners in the first grade the first semester must be six years old 
on or before November 15 and those for the second semester must 
be six years old on or before March 31. Formerly the dates were 
a half month earlier, October 31 and March 16. 



LENGTH OF SESSION 



TABLE 5 

Length of Session in White Elementary and High Schools, Year Ending 

June 30, 1940 



Ele- 



mentary 
School 



High 
School 
A.verage i Average 
Days I Days 
in in 
Session Session 



186.5 

193.9 
192.8 
189.9 
189.7 
188.7 
187.1 
185.9 
185.8 
185.6 
184.7 
184.4 
183.8 



186.4 

194.4 
193.0 
189.3 
189.7 
189.8 
186.9 
1F6.1 
185.8 
184.7 
184.5 
184.9 
183.8 



School Year 

1939-40 



Fi-st 
Day 
of 



Last 
Day 
of 



County 



School School I 



Ele- i 
mentary! High 
School School 
Average ; Average 
Days 1 Days 
in < in 



School Year 
1939-40 



First 
Day 
of 

Session ! Session School 







' Montgomery... 


183 


8 


183 


« 






Kent 


183 


3 


184 





9/6 


6/20 


. St. Mary's 


183 





183 





9/11 


6/21 


Caroline 


183 





183 





9/5 


6^4 


Carroll 


182 




183 


9 


9/6 


6/14 


Calvert 


182 


t 


183 




9/6 


6/14 




182 


5 


183 


? 


9/5 


6/7 


Oueen Anne's. . 


181 


8 


182 





9/7 


6/14 


WicoT.ico 


181 





181 





9/7 


6/14 


Somerset 


180 


9 


180 




9/7 


6^21 




179 





178 


5 


9/6 


6/19 












9/6 


6/12 


Balto. City 


190 





190 


I 


9/6 


6 7 
















Total State 


187 


8 


187 





9/11 

9/6 

9/5 

9/6 

9/7 

9/6 

9/5 

9/7 

9/5 

9/1 

9/11 

9/7 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 

6/14 

6/12 

6/12 

6/7 

6/7 

6/12 

6/5 

6/7 

6/4 

5/31 

6/19 

6/19 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table IX, page 340. 



12 1940 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The county public elementary schools for white pupils were in 
session an average of 186.5 days in 1939-40, an increase of .9 of a 
day over 1938-39. The average number of days schools were open 
in individual counties varied from 179 to 194. The opening dates 
in 1939 covered the period from September 1 to 11, while in one 
county schools closed on May 31, 1940, and in two other counties 
schools were open until June 21. Schools in two counties and in 
Baltimore City were open at least 190 days. (See Table 5.) 

TABLE 6 



Number of County White Schools in Session Fewer Than 180 Days, Year 

Ending June 30, 1940 



Year 


For All Counties by Year 


County 


For 1940 by County 


Total 
No. 


Having 

One 
Teacher 


Having 
More 
Than One 
Teacher 


Total 
No. 


Having 

One 
Teacher 


Having 
More 
Than One 
Teacher 


1926 


124 


109 


15 


Frostburg S. T. 








1927 


83 


68 


15 


C. elementary 


1 




al 


1928 


83 


25 


8 




3 




b3 


1929 


62 


45 


17 


Frederick 


1 


ai 


1930 


28 


22 


6 


Garrett 




cl 




1931 


12 
9 


7 


5 


Kent 


1 


di 


1932 


8 


1 




1 




el 


1933 


5 


2 


3 








1934 


8 


6 


2 










1935 


34 


18 


16 










1936 


33 


21 


12 










1937 


12 


9 


3 












2 


1 


1 










1939 


4 


2 


2 












8 


2 


6 











a 179 days. 

b 173, 175, and 179 days ; two of these are elementary and high schools combined, 
c 163 days. d 176 days e 178 days. 



Five counties had five elementary schools and two combined high 
and elementary schools open fewer than the required 180 days. In 
addition, the elementary school at the State Teachers College at 
Frostburg was in session 179 days. The shortage for most of the 
schools or classes was from one to seven days, but a one-teacher 
school in Garrett was closed for seventeen days during the month 
of February. The unusual snowstorms and impassable roads in the 
winter and early spring of 1940 account for most of the shortages 
in days in session. (See Table 6.) 

ATTENDANCE OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS 

Attendance of county white elementary school pupils in 1940, 
probably due to the very bad winter weather and snowstorms 
which blocked roads, was not as good as in the preceding years. 



Length of Session, Per Cent of Attendance, White 
Elementary Schools 



13 



TABLE 7 

Per Cent of Attendance in AVhite Elementary Schools for School Years End- 
ing in June, 1923, 1938, 1939 and 1940 



County 



1923 



1938 



1939 



1940 



County 



1923 



1938 



1939 



1940 



County Average 84.2 

Allegany 89.0 

Kent 86.7 

Talhot 85.8 

Prince George's 84 . 9 

Carroll 79.4 

Frederick 83.6 

Wicomico j 86.5 

Caroline { 86.5 

Washington j 84 . 9 

Somerset 83.3 

Anne Arundel 84 . 5 

Queen Anne's 85.4 



92.5 

*93.8 
93.4 
93.2 
t93.9 
t93.1 
t93.4 
92.6 
t92.3 
*92.4 
91.9 
92.7 



92.7 

'=94.1 
92.3 



92.8 



94.1 
t93.4 
t93.5 
93.7 
93.2 
t92.8 
*92.6 
93.1 
92.3 
93.0 



92.2 

*94.0 
93.3 
93.3 
t93.3 
t93.1 
93.0 
92.6 
t92.2 
*92.2 
92.2 
92.2 
92.] 



Dorchester 81.2 

Garrett 83.9 

Baltimore 84.0 

Calvert 79.9 

Worcester 83 . 5 

Cecil 84.8 

St. Mary's 74.5 

Montgomery 81.9 

Howard I 84.0 

Charles 79.5 

Harford I 84.5 

I 

Baltimore City ' 89.8 

Entire State I 86.7 



92.1 
92.1 



t92.4 
90.4 
90.7 
92.3 
92.5 

*91.8 
90.8 
92.1 
89.1 

*91.4 

92.1 



93.2 
93.2 

t92.1 
92.6 
91.4 
91.5 
92.2 

*91.1 
91.1 
90.3 
91.4 

*90.8 

91.9 



92.1 

92.0 
t91.8 
91.4 
91.2 
91.2 
91.1 
*91.0 
90.8 
90.2 
89.8 

*90.3 

91.5 



* Includes junior high schools, grades 7-8. 
t Includes junior high schools, grade 7. 
For attendance in 1940 by counties arranged 



ilphabetically, see Table VIII, page 339. 



TABLE 8 

Per Cent of Attendance for School Years Ending in June, 1924, 1939 and 1940, 
by Types of White Elementary Schools 



Schools Having 
One Teacher 

County 1924 1939 1940 

County Aver. t80. 9 91.6 90.6 

Worcester 77.0 96.7 96.1 

Anne Arundel. 77. 6 93.6 95.6 

Kent 84.8 93.7 94.9 

Talbot 87.3 94.2 94.4 

Allegany 82.9 92.9 93.9 

Somerset 81.7 95.5 93.6 

Queen Anne's. 82. 9 93.2 93.5 
Wicomico. . . .83.9 92.4 93.1 
Montgomery .78.1 89.7 92.7 
Dorchester .. .81.3 92.3 91.2 
St. Mary's.... 79. 3 91.3 90.5 

Frederick 79.6 88.8 90.4 

Washington. . .80.1 91.1 90.2 
Pr. George's. .83.3 92.9 90.0 

Charles 77.3 91.8 90.0 

Carroll 78.2 91.8 89.8 

Garrett 81.2 92.0 89.6 

Harford 82.7 89.5 89.6 

Cecil 81.7 90.6 88.9 

Calvert 77.2 90.5 87.8 

Howard 82.5 89.7 87.0 



Schools Having 
Two Teachers 



County 1924 1939 1940 
County Aver.. .83.9 92.5 91.9 

Allegany 88.9 95.6 95.1 

Howard 81.9 93.3 93.8 

Cecil 86.5 93.5 93.1 

Pr. George's. . .85.8 94.2 93.1 

Kent 85.8 92.4 93.0 

Caroline 87.9 92.0 93.0 

Somerset 83.3 93.0 92.9 

Garrett 87.7 93.1 92.8 

Talbot 86.7 93.3 92.8 

Anne Arundel.. 8 1.9 93.5 92.7 

Charles 84.3 93.1 92.7 

Wicomico 86.3 93.6 92.3 

Washington.... 80. 6 92.0 92.3 

Carroll 81.4 93.2 91.9 

Montgomery. . .80.5 90.4 91.4 

Calvert 81.7 93.1 91.3 

Queen Anne's.. 86. 5 89.6 91.3 

St. Mary's 81.4 91.9 91.0 

Worcester 82.6 89.7 90.4 

Baltimore 82.5 91.5 90.4 

Frederick 80.3 91.7 90.0 

Dorchester 86.7 92.6 89.2 

Harford 85.6 91.3 88.9 



Graded Schools 



County 


1924 


1939 


1940 


County Aver. . 


.88.3 


92.8 


92.2 




,92.4 


*94.1 


*93.8 




86.4 


94.0 


93.4 


Garrett 


89.9 


94.1 


93.4 


Pr. George's. . 


.89.0 


t93.4 


93.3 


Carroll 


84.3 


t93.6 


t93.3 


Kent 


88.3 


92.0 


93.2 


Talbot 


88.5 


94.1 


93.2 




89.3 


93.2 


92.6 


Dorchester. . . 


.89.5 


93.5 


92.4 


Washington . . 


.88.8 


*92.9 


*92.3 




89.9 


t92.9 


t92.2 


Anne Arundel 


.87.9 


92.3 


92.1 


Queen Anne's. 


.88.3 


93.5 


92.0 






94.2 


92.0 




86.7 


93.0 


92.0 


Baltimore . , 


86.2 


t92.1 


t91.8 


Calvert 




92.6 


91.5 


Cecil 


87.3 


91.4 


91.5 


Worcester 


89.3 


91.5 


91.3 


Howard 


85.8 


91.1 


91.1 


Montgomery . 


..86.3 


*90.7 


*91.0 




88.4 


90.0 


90.0 




88.9 


91.8 


90.0 



t Neither Baltimore County, with an attendance of 82.3 per cent in 1924, nor Caroline, 
with 88.3 per cent in 1924, had any one-teacher schools in 1939 or 1940. 
* Includes junior high schools, grades 7-8. 
t Includes junior high schools, grade 7. 



14 1940 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The average attendance was 92.2 per cent of the average number 
belonging, a decrease of .5 under the year preceding. In only one 
county was the attendance better in 1940 than in 1939. Only one 
county had an attendance slightly below 90 per cent, while at the 
other extreme one county had an attendance of 94 per cent. (See 
Table 7.) 

As usual, the per cent of attendance was lowest in the county 
one-teacher schools, 90.6 per cent; next highest in the two-teacher 
schools, 91.9 per cent; and highest in the graded schools, 92.2 per 
cent. The difference between the county having the lowest and 
highest per cent of attendance was greatest for the one-teacher 
schools and least for the graded schools. The county having the 
lowest attendance in one-teacher schools had 87 per cent, in two- 
teacher schools slightly under 89 per cent, and in graded schools 
90 per cent. (See Table 8.) 

Attendance by Months in County Elementary Schools 

The counties had the maximum enrollment of white elementary 
pupils in November after which there was a lower enrollment each 
succeeding month. The maximum enrollment in the one-teacher 
schools was found in October, in the two-teacher schools in December, 
and in the graded schools in January. (See Table 9.) 

TABLE 9 



Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White 
Elementary Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1940 



Month 


Average Number Belonging 
1939-40 


Per Cent Attendance 
1939-40 






















All Ele- 


One- 


Two- 




All Ele- 


Onp- 


Two- 






Tnentary 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


mentary 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 




104,022 


5,050 


7,581 


91,391 


96 


6 


95.6 


96.7 


96.6 




105,383 


5.130 


7,741 


92,512 


94 


6 


93.1 


94.6 


94.7 




105,415 


5.098 


7,822 


92, 4 IS 


93 


6 


93.3 


94.0 


93.6 




105,343 


5,055 


7,827 


92,461 


91 


8 


92.7 


92.2 


91 .8 




105,103 


5,059 


7,487 


92,557 


86 


2 


82.3 


84.9 


86.5 




104,883 


5,041 


7.446 


92,396 


87 


8 


82.9 


86.0 


88.2 


March 


104,616 


4,962 


7,466 


92,188 


91 


9 


90.2 


91.6 


92.0 




104,488 


4,944 


7,481 


92,063 


92 


7 


91.8 


92.4 


92.8 




104,306 


4,951 


7,445 


91,910 


93 


4 


92.4 


93.1 


93.5 




*102,188 


*4,833 


*7,235 


*90.120 


96 


1 


95.8 


96.1 


96.1 


Average for Year 


104,756 


4,999 


7,444 


92,313 


92 


2 


90.6 


91.9 


92.2 



* Somerset County schools were not open in June. 



Per cent of attendance was highest in white elementary schools in 
September, decreased each succeeding month until it was at its lowest 
point in January, after which it increased each month until June, 
when it was slightly below the September average. (See Table 9.) 



White Elementary School Attendance: Per Cent, 15 
Monthly, Under 100 and 140 Days 

Attendance Under 100 and 140 Days in Counties 

There was a slight increase, except in the two-teacher schools, 
in the per cent of white pupils who attended elementary schools under 
100 and 140 days. There were 3.4 per cent of the white elementary 
pupils who attended school under 100 days and 8.7 per cent who 
attended fewer than 140 days. Only in 1939 were there lower per- 
centages. In two-teacher schools the percentages for 1940 were lower 
than ever before. The changes in attendance are very marked if 
figures for 1940 are compared with those for 1929. (See Table 10.) 

TABLE 10 

Per Cent of County White P^lementary School Pupils Attending under 100 
and 140 Days, 1929 to 1940, and by County for 1939-40 



Per Cent of County White Putils Attending 



Year 

AND 

County 


Elementary 
Schools 


One-Teacher 
Schools 


Two-Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 




Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 

Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 


Under 100 
Days 


Under 140 
Days 



ATTENDING UNDER 100 AND 140 DAYS BY YEAR 



1929 


8.4 


19.3 


13.3 


29.4 


9.6 


£2.5 


6.8 


16.0 


1930 


6.6 


15.2 


9.3 


23.2 


7.4 


17.2 


5.8 


13.1 


1931 


5.5 


12.9 


' 7.7 


18.3 


5.8 


13.8 


5.0 


11.7 


1932 


5.3 


12.3 


6.8 


16.6 


5.7 


13.4 


5.0 


11.4 


1933 


4.6 


11.0 


6.4 


15.7 


4.8 


12.0 


4.4 


10.3 


1934 


4.9 


12.8 


6.2 


17.1 


5.0 


14.0 


4.7 


12.2 


1935 


4.9 


12.4 


6.9 


18.0 


5.0 


14.5 


4.6 


11.5 


1936 


4.8 


12.4 


7.3 


19.6 


5.2 


13.9 


4.5 


11.5 


1937 


4.7 


12.0 


6.0 


17.6 


5.1 


13.0 


4.5 


11.4 


1938 


3.7 


9.2 


6.0 


14.7 


3.8 


9.9 


3.5 


8.7 


1939 


3.2 


8.3 : 


4.0 


11.5 


3.2 


9.3 


3.1 


8.0 


1940 


3.4 


8.7 


4.8 


12.5 


3.0 


9.0 


3.3 


8.4 



ATTENDING UNDER 100 AND 140 DAYS BY COUNTY, 1939-40 



Kent 


1.6 


4.6 




1.4 


2.0 


4.8 


1.5 


4.7 


Pr. George's. . 


1.1 


4.9 




9.1 


.7 


6.2 


1.1 


4.7 


Queen Anne's. 


.2 


5.0 








6.1 


.3 


5.3 


Frederick 


1.9 


6.4 


'i;4 




'3.5 


10.8 


1.7 


5.7 


Allegany 


3.0 


6.7 


1.8 


5.6 


1.2 


3.4 


3.1 


6.9 


Baltimore .... 


2.6 


6.7 






2.0 


8.5 


2.7 


6.6 


Carroll 


2.0 


6.7 


'2^2 


i4!i 


2.8 


5.0 


1.9 


6.6 


Caroline 


1.4 


6.8 






.8 


4.6 


1.4 


7.0 


Dorchester. . . 


2.5 


7.9 


'4!i 


'9.3 


4.3 


17.4 


2.0 


7.2 


Talbot 


3.5 


8.6 


7.9 


13.3 


2.1 


11.2 


3.1 


7.7 


Garrett 


1.3 


9.3 


.8 


13.1 


.2 


5.7 


2.0 


8.0 


Harford 


3.4 


9.4 


7.7 


12.0 


2.3 


8.1 


3.0 


9.3 


St. Mary's 


2.3 


9.6 


2.3 


11.6 


2.0 


10.6 


3.0 


4.8 


Worcester .... 


2.4 


9.8 




2.6 


12.3 


2.4 


9.5 


Anne Arundel . 


4.8 


9.9 


ii!8 


17.6 


3.8 


8.5 


4.8 


10.0 


Calvert 


3.0 


10.3 




15.0 


2.4 


8.1 


3.2 


10.6 


Wicomico .... 


4.1 


10.4 


" ' !8 


2.5 


8.0 


17.6 


4.0 


10.3 


Washington . . 


4.9 


10.5 


10.4 


18.0 


7.2 


13.2 


4.4 


9.8 


Somerset 


4.2 


11.3 


9.3 


13.6 


2.9 


8.8 


3.9 


11.5 


Howard 


4.5 


11.5 


5.1 


14.7 


2.9 


4.4 


4.5 


11.4 


Cecil 


6.5 


14.3 


11.9 


20.0 


6.2 


13.3 


5.3 


13.1 


Montgomery. . 


6.9 


14.6 


8.7 


13.4 


4.5 


14.6 


7.0 


14.6 


Charles 


5.7 


15.5 




11.8 


2.1 


6.4 


6.2 


16.3 



16 1940 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The one-teacher schools had the highest per cent of pupils who 
attended fewer than 100 days, while the two-teacher schools had the 
lowest percentage. For pupils who attended fewer than 140 days, 
the one-teacher schools showed the highest percentage and the graded 
schools the lowest percentage. (See Table 10.) 

In six counties less than 2 per cent of the pupils attended school 
fewer than 100 days, while this was the case for over 5 per cent in 
three counties. In three counties 5 per cent, or less, of the pupils 
attended schools under 140 days, while this was true of over 14 per 
cent of the pupils in three counties. (See Table 10.) 

In one- and two-teacher schools for pupils present under 100 days' 
the extremes among the counties were and 12 per cent, and for 
pupils present under 140 days, the minimum was less than 2 and 
the maximum 20 per cent. 

LATE ENTRANTS TO COUNTY SCHOOLS FEWER THAN 
EVER BEFORE 

TABLE 11 



Number and Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School After the First 15 Days Because of Employment, Indifference 
or Neglect, by County for 1939-40 







Per Cent Entering Late by 


Cause 


Rank 




Total 
















County 


Number 








Under 






Under 




Entering 




Indiffer- 


14 Years 


14 Years 


Indiffer- 


14 Years 


14 Years 




Late 


Total 


ence or 


or more, 


Illegally 


ence or 


or more, 


Illegally 








Neglect 


Employed 


Employed 


Neglect 


Employed 


Employed 


Total, 1937-38. . 


1,035 


.9 


.6 


.2 


.1 








Total, 1938-39. . 


689 


.6 


.4 


.1 


.1 








Total, 1939-40. . 


642 


.6 


.4 


.1 


.1 










1 










1 


2 


1 




10 


'.2 


.1 


!i 




3 


11 


1 




47 


.2 


.2 






8 


3 


1 


Prince George's . 


37 


.3 


.2 




!i 


7 


6 


17 




29 


.4 


.3 


^1 




9 


10 


1 




52 


.4 


.3 


.1 




10 


8 


1 


Anne Arundel . . . 


28 


.4 


.3 


.1 




12 


5 


11 


Montgomery 


53 


.5 


.5 






15 


1 


9 


Worcester 


11 


.6 


.2 


A 




6 


17 


1 


Carroll 


28 


.6 


.4 


.1 




14 


7 


12 


Dorchester. . . . 


15 


.6 


.2 


.2 


.2 


5 


13 


19 


Cecil 


20 


.6 


.5 




.1 


16 


4 


10 




35 


.8 


.6 


!i 


.1 


17 


12 


16 


Kent 


11 


.8 


.1 


.4 


.3 


4 


19 


21 


Queen Anne's. . . 


13 


.9 


.4 


.4 


.1 


13 


21 


15 


Howard 


20 


.9 


.6 


.2 


.1 


19 


15 


13 




20 


1.0 


.3 


'a 


.3 


11 


20 


ro 




9 


1.1 


.1 


.1 


.9 


2 


9 


23 


Washington 


129 


1.1 


. 7 


.3 


.1 


21 


16 


18 


Charles 


18 


1.2 


1.0 


.2 




23 


14 


1 


Talbot 


21 


1.2 


.6 


.6 




20 


23 


1 




24 


1.3 


.8 


.4 


.1 


22 


22 


14 




11 


1.3 


.6 


.4 


.3 


18 


18 


22 



White Elementary Pupils Entering Late and Withdrawing 17 



There were 642 county white elementary pupils who entered school 
after the first fifteen days because of indifference and neglect or em- 
ployment. This is a reduction of 47 from the preceding year. In 
over one-half of the counties the number of late entrants for the 
causes just given totaled under 25, while in five of the largest counties 
these late entrants totaled between 37 and 129. These figures indi- 
cate the necessity for cooperation of families, principals and teachers, 
especially in the seven counties having one per cent or more of late 
entrants for these causes, if further reduction in late entrants is to 
be brought about. (See Table 11.) 

TABLE 12 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County White Elementary Schools by 
Years, 1929 to 1940, and by County for Year Ending June 30, 1940 



Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer, Commitment 
or Death 



Number 



Per Cent 



Withdrawals for Following Causes 



Total 
Number 



Total 
Per 
Cent 



Per Cent Withdrawing for 



Mental 
and 

Physical 
Inca- 
pacity 



Over and 








Under 








Compul- 


Employ- 




other 


sory At- 


ment 


Poverty 


Causes 


tendance 






Age 









Withdrawals by Years 



1929 


12,276 


10.6 


4,937 


4.3 


1.2 


.5 


2.0 


.4 


.2 


1930 


12,718 


10.9 


4,105 


3.5 


1.0 


.4 


1.7 


.2 


.2 


1931 


11.479 


9.8 


3,642 


3.1 


1.1 


.3 


1.3 


.3 




1932 


12,008 


10.1 


2,966 


2.5 


1.1 


.3 


.8 


.2 




1933 


12,008 


10.0 


2,932 


2.4 


.8 


.3 


.9 


.3 




1934 


11,447 


9.6 


2,897 


2.4 


1.0 


.3 


.8 


.2 




1935 


11,295 


9.5 


3,036 


2.5 


1.0 


.4 


.8 


.2 




1936 


11,046 


9.4 


3,037 


2.6 


.9 


.5 


.9 


.2 




1937 


11,963 


10.9 


2,899 


2.4 


.9 


.5 


.8 


.1 




1938 


11,249 


9.6 


2,266 


1.9 


.7 


.4 


.6 


.1 




1939 


10,131 


8.7 


1,946 


1.7 


.6 


.4 


.5 


.1 




1940 


10,511 


9.0 


1,877 


1.6 


.6 


.5 


.4 


.1 





Withdrawals by County, 1939-40 



Queen Anne's. . . 


143 


9.5 


7 


.5 


.3 


.1 


.1 






Cecil 


462 


14.1 


19 


.6 


.3 


.2 


.1 






St. Mary's 


57 


6.8 


6 


.7 


.3 


.2 


.1 








177 


8.8 


19 


.9 


.3 


.1 


.4 






Carroll 


489 


9.8 


54 


1.1 


.5 


.1 


.5 






Prince George's. 


1,080 


9.7 


125 


1.1 


.8 


.2 


.1 






Harford 


556 


12.4 


54 


1.2 


.5 


.4 


.3 








181 


6.8 


33 


1.2 


.3 


.3 


.5 




!i 


Calvert 


51 


6.1 


11 


1.3 


.7 




.4 




.1 


Anne Arundel . . . 


689 


10.6 


95 


1.5 


.4 


'.h 


.4 




.1 


Baltimore 


1,512 


8.4 


284 


1.6 


.5 


.7 


.4 






Kent 


147 


10.9 


22 


1.6 


.4 


.4 


.8 






Wicomico 


383 


10.6 


62 


1.7 


.5 


.4 


.7 








81 


4.2 


33 


1.7 


.5 


.2 


.8 




!i 


Talbot 


143 


8.3 


30 


1.7 


.8 


,7 


.2 




Frederick 


627 


8.7 


126 


1.7 


.8 


.2 


.6 






Garrett 


397 


10.0 


71 


1.8 


.9 


.4 


.3 




A 




247 


10.8 


43 


1.9 


.3 


.8 


.8 








844 


6.7 


244 


1.9 


.6 


.9 


.2 




!i 


Montgomery 


991 


9.5 


212 


2.0 


1.1 


. 5 


.2 




.1 


Washington 


986 


8.5 


247 


2.1 


.4 


.7 


.8 




.1 


Worcester 


147 


7.5 


45 


2.3 


.8 


.3 


1.1 




.1 


Charles 


121 


8.0 


35 


2.3 


.9 


.3 


.6 


.3 


.2 



18 



1940 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



WITHDRAWALS FROM COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 10,511 county white elementary pupils withdrawn 
from the enrollment in a particular school because of transfer to 
another school, moving away, or death. The number of such changes 
in school or locality represented 9 per cent of the total enrollment. 
This was an increase of 380 in number and .3 in per cent over the 
low figures for the preceding year. (See upper left part of Table 12.) 

The counties varied greatly in the per cent of withdrawal due 
chiefly to migration of families from one county or state to another. 
One lower Eastern Shore county had only 4 per cent of such with- 
drawals, while one upper Eastern Shore county had 14 per cent of 
its white elementary school enrollment change its residence. (See 
lower left part of Table 12.) 

Fewer white elementary pupils than ever before withdrew from 
school for ''other causes," such as mental and physical incapacity, 
employment, age, and poverty. The number of such withdrawals 
was 1,877, representing 1.6 per cent of the total enrollment. (See 
upper middle part of Table 12.) 

Mental and physical incapacity was the major cause of with- 
drawals, with ages above or below those included for compulsory 
attendance, and employment, following in order of importance. 
(See upper right part of Table 12.) 

Among the counties such withdrawals accounted for less than one 
per cent of the white elementary pupils in four counties, one of 
which, however, reported the highest per cent of withdrawals for 
transfer, moving away, and death, while at the opposite extreme 
four counties had over 2 per cent withdraw for reasons other than 
change of residence. (See lower right part of Table 12.) 

EFFICIENCY IN GETTING AND KEEPING CHILDREN IN SCHOOL 

In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance 
thus far presented, viz., per cent of attendance, late entrance, and 
withdrawals for preventable causes, the 23 counties have been 
arranged in order according to their average rank in these three 
items for public white elementary schools. That county is con- 
sidered highest which has a high percentage of attendance accom- 
panying a low percentage of late entrance and withdrawal for pre- 
ventable causes. A county in which a high proportion of the children 
who could do so do not enter at the beginning of the school year, 
and a large proportion who could remain withdraw before the close 
of the year, may keep those in school in regular attendance while 
they are enrolled, but it is undoubtedly helping all its pupils to 
secure an education less well than a county which brings all its 
pupils into school at the beginning of the year, discourages with- 
drawals, and still keeps a high percentage of attendance. (See 
Table 13.) 



White Elementary Withdrawals; Index of Attendance; 19 
Grade Enrollment 

TABLE 13 



An Index of School Attendance in County White Elementary Schools for 
School Year Endin? June 30, 1910 



r^OTTMTV 


Per Cent of 


Rank in Pep. Cent of 


Attend- 
ance 


'^Late 
Entrants 


T Witn- 
drawals 


Attena- 
ance 


*L<ate 
Entrants 


tWi th- 
drawals 




92.2 


.6 


1 . 6 










93 . 3 


.3 


1 . 1 


4 


4 


6 


Carroll 


93 . 1 


. 6 







1 


5 




92. 6 




1 . 7 


7 


1 


13 




94.0 


.'4 


1.9 


1 


6 


19 




93.0 


.4 


1.7 


6 


5 


16 




92.2 


.4 


1.5 


11 


7 


10 


Kent 


93.3 


.8 


1.6 


2 


14 


12 


Queen Anne's 


92.1 


.9 


. 5 


12 


15 


1 


Baltimorp 


91.8 


.2 


1.6 


15 


3 


11 


Caroline 


92.2 


1.0 


.9 


8 


17 


4 


Cecil 


91.2 


.6 


.6 


18 


12 


2 


Dorchester 


02.1 


.6 


1.2 


13 


11 


8 


Garrett 


92.0 


.2 


1.8 


14 


2 


17 


Talbot 


93.3 


1.2 


1.7 


3 


21 


15 


Calvert 


91.4 


1.1 


1.3 


16 


18 


9 


Harford 


89.8 


.8 


1.2 


23 


13 


7 


St. Mary's 


91.1 


1.3 


.7 


19 


23 


3 




92.2 


1.3 


1.7 


10 


22 


14 


Montgomery 


91.0 


. 5 


2.0 


20 


8 


20 




91.2 


.6 


2.3 


17 


9 


22 


Washington 


92.2 


1.1 


2.1 


9 


19 


21 




90.8 


.9 


1.9 


21 


16 


18 




90.2 


1.2 


2.3 


22 


20 


23 



* Late entrants for employment, indifference or neglect. The county having the smallest 
percentage of late entrants is ranked first. 

t Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, or 
death. The county having the smallest percentage of withdrawals is ranked first. 



WHITE GRADE ENROLLMENT 

The first grade had the largest white enrollment in the Maryland 
county schools, 15,045; the fourth grade the second largest enroll- 
ment, 14,547; the sixth, second, fifth, and third grades following next 
in order. The fourth year in high school had the smallest enroll- 
ment, 7,041. 

Grade 8 is not considered since it was found in only three counties 
having the 6-3-3 plan of school organization, instead of the 7-4 or 
6-5 plan existing in the other twenty counties. (See Chart 1.) 

The first grade had the largest county white enrollment of boys, 
7,978. Each succeeding grade had a smaller enrollment of boys, ex- 
cept that the enrollment in grade 4 was larger than that found in 
grade 3. The enrollment of boys in the fourth year of high school 
was 3,156. 

For girls, the sixth grade enrollment 7,151, was largest, fol- 
lowed by grades 1, 4, 5, 3, 2, and 7, in the order named, with the 
smallest enrollment, 3,885, being found in the last vear of high 
school. (See Chart 1.) 



20 1940 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 1 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS H^iROLLEDt BY GRADES 
IN LIAEYLAND COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS 
YEAR ElNiDING JUNE 30, 1940 



Grade Total 
or Year 1939 1940 



Boys 



Uim Girls 



Kgn. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 



Special 
Classes 



645 



678 



i 



$15,815 $15,045 
14,454 14,455 



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14,413 
14,417 
14,808 
14,074 
13,668 
3,240 

925 



14,243 
14,547 
14,414 
14,468 
13,546 
3»430^^^JU 



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1.310 



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Potal 
El era. 



II 
III 
IV 

Total 
High 

Grand 
Total 



106,459 105,906 y^'*,. 



12,064 12,262 



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9,332 10,073 

8,062 8>352 ^^^^^^^^^^flff^^^rrrm 



♦6,676 ♦7,227 g 



21L 



36,134 37,914 



142,593 143,820 JiJj; 



t Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, and commitment to institution. 
% Includes enrollment in junior first grade. 

* Includes 64 boys and 134 girls in 1939, and 74 boys and 112 girls in 1940, who were 
post-graduates. 

White enrollment was larger than it was in the preceding year, 
except in grades, 1 3, 5, and 7. This was also the case for boys. For 
girls enrollment was larger in 1940 than in 1939, except in grades 
1, 2, 3, and 5. Part of the decrease is explained by lower birth rates, 
and increase in the enrollment in special classes for mentally handi- 
capped children. Increases in enrollment are due in part to better 
instruction, and subject offerings more attractive to pupils which 
result in stronger interest in continuing in school, and in part to 
the lack of jobs available to youth who formerly left school to accept 
work. (See Chart 1.) 



White Enrollment by Grades and High School Years 21 



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22 1940 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In the first seven elementary grades and the first year of high 
school the number of boys exceeded the number of girls, but in the 
last three years of high schoal the girls outnumbered the boys. 
(See Chart 1.) 

White enrollment in Baltimore City in grades 2 to 7 and the last 
three years of high school was less than half the enrollment in similar 
grades in the counties. In the first grade and first year of high school 
Baltimore City enrollment was slightly more than half the enroll- 
ment found in the counties. However, Baltimore City public school 
enrollment far exceeded that in the counties in the kindergartens, 
special classes, occupational classes, eighth grade and vocational 
schools. Baltimore City for the second year had pre-kindergarten 
classes in two schools. (See Table 14.) 



WHITE COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GRADUATES AT PEAK 



TABLE 15 



County White Elementary School Graduates 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


Beys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


3,200 


4,136 


7,336 


6.1 


8.5 


7.2 


1924 


3,360 


4,210 


7,570 


6.4 


8.7 


7.5 


1925 


3,705 


4,549 


8,254 


7.0 


9.4 


8.1 


1926 


4,054 


4,599 


8,653 


7.7 


9.4 


8.5 


1927 


*4,290 


*5,059 


*9,349 


*8.1 


*10.2 


*9.1 


1928 


*4,329 


*5,029 


*9,358 


*8.1 


*10.1 


*9.1 


1929 


*4,742 


*5,186 


*9,928 


*8.8 


*10.4 


*9.6 


1930 


*4,857 


*5.283 


*10,140 


*9.0 


*10.5 


*9.7 


1931 


*4,757 


*5,156 


*9,913 


*8.7 


no. 2 


*9.4 


1932 


*5,183 


*5.642 


*] 0,825 


*9.3 


*10.9 


*10.1 


1933 


*5.121 


*5.653 


*10,774 


*9.1 


*10.9 


*9.9 


1934 


*5,227 


*5,618 


*10,845 


*9.3 


*10.8 


*10.0 


1935 


*5,190 


*5,719 


*10.909 


*9.2 


*11.0 


*10.1 


1936 


*5,160 


*5.699 


*10,859 


*9.3 


*11.1 


*10.1 


1937 


*5.292 


*5,703 


*10,995 


*9.6 


*11.1 


♦10.3 


1938 


*5,5'>2 


*5,956 


*1 1,478 


*10.0 


*11.7 


*10.8 


1939 


*5,845 


*6,0«0 


*ll,9'^5 


*10.6 


*11.9 


*11.2 


1940 


*5,901 


*6,266 


*12,167 


*10.8 


*12.3 


*11.5 



Includes seventh or eighth grade ri"omotions in junior high schools. 



The 12,167 white graduates of county elementary schools included 
the largest number that ever completed the elementary school 
course. They represented 11.5 per cent of the elementary school 
enrollment. The number of boys as well as of girls graduated was 
larger than ever previously reported, but the 6,266 girl graduates 
exceeded the boys in number by 365. The white county boys 
graduated represented 10.8 per cent of the elementary school en- 
rollment, whereas the corresponding per cent for girls was 12.3. 
(See Table 15.) 



White Grade Enrollment and Elementary School Graduates 23 



CHART 2 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES IN 1940 
COUNTY VffllTE ELEMEIWARY SCHOOL INROLmENTt 



County 



Nximber 
Boys Girls 



Per Cent Boys 



Per Cent 

MA Girls 



Total and 
Co. Average 


5,901 


6,266 


St. Mary's 


56 




Caroline 


134 


■LCD 


Kent 


76 


89 


Cecil 


179 


198 


A. Arundel 


387 


377 


Frederick 


433 


414 


Dorchester 


175 


143 


Carroll 


256 


318 


Worcester 


101 


123 


Wicomico 


181 


217 


Garrett 


222 


217 


Talbot 


. 78 


111 


Pr. George* s 


600 


596 


Harford 


226 


230 


Q. Anne*s 


62 


96 


Howard 


109 


127 


Charles 


85 


76 


Baltimore 


870 


985 


Montgomery* 


535 


483 


Somerset 


103 


93 


Allegany* 


544 


653 


Calvert 


34 


46 


Washington* 


455 


491 



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t Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer, commitment to institution, or death, and 
includes promotions from grade 7 in counties having 6-5 plan, and from grade 8 in counties 
having 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization. 

* County has 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization. 



24 



1940 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In 1940 ^ix counties had increases and five decreases compared 
with 1939 in both boys and girls graduated, while the remainder of 
the counties had increases in either boys or girls graduated. In four 
counties the proportion of white boy graduates in the elementary 
school enrollment was greater than that of girl graduates. In 
thirteen counties the number, and in nineteen counties the per 
cent, of white girls graduated exceeded the boys graduated. (Com- 
pare the black bars with the cross hatched bars in Chart 2.) 

FEWER NON-PROMOTIONS THAN EVER BEFORE 

The number and per cent of non-promoted white elementary 
pupils was smaller than ever before reported. There were 11,075 
reported as non-promoted in 1940, a decrease of 694 under 1939 
and 10,946 under the number in 1923. The per cent of white ele- 
mentary pupils reported not promoted was 10.5, the lowest ever 
reported. (See Table 16.) 

TABLE 16 



Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County White Elementary 

Schools 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


13,435 


8,586 


22,021 


25.6 


17.5 


21.7 


1924 


11,999 


7,193 


19,192 


22.7 


14.8 


18.9 


1925 


10,673 


6,336 


17,009 


20.2 


13.0 


16.8 


1926 


10,392 


6,140 


16,532 


19.7 


12.5 


16.3 


1927 


9,954 


6,134 


16,088 


18.7 


12.4 


15.6 


1928 


10,346 


6,109 


16.455 


19.4 


12.3 


15.9 




9,147 


5,609 


14,756 


17.1 


11.3 


14.3 


1930 


8,962 


5,371 


14,333 


16.6 


10.7 


13.7 


1931 


9,231 


5,293 


14,524 


16.8 


10.4 


13.7 


1932 


9,597 


5,675 


15,272 


17.2 


11.0 


14.2 


1933 


10,503 


6,244 


16,747 


18.6 


12.0 


15.4 


1934 


11,037 


6,809 


17,846 


19.7 


13.1 


16.5 


1935 


9,283 


5,447 


14,730 


16.5 


10.5 


13.6 


1936 


9,283 


5,507 


14,790 


16.7 


10.7 


13.8 


1937 


9,200 


5,390 


14,590 


16.6 


10.5 


13.7 


1938 


7.979 


4,556 


12,535 


14.5 


8.9 


11.8 


1939 


7,571 


4,198 


11,769 


13.7 


8.2 


11.1 


1940 


7,253 


3,822 


11,075 


13.2 


7.5 


10.5 



The number of white boys who were reported by their teachers 
as not ready for work in the grades above those in which they were 
enrolled in 1939-40 was 7,253 or 13.2 per cent of those enrolled in 
county elementary schools. Corresponding figures for white girls 
were 3,822 and 7.5 per cent. (See Table 16.) 

Non-promotions in 1940 varied among the counties for boys from 
less than 5 to over 20 per cent, and for girls from less than 2 to over 
12 per cent. The number and per cent of non-promotions for both 
boys and girls decreased in nine counties and increased in five 
counties from 1939 to 1940. (See Chart 3.) 



White Graduates and Non-Promotions, Elementary Schools 25 



CHART 3 



NtBiBER AND PER CMT OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY 
AND JUNIOR HIGH PUPILS THROUGH GRADE 8 NOT PROMOTED .* 1940 



County 



Nvmber 
Boys Girls 



Per Cent 
Boys 



V77n 



Per Cent 
Girls 



Total and 


7,253 




Co. Average 




3,822 


Kent* 


30 


19 


Caroline* 


60 


15 


Montgomery* 


450 


xoo 


Cecil 


148 


DO 


Fredericl^ 


309 


214 


Worcester 


102 




Anne Arundel* 


358 


167 


Prince George's* 


582 




Harford 


249 




Talbot* 


114 


41 


Q,ueen Anne* s 


87 


51 


Dorchester* 


166 


94 


Garrett* 


242 


136 


St. Mary's 


62 


25 


Washington* 


804 


467 


Howard* 


159 


88 


Baltimore 


1,289 


735 


Carroll* 


376 


182 


Allegany* 


1,001 


474 


Calvert 


66 


36 


Wicomico* 


263 


162 


Charles 


135 


75 


Somerset 


201 


79 



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* Includes pupils in kindergartens and special classes not considered ready for 
advancement. 



26 



1940 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The number and per cent of non-promotions was lower in 1940 
than in 1939 for white boys and girls in grades 4 through 7 and for 
girls in grade 3. There were 21.2 per cent of the first grade boys 
reported as not promoted, 14 per cent of the second grade boys, 
and between 9.6 and 12.5 per cent of the boys in grades 3 to 7 in- 
clusive. Of the first grade girls 15.1 per cent were not promoted 
and in other grades the per cent of girls not promoted varied be- 
tween 5.3 and 7.7. (See Chart 4.) 

CHART 4 



NON-PROMOTIONS* BY GRADES IN COUNTY WHITE ELiMHiTARY AND 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS THROUGH GRADE 8 FOR YE/>J? HIDING IN JUNE, 1940 

Grade Number -—Per Cent ^rTTTj Per Cent 

Boys Girls ^™ Boye "^^^^ Girls 



1 



1,692 



2 1,104 

885 



1,065 



769 
710 
712 
850 




431 1 '-^'///////lai 
410 ^^^^P"" 
378^^^^™™ 

389 n^7VVv!W 



* Excludes pupils in kindergartens and special classes not considered ready for 
advancement. 

One probable reason for the reduction in non-promotions is the 
segregation of a larger number o^ mentally handicapped children 
in special classes who formerly were included as non-promotions in 
the regular grades. 

Since non-promotions in the first grade are much higher than those 
in any other grade they have been shown separately by counties. 
For boys they range from 10.1 to 31.2 per cent of the first grade 
enrollment, and for girls from 1.7 per cent to 21.9 per cent. (See 
Table 17.) 

On the average 6.1 per cent more boys than girls were not pro- 
moted in the first grade. However, two counties had more non- 
promotions for the first grade girls than for boys, and in two counties 
the excess in per cent of non-promotions for first grade boys was as 
low as .7, and 2.5. 



White Non-Promotions by Grade and Cause 



27 



TABLE 17 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in First Grade in Maryland County 
White Schools, June, 1940 



County 



First Grade 
Non-Promotions 



Number 



Boys 



Girls 



Per Cent 



Boys 



Girls 



County 



First Grade 
Non-Promotions 



NUxMBER 



Boys Girls 



Total Counties 

1939 

1940 

Caroline 

Anne Arundel. 

Kent 

Worcester . . . . , 
Montgomery. . 

Talbot 

Howard , 

Somerset 

Baltimore 

Queen Anne's. , 



1,748 
1,692 

12 
60 
10 
23 

119 
28 
41 
26 

242 
20 



1,104 
1,065 

2 
31 
10 
12 
61 
14 
23 
16 
157 
17 



20.7 
21.2 

10.1 
14.7 
12.2 
17.3 
16.9 
21.4 
19.3 
19.4 
19.7 
19.2 



15.0 
15.1 



1, 

9, 
13, 

9, 
10, 
10. 
14.1 
14.8 
15.3 
16.7 



St. Mary's 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Calvert 

Prince George's 

Allegany 

Wicomico 

Washington .... 

Harford 

Charles 

Garrett 

Cecil 

Carroll 



93 
16 

203 

184 
42 

171 
78 
26 
75 
66 

105 



5 
26 
86 

8 

123 
97 
36 

1?6 
44 
23 
56 
37 
54 



One of the chief causes of non-promotion in first grade is poor 
attendance. Some of this results from the failure of parents to 
realize the importance of each day's attendance in giving the chil- 
dren a mastery of the work presented, but probably the prevalence 
of contagious diseases which require long absences from school is 
an important factor, and also the unwillingness of parents to have 
small children face bad weather conditions. 



Causes of Non-Promotions in White Elementary Schools 

Teachers were asked to give the principal reasons why pupils 
would not be permitted to enter the grade above that in which they 
received instruction in 1939-40. Unfortunate home conditions with 
or without lack of interest on the part of children or parents were 
reported as responsible for the non-promotion of 4.2 per cent of 
the white elementary children. Mental incapacity explained the 
failure of 1.6 per cent of the pupils, personal illness accounted for 
the non-promotion of 1.1 per cent, and irregular attendance not due 
to sickness for .9 of 1 per cent. A comparison of these figures with 
previous years is shown in the upper portion of Table 18. 

Teachers reported that unfortunate home conditions with or with- 
out lack of interest affected the non-promotion of as few as 1.6 
per cent of the white elementary pupils in one county and as many 
as 9 per cent in another county. Mental incapacity was reported 
as a cause of failure for less than one per cent of the white elementary 
pupils in nine counties and for over 3 per cent in three counties. 



28 



1940 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Personal illness affected the non-promotion of less than 1 per cent 
of the pupils in twelve counties and of 2 or more per cent in two 
counties, while irregular attendance not due to illness was not given 
as a cause of failures in three counties, but in three counties affected 
the non-promotion of 1.7 and 1.8 per cent of the pupils. (See 
Table 18.) 



TABLE 18 

Causes for Non-Promotion of County White Elementary Pupils Not Promoted 
by Year, 1929 to 1940, and by County for Year Ending June 30, 1940 



Per Cent of Pupils Not Promoted by Cause 



Year and 
County 



-late Home 
ons and 
Interest 


ncapacity 


Illness 


• Attendance 

le to 

s 


Unfortui 
Conditi 
Lack oi 


Mental J 


Personal 


Irregulai 
Not Di 
Sicknes 



O 5 



BY YEAR 



1929 


14,756 


14.3 


4.3 


2.5 


1.9 


2.0 


.8 


1.1 


.4 


1.3 


1930 


14,333 


13.7 


4.5 


2.7 


1.7 


1.4 


.8 


1.0 


.3 


1.3 


1931 


14,524 


13.7 


4.8 


2.7 


1.6 


1.2 


.8 


.8 


.3 


1.5 


1932 


15,272 


14.2 


5.4 


2.6 


1.8 


1.2 


.8 


.7 


.3 


1.4 


1933 


16,747 


15.4 


5.8 


3.0 


1.5 


1.3 


.8 


.7 


.2 


2.1 


1934 


17,848 


16.5 


5.8 


3.3 


2.3 


1.5 


.9 


.6 


.2 


1.9 


1935 


14,730 


13.6 


4.7 


2.5 


1.9 


1.3 


.7 


.7 


.1 


1.7 


1936 


14,790 


13.8 


4.9 


2.3 


1.7 


1.4 


.7 


.8 


.1 


1.9 


1937 


14,590 


13.7 


5.0 


2.1 


1.8 


1.3 


.8 


.8 


.1 


1.8 


1938 


12,535 


11.8 


4.5 


1.8 


1.4 


1.0 


.7 


.6 


.3 


1.5 


1939 


11,769 


11.1 


4.5 


1.6 


1.2 


1.0 


.7 


.5 


.2 


1.4 


1940 


11,075 


10.5 


4.2 


1.6 


1.1 


.9 


.7 


.5 


.2 


1.3 



By County, 1939-40 



49 


4.0 


1.6 


.3 


.2 




.7 


.5 


.3 


.4 


76 


4.1 


1.8 


.3 


.8 


.3 


.2 


.1 


.1 


.5 


636 


6.8 


2.9 


.1 


.8 


.8 


.7 


.4 


.2 


.9 


216 


7.6 


2.5 


.5 


.9 


.7 


.9 


.2 


.2 


1.7 


523 


7.9 


4.4 


1.1 


.9 


.7 


.4 


.3 


.1 




151 


8.3 


4.2 


1.7 


.5 


.1 


.2 


.9 


.1 


.6 


525 


9.0 


3.6 


1.0 


.8 


.8 


.6 


.7 


.1 


1.4 


906 


9.0 


2.3 


2.9 


1.2 


.3 


1.2 


.2 


.2 


.7 


382 


9.8 


4.8 


.2 


1.3 


.8 


.9 


.4 


.2 


1.2 


155 


9.8 


4.4 


2.6 


.7 


.7 


.3 


.4 


.2 


.5 


138 


10.1 


6.7 


.1 


.8 


.3 


.7 


.1 


.1 


1.3 


260 


10.4 


3.5 


2.7 


.5 


1.8 


.5 


.5 


.2 


.7 


378 


10.5 


3.5 


2.1 


2.0 


1.1 


.4 


.3 


.2 


.9 


88 


11.2 


3.7 


.2 


2.2 


.6 


1.7 


.5 


.1 


2.2 


1,271 


12.0 


5.6 


1.6 


.9 


1.2 


.7 


.8 


.2 


1.0 


247 


12.1 


4.2 


2.0 


1.4 


1.0 


1.2 


.8 


.5 


1.0 


2,024 


12.3 


5.0 


.1 


1.4 


1.0 


.9 


.8 


.1 


3.0 


558 


12.4 


4.0 


3.7 


1.1 


.6 


.7 


.4 


.1 


1.8 


1,475 


12.6 


4.3 


3.2 


.9 


1.7 


.3 


.4 


.1 


1.7 


102 


12.9 


9.0 


.1 


1.3 




.5 


.5 




• 1.5 


425 


13.1 


5.8 


3.6 


1.4 




.6 


.7 


A 


.9 


210 


15.1 


5.6 


3.0 


1.6 


l!8 


.9 


.7 


.1 


1.4 


280 


15.3 


7.7 


2.8 


1.9 


1.0 


.5 


.4 


.1 


9 



* 13 years, 1929 to 1931 inclusive. 



Causes of Non-Promotions; White Over-Age Elementary Pupils 29 



PROGRESS IN REDUCING OVER-AGENESS 

Paralleling the decrease in non-promotions the number of white 
elementary pupils over-age has been reduced from 30,709 in the fall 
of 1921 to 15,896 in November, 1937 and 14,767 in November, 
1939. The percentage of white elementary pupils over-age dropped 
from 31.6 in the fall of 1921 to 15.1 in 1937 and 14.1 in 1939. (See 
Table 19.) 

TABLE 19 

Number and Per Cent of County White Elementary Pupils Over-Age* 



November 



Number Over Age 



Total 



Boys 



Girls 



Per Cent Over Age 



Total 



Boys 



Girls 



1921. 

1929. 

1933. 

1937. 
1939. 



30,709 

16,120 

16,291 

15,896 
14,767 



10,066 
10,430 



10,248 
9,679 



6,054 

5,861 

5,648 
5,088 



31.6 

15.4 

15.1 

15.1 
14.1 



18.6 
18.6 



18.8 
17.8 



12.0 
11.3 



11.2 
10.1 



* Pupils are considered over-age who according to their last birthday on Sept.l, 

8 years or older in grade 1 12 years or older in grade 5 

9 " " " " " 2 13 " " " " 6 

10 " " " " " 3 14 " " " " " 7 

11 " " " " " 4 15 " " " " " 8 



As there are more non-promotions for boys than for girls, there 
are also more boys than girls over-age. In 1929 the per cent of 
boys over-age was 18.6 compared with 17.8 in 1939, while the per- 
centage for girls over-age decreased from 12 in 1929 to 10.1 in 1939. 
fSee Table 19.) 

In November, 1939 the percentage of pupils over-age in grade 1 
was only 3, but because of failures in that and succeeding grades, 
over-ageness increased steadily until it was at its maximum, slightly 
over 20 per cent, in grade 6. Corresponding minimum and maximum 
percentages for boys were 3.5 and 25, and for girls 2.5 and 15 per 
cent. Because the over-age pupils in upper grades drop out of 
school, the per cent of over-age pupils decreases after grade 6. (See 
first three columns in lower half of Table 20.) 

The per cent of pupils over-age was highest in the one-teacher 
schools and lowest in the graded schools, and this was the case for 
pupils in grades 1, 3, 4 and 5. (See last six columns in lower part of 
Table 20.) 

Just as the counties vary greatly in the per cent of pupils not 
promoted, they show considerable variation in the per cent who are 
over-age. In the fall of 1921 the minimum per cent over-age in 
any county was 26.9 and the maximum was 46.5. Corresponding 



30 



1940 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 20 



Number and Per Cent of Maryland County White Elementary School 
Boys and Girls in Each Grade Over-Age,* November, 1939 



Grade 


All Elementary 
Schools 


One-Teacher 
Schools 


Two-Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys ! Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 



Number Over Age 



1 


454 


276 


178 


31 


24 


27 


13 


218 


141 


2 


993 


693 


300 


70 


20 


81 


44 


542 


236 


3 


1,615 


1,093 


522 


74 


37 


93 


54 


926 


431 


4 


2,205 


1,458 


747 


116 


64 


132 


58 


1,210 


625 


5 


2,611 


1,681 


930 


89 


58 


138 


71 


1,454 


801 


6 


2,908 


1,837 


1,071 


69 


49 


159 


88 


1,609 


934 


7 


2,6?4 


1,665 


959 


47 


26 


98 


54 


1,520 


879 


8 


389 


268 


121 


2 


5 


11 


4 


255 


112 




968 


708 


260 










708 


260 


Total 


14,767 


9,679 


5,088 


498 


283 


739 


386 


8,442 


4,419 


Per Cent Over Age 


1 


3.0 


3.5 


2.5 


6.2 


5.9 


4.2 


2.3 


3.2 


2.3 


2 


6.9 


9.0 


4.4 


15.1 


5.3 


13.0 


7.8 


8.2 


4.1 


3 


11.4 


14.8 


7.6 


18.8 


10.3 


16.4 


9.8 


14.4 


7.3 


4 


15.3 


19.6 


10.6 


24.9 


15.4 


23.2 


10.6 


18.9 


10.3 


5 


18.2 


22.9 


13.3 


26.2 


18.8 


23.8 


13.3 


22.6 


13.0 


6 


20.1 


25.0 


15.0 


24.7 


15.9 


28.7 


16.3 


24.7 


14.8 


7 


19.5 


24.7 


14.2 


23.9 


13.2 


22.7 


13.3 


24.9 


14.3 


8 


11.8 


16.8 


7.1 


12.5 


23.8 


26.2 


12.5 


16.6 


6.8 


Special 


87.6 


86.8 


90.6 










86.8 


90.6 


Average 


14.1 


17.8 


10.1 


18.8 


11.8 


18.4 


10.3 


17.7 


9.9 



* See note under Table 19. 



minimum and maximum percentages in November, 1939 were 6.7 
and 19.6. The county having the maximum per cent over-age in 
1939 had a lower percentage than the county with the minimum 
percentage in 1921. The difference between the county having the 
minimum and maximum percentage over-age was 19.6 in 1929 and 
12.9 in 1939. In all except five counties, the per cent of pupils 
over-age was lower in 1939 than in 1937. (See first three columns 
on Chart 5.) 

The counties varied in the per cent of boys over-age from 9.2 to 
24.8 and for girls from 4 to 13.4 per cent. (See left side of bars on 
Chart 5.) 

The reduction in the per cent of pupils over-age between the fall 
of 1921 and the fall of 1939 appears in the right side of the bars on 
Chart 5. 

The reduction in the per cent of pupils over-age does not mean a 
lowering of standards, because all results of state-wide tests given 
pupils indicate that a larger proportion than ever before are reach- 
ing and exceeding the stand